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Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
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Culture
Culture
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Culture

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  • 1. eleventh editio norganizational behavio r stephen p. robbins
  • 2. Chapter 16 Organizational Culture ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  • 3. After studying this chapter,O B J E C T I V E S you should be able to: 1. Describe institutionalization and its relationship to organizational culture. 2. Define the common characteristics making up organizational culture.L E A R N I N G 3. Contrast strong and weak cultures. 4. Identify the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization. 5. Explain the factors determining an organization’s culture. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–3
  • 4. After studying this chapter,O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) you should be able to: 6. List the factors that maintain an organization’s culture. 7. Clarify how culture is transmitted to employees. 8. Outline the various socialization alternatives available to management.L E A R N I N G 9. Describe a customer-responsive culture. 10. Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–4
  • 5. Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–5
  • 6. What Is Organizational Culture? What Is Organizational Culture? Organizational Culture Characteristics: Characteristics: A common perception held by the organization’s 1. Innovation and risk 1. Innovation and risk taking taking members; a system of shared meaning. 2. Attention to detail 2. Attention to detail 3. Outcome orientation 3. Outcome orientation 4. People orientation 4. People orientation 5. Team orientation 5. Team orientation 6. Aggressiveness 6. Aggressiveness 7. Stability 7. Stability© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–6
  • 7. Contrasting Organizational Cultures Contrasting Organizational CulturesOrganization AThis organization is a manufacturing firm. Managers are expected to fully documentall decisions; and “good managers” are those who can provide detailed data tosupport their recommendations. Creative decisions that incur significant change orrisk are not encouraged. Because managers of failed projects are openly criticizedand penalized, managers try not to implement ideas that deviate much from thestatus quo. One lower-level manager quoted an often used phrase in the company:“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” There are extensive rules and regulations in this firm that employees arerequired to follow. Managers supervise employees closely to ensure there are nodeviations. Management is concerned with high productivity, regardless of theimpact on employee morale or turnover. Work activities are designed around individuals. There are distinct departmentsand lines of authority, and employees are expected to minimize formal contact withother employees outside their functional area or line of command. Performanceevaluations and rewards emphasize individual effort, although seniority tends to bethe primary factor in the determination of pay raises and promotions. E X H I B I T 16–1 E X H I B I T 16–1© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–7
  • 8. Contrasting Organizational Cultures (cont’d) Contrasting Organizational Cultures (cont’d)Organization BThis organization is also a manufacturing firm. Here, however, managementencourages and rewards risk taking and change. Decisions based on intuition arevalued as much as those that are well rationalized. Management prides itself on itshistory of experimenting with new technologies and its success in regularlyintroducing innovation products. Managers or employees who have a good idea areencouraged to “run with it.” And failures are treated as “learning experiences.” Thecompany prides itself on being market-driven and rapidly responsive to the changingneeds of its customers. There are few rules and regulations for employees to follow, and supervision isloose because management believes that its employees are hardworking andtrustworthy. Management is concerned with high productivity, but believes that thiscomes through treating its people right. The company is proud of its reputation asbeing a good place to work. Job activities are designed around work teams, and team members areencouraged to interact with people across functions and authority levels. Employeestalk positively about the competition between teams. Individuals and teams havegoals, and bonuses are based on achievement of these outcomes. Employees aregiven considerable autonomy in choosing the means by which the goals are attained. E X H I B I T 16–1 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 16–1 (cont’d)© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–8
  • 9. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. Subcultures Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–9
  • 10. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? (cont’d) (cont’d) Core Values The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–10
  • 11. What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) Culture Versus Formalization – A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization. Organizational Culture Versus National Culture – National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. – Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–11
  • 12. What Do Cultures Do? What Do Cultures Do? Culture’s Functions: Culture’s Functions: 1. Defines the boundary between one organization 1. Defines the boundary between one organization and others. and others. 2. Conveys aasense of identity for its members. 2. Conveys sense of identity for its members. 3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to 3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest. something larger than self-interest. 4. Enhances the stability of the social system. 4. Enhances the stability of the social system. 5. Serves as aasense-making and control mechanism 5. Serves as sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization. for fitting employees in the organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–12
