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To be print (final) To be print (final) Presentation Transcript

  • EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION Tu t o r : A r. C H I N BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 [ARC 1523] SOE WEI HAO ( 0309924 ) | WILLIAM YAP ( 0314127 TREVOR N J C HOAREAU ( 0308914 ) ) |CHENN ROUANN ( 1001G76463 ) | | LEE MAY WEN, ANDREA ( 0314320 ) | TEH KAH KHEN ( 0314502 ) | SEAN HIU (0309874 ) | NUR ADILA ( 0310417 ) | WONG KWOK KENN (0300146 )
  • BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 [ARC 1523]
  • CONTENTS INTRODUCTION *NA *WY 1.1 INTRO TO SITE S ITE A N D SA FETY *NA *A *TKK 2.1 PLANTS AND MACHINERIES EXTERNAL WORK*TNCJ SOE WEI HAU *SWH W I L L I A M YA P *WY CHENN ROUANN *CR TREVOR N C J *TNCJ ANDREA *A TEH KAH KEN *TKK 3 . 1 S E T T I N G O U T A N D E X C AVAT I O N F O U N D AT I O N *SH NUR ADILA *NA Wong kwok kenn *WKK STUDENTS *SWH *SH 4 . 1 F O U N D AT I O N ( r e f e r e n c e ) 4 . 2 F O U N D AT I O N ( s i t e v i s i t ) S U P ERST RU CT U R E 5.1 BEAM AND COLUMN 5.2 SLAB 5. 3 WALL ROOF *SWH *SH *TNCJ *WY *A 5 . 4 S TA I R C A S E SEAN HIU *TKK *TKK *WKK *CR *NA 6.1 ROOF FROM REFERENCE 6.2 ROOF FROM SITE S U M M A RY
  • 2.0 I N T RO D U CT I O N NUR ADILA & WILLIAM YAP
  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Experiencing Construction by analysing, documentation and experiencing construction progress was our first assignment of Building Construction 1. Our task was to select ongoing construction site which should be medium rise or low rise buildings. From there, we were able to study the materials, details and construction process for documentation and future purposes. In addition, we applied and showed our knowledge in the details of building construction drawing to show our reflect of understanding of the construction itself. Andrea Deplazes once said, " the separation between designing and constructing made by the teachers is a didactic strategy to create thematic focal points, which can be explained beautifully by the metaphor of the potter and his wheel " (Deplazes, 2005). We, as an architecture students could get a better view by being on site and get exposed with the machineries, labours and materials. In addition, we could have a direct conversation with the labour and contractors to identify parts of work, structures and costs. We also had divided the task adequately to each of our members for better outcome of this project. Organization of works between us running perfectly by discussing and compiled every part together. In conclusion, each of us able to explain and understand more on current construction technology on local construction sites. We also learnt the basic principles and procedures of construction process through real life project. 1
  • 1.1 INTRO To SITE WELCOME TO OUR SITE SITE A : ADDRESS : NO.25(lot49), Jalan Laksamana 12/1, Seksyen 12, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor T Y P E : S I N G L E S T O R E Y B U N G A L O W H O U S E ; F O U N D AT I O N A N D B E G I N N I N G O F C O N S T R U C T I O N O B S E R VAT I O N : When we reach into the site, they only have basic and foundation of construction to build a single storey bungalow house. There were not much of information on superstructure but we were able to exposed ourselves to the introduction and foundation of building construction. 2
  • 1.1 I N T RO TO S I T E WELCOME TO OUR SITE SITE B : A D D R E S S : J A L A N C A M A R 4 / 5 , S E K S Y E N 4 , KO TA D A M A N S A R A , M U K I M D A M A N S A R A , D A E R A H P E TA L I N G TYPE : 27 UNITS of 2 STOREY SHOPHOUSES ;IN THE MIDDLE OF CONSTRUCTION AND ALMOST COMPLETE O B S E R VAT I O N : W h e n w e r e a c h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e , w e c a n s e e t h e b u i l d i n g h a d b e e n r i s e . We were able to analyze more on building construction with the help of contractor and engineer as well observed it ourselves. In addition, we could cover most of the superstructure components and aspects to help on our assignment. 3
  • 2.0 SITE & SAFETY NUR ADILA TEH KAH KHEN
  • 2.0 SITE SAFETY WHY DO WE N EED TO FO LLOW TH E SITE AND SAFETY RU LES? Because we don’t want these kind of situation happened to us! Why is it so easy to be exposed on these kind of accidents in construction site i. A lot of nails and So, how do we prevent these dangerous substances lying on kind Of accident happened to the ground us ? ii. A lot of big machineries with big cutter and saw O B S E R V E , U N D E R S TA N D & FOLLOW THE SAFETY RULES iii. The sound and situation is really noisy for people to realize if someone is injured PROHIBITION WARNING MANDATORY SAFETY SIGN ( RED ) ( YELLOW ) ( BLUE ) ( GREEN ) i v. E v e r y o n e m i n d i n g t h e i r own business due to a lot of MOST IMPORTANT ! WEAR SAFETY ATTIRE 4 machineries and building construction duties.
  • 2.0 SITE SAFETY L E T ’ S B E S A F E & W E A R T H E C O R R E C T AT T I R E To prevent from dangerous equipment fall on top of the head SAFETY HELMET To prevent from dust and dangerous substances enter our GOGGLES eyes To prevent from step and exposed to dangerous substances on the floor of the construction site SAFETY BOOT 5
  • 2.0 P LA N TS & M AC H I N ER I ES LEE MAY WEN , ANDREA
  • 2.1 MACHINERIES PLANTS & MACHINERIES Introduction to Machinery This study provides a summary of innovation research in terms of machinery in building construction. The author will then offer a detailed explanation of the types of machinery used in t h e c h o s e n s i t e , a s w e l l a s p i c t u re s a n d d i a g ra m s t o s u p p o r t t h e a u t h o r ’s re s e a rc h . Road Rollers A Road roller compaction of (or “roller-compactor”) gravel, concrete, soil is and a compactor asphalt in type the engineering construction of vehicle roads used and for the foundations. A c c o r d i n g t o “ E n g i n e e r i n g I n t r o ” a w e b d o c u m e n t b y J a l a l A f s a r, t h e r o l l e r - w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e i s based on vibration, impact loading, kneading and by applying direct pressure on the respective l a y e r. A road roller consist of two or more heavy drums, force, the one drum the other roller b o d y. roller to the smoothening used with to provide pivoted It is rollers for to p a t h w ay. compacting guide road Image from http://evangelchina.en.made-in-china.com/product/qoyJGezdMZcW/China-XCMG-26Ton-Single-Drum-Vibratory-Road-Roller-XS262-.html to the Different equipment operations. 6 pushing connected rotated chosen and and the is construction
  • 2.1 7 MACHINERIES
  • 2.1 MACHINERIES INTO THE SITE In relation to our site, compaction of the soil is increased by using vibrating roller drums that e n a b l e s a s m a l l e r m a c h i n e t o a c h i e v e t h e s a m e c o m p a c t n e s s a s a l a r g e r o l l e r. T h e I N G E R S O L L - R A N D SP54 Vibratory Roller is used to compress the surface being rolled using its mechanical advantage (vibrating). The initial process in which a stress applied to a soil (compaction) causes densification as the air displaced from the pores between the soil grains of the substrate on a road project is d o n e u s i n g a p a d f o o t d r u m r o l l e r, w h i c h a c h i e v e s h i g h e r c o m p a c t i o n d e n s i t y d u e t o t h e p a d s h a v i n g a low surface area. Tyre rollers are available in widths ranging up to 2.7 metres (8.9 ft), The INGERSOLL-RAND SP54 used to compress soil the area suitable for construction world 8 making
  • 2.1 MACHINERIES TRACTORS Tractors are engineering vehicles designed to deliver great attractive force at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in construction or agriculture. Tractors are divided into 3 categories: Wheel Tractors Wheel Tractors are used for heavy duties, they can be equipped with many attachments allowing as much possible tasks. Utility Tractors These tractors are used for maintenance and gardening, it often comes with attachments like lawn mowers, snow blowers and chipper. 