  • 13. What Do Cultures Do? What Do Cultures Do? Culture as a Liability: Culture as a Liability: 1. Barrier to change. 1. Barrier to change. 2. Barrier to diversity 2. Barrier to diversity 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–13
  • 14. How Culture Begins How Culture Begins Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do. Founders indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–14
  • 15. Keeping Culture Alive Keeping Culture Alive Selection – Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. – Provides information to candidates about the organization. Top Management – Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. Socialization – The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–15
  • 16. Stages in the Socialization Process Stages in the Socialization Process Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–16
  • 17. A Socialization Model A Socialization Model E X H I B I T 16–2 E X H I B I T 16–2© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–17
  • 18. Entry Socialization Options Entry Socialization Options •• Formal versus Informal Formal versus Informal •• Individual versus Collective Individual versus Collective •• Fixed versus Variable Fixed versus Variable •• Serial versus Random Serial versus Random •• Investiture versus Divestiture Investiture versus DivestitureSource: Based on J. Van Maanen, “People Processing: Strategies of OrganizationalSocialization,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1978, pp. 19–36; and E. H. Schein, E X H I B I T 16–3 E X H I B I T 16–3Organizational Culture,” American Psychologist, February 1990, p. 116.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–18
  • 19. How Organization Cultures Form How Organization Cultures Form E X H I B I T 16–4 E X H I B I T 16–4© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–19
  • 20. How Employees Learn Culture How Employees Learn Culture •• Stories Stories •• Rituals Rituals •• Material Symbols Material Symbols •• Language Language© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–20
  • 21. Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards – High tolerance for risk – Low to moderate in aggressiveness – Focus on means as well as outcomes Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture – Being a visible role model. – Communicating ethical expectations. – Providing ethical training. – Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones. – Providing protective mechanisms.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–21
  • 22. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures 1. The types of employees hired by the organization. 2. Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. 3. Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. 4. Good listening skills to understand customer messages. 5. Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners.” 6. Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–22
  • 23. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions :: Managerial Actions •• Select new employees with personality and Select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service attitudes consistent with high service orientation. orientation. •• Train and socialize current employees to be Train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused. more customer focused. •• Change organizational structure to give Change organizational structure to give employees more control. employees more control. •• Empower employees to make decision about Empower employees to make decision about their jobs. their jobs.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–23
  • 24. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions (cont’d) :: Managerial Actions (cont’d) •• Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision and demonstrating commitment to customers. and demonstrating commitment to customers. •• Conduct performance appraisals based on Conduct performance appraisals based on customer-focused employee behaviors. customer-focused employee behaviors. •• Provide ongoing recognition for employees who Provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers. make special efforts to please customers.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–24
  • 25. Spirituality and Organizational Culture Spirituality and Organizational Culture Workplace Spirituality The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of the community. Characteristics: Characteristics: • • Strong sense of purpose Strong sense of purpose • • Focus on individual development Focus on individual development • • Trust and openness Trust and openness • • Employee empowerment Employee empowerment • • Toleration of employee expression Toleration of employee expression© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–25
  • 26. Reasons for the Growing Interest in Spirituality Reasons for the Growing Interest in Spirituality As a counterbalance to the pressures and stress of a turbulent pace of life and the lack of community many people feel and their increased need for involvement and connection. Formalized religion hasn’t worked for many people. Job demands have made the workplace dominant in many people’s lives, yet they continue to question the meaning of work. The desire to integrate personal life values with one’s professional life. An increasing number of people are finding that the pursuit of more material acquisitions leaves them unfulfilled. E X H I B I T 16–5 E X H I B I T 16–5© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–26
  • 27. How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact on Performance and Satisfaction on Performance and Satisfaction E X H I B I T 16–6 E X H I B I T 16–6© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 16–27

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