 Crawler Tractors Less common than the Wheel Tractor, the Crawler Tractor is built to evolve on difficult grounds. Contractors need maximum traction to plow and pull. For that purpose, the rear wheels need to be large and wide enough because usually only they are powered by the engines. On site, the Ford 5000 Wheel Tractor is used for light construction duties, earthworks and landscaping. 9
  • 2.1 MACHINERIES BAR BENDING & CUTTING MACHINES To develop firm and strong concrete walls for the author’s building, steel bars are necessary for reinforcing the concrete. Bar bending & cutting machines are used to bend and shape steel rods, as well as cut them into necessary sizes. Bar Bending Machine Bar Cutting Machine Rebar – a common steel reinforcing bar used in reinforced concrete. It is formed from mild steel, and is given ribs for better frictional adhesion to the concrete Besides being reinforcement used of in the concrete preparation slabs and of steel pillars. reinforced Without these concrete machines, would not be properly reinforced, leading to accidents in the future. 10 structures, the walls it of is the also used a u th o r ’s in the building the
  • 2.1 Concrete mixers A concrete mixer mainly composed by the mixing barrel, charging and discharging mechanism, water s u p p l y s y s t e m , t h e p r i m e m o t o r, d r i v e m e c h a n i s m , frame and supporting device. Concrete mixer includes a power mechanism through the shaft and drive mechanism connecting and the drive mechanism driven roller, the roller cylinder jacket around the cylinder barrel set ring gear, shaft and set on the ring gear meshing gear. The function of the concrete mixers used in the author’s site include: a) To make each component on the macro and micro uniform. b) To damage the surface of cement particles of the initial water compound film parcel layer. c) To improve the mix each element in the number of motion trajectory and the crossover frequency, accelerate the uniform qualitative. 11 MACHINERIES
  • 2.1 AIR COMPRESSORS Air compressors are used in the chosen construction site for transmitting power to motors and pumps. The use of compressors holes, cut enable workers to bore materials, crush rock and pour vibrated concrete. An air processor compresses the same air we adapt breathe it for to store use in energy and countless applications. 12 MACHINERIES
  • 2.0 EXT ER N A L WO R KS TEH KAH KEN & TREVOR N J C HOAREAU
  • 3.1 EXT ER N A L WO R KS ‘’The category of external works is dedicated to any features that can be used to finish the external environment of a project, whether it be a residential, commercial, industrial or a community project. Within most projects external features are needed to ensure the functionality of, and to add value to, the end result’’(http://www.theconstructioncentre.co.uk/products/external-works/) Functional external features may take the form of access requirements where security may be an issue. To enhance security on any project fencing could be used to separate the site from adjacent properties and land. Any form of fencing, whether it be full perimeter fencing or partial fencing installed at key areas of the site, can stop or cut down any unwanted pedestrian or vehicular access. To remove the threat of vehicular access a number of fencing options are available, ranging from aesthetic low level fencing, which can be scaled easily, to high level security for maximum protection. Where perimeter fencing has been specified it is likely that some form of gate will be necessary to compliment the fencing arrangement and maintain security. Gates can be purchased or manufactured in many different forms with low level aesthetic gates typically manufactured from wood and high level gates manufactured from steel. On our site currently, due to on-going construction works, a temporary fencing and gate made out of wood and zinc sheets is used to barricade the site and provide security for onsite machinery as well as obscuring ongoing construction works from the sub-urban surrounding. 13
  • 3.1 EXT ER N A L WO R KS Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to unnatural slopes or in man-made slopes. They are used to bound soils between two different elevations often in areas of terrain possessing undesirable slopes or in areas where the landscape needs to be shaped severely and engineered for more specific purposes like hillside farming or roadway overpasses. There are four basic types of retaining walls seen in Malaysia, each used for a specific purpose depending on the terrain or objective wanted. They are Gravity retaining wall, sheet piling retaining wall, anchored retaining wall, and finally, seen on our site, cantilevered retaining wall. Fig. 2.4 – four basic types of retaining walls used in Malaysia – the anchored wall is seldom used Gravity wall - Standard wall type holding the earth mainly through its own weight. Will topple relatively easily, As the internal leverage of the earth pressure is very high Piling wall - using long piles, this wall is fixed by soil on both sides of its lower length. If the piles themselves can resist the bending forces, this wall can take high loads. Cantilever wall – the cantilever wall (which may also extend in the other vertical direction) uses the same earth pressure trying to topple it to stabilise Itself with a second lever arm. Anchored wall - this wall keeps itself from toppling by having cables driven into the soil or rock, fixed by expanding anchors ( can be combined with Other types of walls. 14
  • 3.1 EXT ER N A L WO R KS C a n t i l e v e r e d r e ta i n i n g wa l l Counterfort/Buttress on Cantilevered Wall Cantilevered retaining walls are made from an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry (often in the shape of an inverted T). These walls cantilever loads (like a beam) to a large, structural footing, converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground b e l o w. S o m e t i m e s c a nt i l e ve re d wa l l s a re b u tt re s s e d o n t h e f ro nt , o r i n c l u d e a c o u nte r fo r t o n t h e b a c k , to improve their strength resisting high loads. Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall. These walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. This type of wall uses much less material than a traditional gravity wall. Fig. 2.5 – retaining wall on site 15
  • 3.1 SLABS As defined previously, external works include the works carried out around the building or off site. In this site, the external works include signboard, temporary boundary fencing, and sewage connection to main sewer line. Here is a detail drawing of the signboard found on site which gives the name of the project and all parties involved. Notice that even the signboard needs to have a good supporting foundation. (Fig. 2.0) The fencing here on this site differs to that of our previous site, not on type, but on how the materials were acquired. It is the same basic fencing, with timber and cheap corrugated iron sheets/zinc sheets. However, in the second site, all the timber and zinc sheets used for fencing had to be ordered as new. (fig. 2.1) The first site used second hand timber and iron sheets. Another thing to notice on this site is the temporary toilet installation. Usually there are a few on large scale sites. (Fig. 2.1) – temporary boundary fencing (Fig. 2.0) - hoarding/signboard 16
  • 3.1 S LA B S As in all projects, provision must be made well ahead of time on the ‘’connecting of the building sewage to the main sewage line. In our first site, there was only need for one connection, whereas on the second site, which is of a larger scale, there are three connections from the site to the main sewer line (fig. 2.3) (Fig. 2.3) – connection of sewer pipe to main sewage line 17
  • 3.1 E X C AVAT I O N Excavation is the process involving earthworks - engineering works created through processing parts of the earth’s surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. Earth may be moved and formed into desired shapes for many purposes. Most earthworks involve machine excavation and fill or backfill. Excavation can be classified into different types : 1. Topsoil excavation-the topmost layer of the earth’s surface (which comprise of vegetation) is removed. The top layer of soil contains higher moisture than bottom layer as it supports the growth of vegetation. When removed, it is stockpiled and restored for further landscaping. This is done so that layer under it loses moisture and can be handled easily. 2. Earth excavation– the removal of the layer of soil under the topsoil. This soil is excavated using scrapers or other earthmoving equipment and used to construct embankments and foundations. 3. Muck excavation -the removal of material that contains excessive amounts of water and undesirable soil. Its consistency is determined by the percentage of water contained. Due to the lack of stability, muck is seldom used as an embankment. However, the moisture content can be removed through drying. 4.Unclassified excavation - the removal of a combination of soil. This is usually used when earthmovingisdone regardless of the materials encountered. It is also performed because of the difficultyfaced while distinguishing types of soil encountered. Removal of topsoil according to depth and stored for landscaping use. A backhoe or excavator normally used for excavation. 18 The depth is controlled and any material within will be removed unless stated. Excavated material is stored to be used for filling.
  • 3.1 E X C AVAT I O N Excavation may be classified in accordance with the type of the work done : 1. Stripping- the removal of all materials on the surface due to unsuitability. These are later refilled with materials that are acceptable for permanent embankment. 2. Drainage excavation/Structure excavation - the removal of materials encountered during the installation of drainage structures such as pipes and culverts. After installation, backfilling is done with an acceptable material. 3. Footing excavation-the digging of a column or wall foundation for a building. This work is usually done in neat a line so that the concretecan be casted without forms. Although elimination of forms saves money, special equipment and outstanding handwork are usually required for this type of excavation. 4. Borrow excavation-the work done in obtaining materials for embankments or fills from a source outside the site. In most instances, obtaining materials behind slope lines is classified as borrow, although it is commonly considered as getting material from a source off the site. Most specifications prohibit the use of borrow until all required excavation has been completed or the need for borrow has been established beyond a reasonable doubt. Borrowed materialsarestored in a borrow pit, cleared of timber and debris. Pipe Sumps Neighbouring first floor Raised ground level Stripping due to the unsuitability of material is done before filling to a height of six feet using a combination of soil and aggregate (about 300 tones) brought in from another site. Rammers are then used for compaction in order to obtain a stable foundation platform. Drainage excavation is done to fit the drainage systems such as pipes (900mm) and sumps that connect the pipes-erected using cement bricks, all prior before filling using red soil. 19
  • 3.1 E X C AVAT I O N Excavation is also related to cut and fill - the process of moving earth from one place to another in order to make even ground surfaces. These are done using machineries like back-hoe loader. A ‘cut’ is made when earth is cut from above the desired ground height while a ‘fill’ is made when earth is used to fill a hole to the desired ground level. Cutting and filling a land carries a certain risk when the land filled is used for building construction. When earth is moved, natural compaction is disturbed. The soil in this state is described as ‘fluffed’ or ‘aerated’.Under safety practice, the earth is compacted using a drum roll style compactor, plate compactor or rammers to avoid settling. Retaining wall Unsuitable material is removed (cut) before any construction work begins. Red soil is added in return. In this site, the height is brought to ground level. In this site, the raised ground is perimetered with a retaining wall to prevent the erosion of soil. It also serves a part of the building plan of the house. 20
  • 2.0 FO U N DAT I O N SEAN HIU & SOE WEI HAU
  • 4.1 F O U N D AT I O N There are few types of foundations : 1. Shallow Foundation A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. Shallow foundations include pad foundation, strip foundation, and raft foundation. Not suitable if soil is low in strength or very easily compressible. • Pad foundations is the support used at a point load such as columns or framed structures. They may be circular, square or rectangular and consist of a block or slab of the thickness. The pad foundations may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. The pads are usually shallow but deep ones can be found depending on the structure. • Strip foundations are used where the soil is of good bearing capacity. The key sizes of a strip foundation for concrete cavity wall construction and timber frame cavity wall construction are similar. The size and position of the strip is directly related to the overall width of the wall. The principle design features of a strip foundation are based on the fact that the load is transmitted at 45 degrees from the base of the wall to the soil. The depth of a strip foundation must be equal to or greater than the overall width of the wall. The width of the foundation must be three times the width of the supported wall. • Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on the bearing capacity of the soil underneath. The reinforcing bars runs normal to each other in both top and bottom layers of steel reinforcement. Sometimes inverted main beams and secondary beams are used to carry column loads that require thicker foundation slab considering economy of the structure. Both beams cast monolithically with raft slab. 21
  • 4.2 F O U N D AT I O N 2. Deep Foundation Deep foundations are used to transfer the structural loads to a deeper soil strata and when the soils are subjected to scour. The different types of deep foundations available are piles foundation, piers foundation and caissons foundation. • Pile foundations are long, slender, columnar elements in a foundation that are installed into the ground. They are typically made from steel or reinforced concrete and possibly timber. A foundation is described as piled when its depth is more than three times its breadth. On Site : As you can see, at our site friction piling is used. Friction piling is a load-bearing pile that receives its principal vertical support from skin friction between the surface of the buried pile and the surrounding soil. Piling foundation was used in this is site is because that they want to raise the level to a certain height. Aggregates for the deep foundation was brought in from another site of the contractor’s project’s extra. Piling foundation was used to place the foundation deeper into the bedrock. Piling foundation found in Site A • Piers and caissons are larger piles. For drilled piers, a shaft is drilled into the soil and filled with • Friction piling concrete. The shaft may be cased with metal casing which will be later left in place as part of the pier or may be gradually removed. Caissons are used for the construction of bridge piers and abutment in river and lakes. It may be an open end or box type. Piers and caissons are used instead of piles when: 1. Pile capacities are not sufficient to carry the imposed loads. 2. When larger end-bearing area is needed. 3. When driving noises and vibrations are not allowed at the site. Piling on Site A Soft soil becomes increasingly stiff with depth 22
  • 2.0 B EA M A N D C O LU M N SOE WEI HAU & SEAN HIU
  • 5.1 BEAMS & COLUMNS BEAM is a structural element which can be found in any super structure of a building which its primary function is to withstand and load applied on the surface above it by resisting bending. The way beams perform are by distributing the load applied on it towards any attached columns, walls or girders. COLUMN is a vertical structure usually built to support beams and arches on a building. Due to its structural element being vertical, it should be able to withstand load applied on it by the beams it supports and any other super structure built on it; with the right calculation and application. There are a few types of beams : A. A Simply supported beam. This type of beam are freely supported by the walls or columns. However, this type is rarely used and practiced in normal construction unit. B. Fixed beam. This type of beams are rigidly fixed and applied on its B supports such as walls or columns. Reinforcement bars and stirrups are provided for this. C. Cantilever beam. These beams are fixed on one end but not on the other. D. Continuous beam. These beams are considered to be more economical C and provides a better structure. They are supported by more than two supports (walls/columns) and can span very lengthy depending on the site. E. Overhanging beam. This type of beam acts much like cantilever beam with the exception that an overhanging beam has a support in between the free end and the fixed end of a beam. This causes the other end to look D more like a stretched out beam rather than a beam with no support. E 23
  • 5.1 On Site : On our site, located in Kota Damansara, which is to be two rows of shop lots, are at its final phase. After thorough analysis and interview with the contractor, we know that the shop lots uses the continuous beam which seems to be the most appropriate type of beam in our opinion as well. Each shop lots stretches for as deep as four single beams (excluding exterior). The beam system and structure provides a comfortable space supported by structurally rigid and sound superstructure. According to the contractor, he mentioned that all beams were calculated beforehand to ensure that the continuous beam structure is viable and rigid. Therefore, I managed to obtain a few explanation from the civil engineer on how this beams are calculated. Basically, every concrete column has a pressure being applied to it from both end. When the concrete beam is placed on it, it exerts pressure on one end but not the other. Hence, the contractor and the engineer has to take note of the tension left on the unpressured side of the column and is advised to build based on the calculation done to ensure the superstructure is stable. As seen in the picture, the contractor uses this because the rows of shops are stretched far and with the continuous beam structure, it is saves on the cost of construction and also is more economical. 24 BEAMS & COLUMNS
  • 5.1 BEAMS & COLUMNS Rei nforced Concrete on Beams and Columns Reinforced concrete is a technique in which the concrete is casted around a structure-like steel bar which when once the concrete sets in, surrounding the steel bars, the two materials act together in a manner that both together resist any applied force to the casted concrete, be it beams or columns which are the common structure to be reinforced with concrete. Truss bar Web reinforcement Reinforcement consisting of bent bars or stirrups, placed in a concrete beam to mainly to resist diagonal A longitudinal bar bent upwards or downwards at points of moment reversal in a concrete beam tension Top bar Any of the longitudinal bars serving as tension reinforcement in the section of a concrete beam or slab subject to a negative moment Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement is a longitudinal reinforcement placed in a concrete column to absorb compressive stresses, resist bending stresses and reduce effects of creep or shrinkage in the column. Concrete Steel bars 25
  • 2.0 SLABS TREVOR N J C HOAREAU
  • 5.2 S L A B S Slabs Slab (noun): - a large, thick, flat piece of stone, concrete, or wood, typically rectangular. The base floor inside a building might simply be a cast-in-place concrete slab-on-grade with restricted style issues for structural support or environmental control functions. The bottom floor might also be comprised of a mud or structural foundation block complete with waterproofing and carrying block with the overall system designed to carry structural hydrostatic pressure hundreds and maintain controlled surroundings. Floor blocks square measure often the occurrence of leaks into the building with slab cracking of common concrete materials being a primary cause. Issues of dominant soil gas emissions such as radon gas might also be of importance. Because the price penalty to correct a foundation or block on grade waterproofing failure is usually extraordinarily overpriced (up to seven times the initial cost of waterproofing) or practically not possible to correct once construction is completed. In typical office environments, the concrete floor block itself is comprised of 4" to 6" thick concrete reinforced with one layer of welded wire fabric at middle depth, unless below the water table, once hydrostatic heads might exert upward pressure, requiring stronger construction. The figure below contains an overall schematic that characterizes the four functions i.e. Structural Support, Environmental control, Finish, and Distribution as they relate to the below grade enclosure element of floor slabs. Fig. 1.0 : general schematic of a reinforced concrete slab 26
  • 5.2 S L A B S The four functions should be carefully regarded when slab detailing is madeStructural Support Functions—The floor block of the below grade building enclosure must be designed to carry downward vertical gravity loadings moreover as any upward soil or hydrostatic pressure loadings. Downward vertical gravity loadings exist from the dead weight of the ground block and any occupancy live hundreds. In several deeper structures the ground block might also be a mat foundation block carrying important building column and wall hundreds. Floor slabs might also resist upward soil or hydrostatic pressure loadings. Upward soil pressures could also be applied to the ground block in situations where it's acting as a matt foundation and also the building purpose hundreds on the muse leads to AN upward pressure on the ground block. In areas such as crawlspaces and unoccupied basement areas the structural support component involving a concrete block may not be required. In these areas, environmental control functions should still need to be self-addressed. Environmental control Functions—The exterior surroundings that the ground block is subjected to includes environmental control loadings such as thermal, moisture, insects, and soil gas. the interior surroundings that the ground block is subjected to includes environmental control loadings such as thermal and wet. The performance of the ground block system depends on its ability to manage, regulate and/or moderate these environmental control loadings on the interior of the ground block to desired levels. As with foundation wall systems, the control of wet is probably the most important environmental control operation. wet control is restrained during an evacuation and barrier type of style approach. For cases with hydrostatic pressure from well water levels the primary section of control of wet are often accomplished through pumping and dewatering systems to unnaturally drive down the natural water table level. The second component of the wet system includes a granular combination capillary break layer below the ground block to permit an area for wet to accumulate and dissipate or to be wired out or drained into an exit drain or sump system. In several floor block situations with low tide table elevations or dry conditions, the granular combination capillary break layer (with exit drain if required) can control the bulk of the water. There could also be no need for a lively pumping system. 27
  • 5.2 S L A B S Finish Functions—With floor systems the only end of concern is to the interior area. This end depends on the interior use whether or not it's a controlled office surroundings or a non-controlled parking surroundings. Typical end systems might embody carpet, tile or adhered flooring. the {proper the right the correct} control of vapor migration loadings is critical with tile or adhered flooring applications that require proper adhesion. In some applications such as interior parking or cupboard space the interior end is just the interior surface of the concrete floor block. In others, such as crawlspaces, the end could also be the vapor retarder. Distribution Functions—The floor block might contain distribution systems such as electrical feeders, electronic conduit, mechanical piping or heating systems 28
  • 5.2 SLABS On site On our site, the basic reinforced concrete (R.C.) slab is used with a C/W of 500g. The interior slabs as well as the exterior walkway slab will both have ceramic tile finish. Of course, provision was made for all electrical wire installations and all necessary circuits were installed prior to any concrete pouring. Wires are circuited through PVC pipes. Due to low moisture content of the soil found on the site, only a granular aggregate capillary break layer is used below the slab to control moisture. However, this is not included in the first floor slabs. Fig. 1.0 – walkway slab Fig. 1.1 – floor slab 29
  • 2.0 WA L L S W I L L I A M YA P & L E E M AY W E N , A N D R E A
  • 5.3 WA L L In the world of construction, walls are vertical planes that serve as separators and protection for given spaces. Walls are constructed in different forms and of various materials to serve different functions. Exterior walls protect the building interior from external environmental effects such as ultraviolet radiation, sound heat and cold, sunlight (etc) while containing desirable interior environmental conditions. In addition, walls are designed to be strong enough to safely resist the horizontal and vertical forces imposed upon them. Such loads include wind forces, self-weight, possibly the weights of walls and floors from above, the effects of expansion and contraction as generated by temperature and humidity. WALL Load bearing Wall Types Non-load bearing - Walls which have to bear more - Concrete wall - Walls which are only loaded by than their self-weight on one - Masonry wall their self-weight and are not used story. - Dry wall for bracing against buckling. - Glass wall - Curtain wall 30
  • 5.3 WA L L Drywallsystem • Used indoors and is not load bearing Properties : - Thermal insulation properties are not as good as a brick wall but if used property it can be insulated well - Fast, relatively simple & clean to install - Type of partition board and stud backing system can be varied to suit a user’s requirements - Susceptible to water damage and mould - Hollow and susceptible by damage by external forces Process : Vertical studs (attached together through the placement of nails) Plaster board Vertical studs are made of aluminum. These studs are placed close together to ensure the walls are properly reinforced. Insulation is inserted before closing up the wall again 31
  • 5.3 ConcreteWall Concrete walls are used for both strength and esthetic purposes. These walls may be cast in place or precast, they may also be bearing or curtain walls. they are placed vertically, side by side and caulked at adjacent edges. Concrete walls (finished with paint) being used on our site. Concrete is the most suitable material for construction, since it can withstand whatever compression forces, moreover it is workable and durable material, can be formed to any shape you like, also it is some how cheap materials. As for its disadvantages special care and precautions are required during casting (otherwise it could cause cracks and failure) Components of a concrete wall 32 WA L L
  • 5.3 MasonryWall Masonry walls are a traditional, common, and durable. They are designed in accordance with building codes and constructed by individual placement of bricks, blocks of stone, cinder concrete, cut stone and combinations of these. In areas with ample rock deposits or deposits of materials which can be used to make substances like glass and brick, masonry can be a cheap construction method. It also creates increased thermal mass, contributing to efficiency, and it can bear a great deal of weight when it is well designed. A masonry wall also confers fire protection, as it will take some time for a fire to break through such a wall. 33 WA L L
  • 5.3 WA L L GlassWall • Can be divided into structural, or non structural. Characteristics : • Allows transparency, yet retains the strengths of a typical wall Lightly tinted glass panels found in Site B. • A glass wall enables a building to have large spans • Requires the help of specialists consultants & contactors * A beam would usually be in placed before constructing glass walls. The fittings will be put in before inserting the glass, followed by appropriate sealing. 34 Blow up of the mullion used for glass walls
  • 5.3 CurtainWall A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. Characteristics : • Use a lot in offices • Non-structural, non-load bearing • One of the newest wall system & used primarily for façade treatments High cost and expertise • Two types of curtain walls : 1. Unitized • Complete panel is attached on site • A lot faster but more difficult to transport on site • More expensive 2. Stick • More commonly used (not as fast as unitized) • Mullion is first assembled on site, the transom is then installed 35 WA L L
  • 2.0 S TA I R C A S E TEH KAH KEN AND WONG KWOK KENN
  • 5.4 STAIRS provide means for moving from one level to another and connects the important links in the overall circulation of the building. Aspects that should be considered when designing a staircase is the placement of stairs, ease of travel and most importantly the safety. The design of a stairway is strictly controlled by the building code especially when a stairway is an essential part of an emergency egress system. (Francis D. K. Ching, 2008) The design of a stairway should take proper consideration of the width, landings, handrails, guardrails, treads, risers and nosing which are the requirements of a staircase. Accessible stairs should also serve as a means of egress during an emergency, or lead to an accessible area of refuge where people who are unable to use stairs may remain temporarily in safety to await assistance during an emergency evacuation. Design of a stair 36 S TA I R CAS E
  • 5.4 There are a few types of staircase design : A. Straight-run stair. This type of stair connects one level to another without any turns or winders. B. Quarter-turn stair. This is a variation from the straight-run stair where it makes a right-angled turn in the path of travel. However, the two flights connected by an intervening landing may be equal or unequal. C. Half-turn stair. This stair turns 180° at an intervening landing. This stair is more compact than a single straight-run stair and similar to the quarter-turn stair. Also, the two flights connected by an intervening landing may be equal or unequal. D. Winding stair. This stairway is constructed with winders which is potentially hazardous since the space of the interior side is very narrow. According to the building codes, this winders is often restricted for private stairs. E. Circular stair. This stairway has a circular plan. F. Spiral stair. This stairway consists of wedged-shaped treads supported by a central post and only takes up minimal spaces. 37 S TA I R CAS E
  • 5.4 S TA I R CAS E The type of stair for the site we visited (Site B) is a straight-run stair. This stair connects the ground level to the first floor without any turn in the path of travel. The flights of stairs are connected by a landing in which each flight of stairs has 6 steps and 14 steps respectively. This is due to the building code that prohibits the design of a staircase having 16 risers in a flight consecutively. Therefore, this staircase is divided into two flights of unequal intervening landings. The height from the ground where the staircase is place is also sufficient (>2m) which follows the regulations. Circular handrail Landing This staircase is not divided as the width of this stairs is less than 2000mm. If more than 2000mm wide the flight should be divided. (building code) For safety purposes, a handrail is also installed which in this case is a circular handrail for better grip. Riser Width Flight of stairs in Site B 38
  • 5.4 S TA I R CAS E C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a C o n c r e t e S ta i r cas e The height of the room has to be measured to build an interior stair. The method for obtaining the height can be shown below: Height from floor to ceiling / No. of steps intended = Measurement of single tread & single rise “The stair ratio is a relationship between the tread run (width) and the riser height so that as one increases, the other decreases, and vice versa. A minimum tread run and a maximum riser height keep the stairs from exceeding the critical angle of the whole stair.” (stair construction, 2008). The width of the stairs is set by the ability for two people to be able to pass by comfortably on the stairs, and also considering the fact about carrying furniture up and down the stairs. Each step should be the same size while constructing a staircase. The riser’s height on a flight of stairs to be equal to prevent the user from tripping. “However, the board (not the unit rise) for the top riser and the bottom riser in a flight of stairs may vary in height in order to make up the difference in thickness of flooring.” (Stair Construction, 2008). Steel rebars of a concrete stairs. 39
  • 5.4 S TA I R CAS E A foundation is needed to construct a concrete stairs. The dimensions (= footprint of the stairs) of the staircase foundation must be determined in order to do so. A form is built using either plywood or framing lumber. The side form is cut according to the calculations of the tread and risers. In order for the stairs to bond perfectly to the foundation, the side form should be securely attached to the building’s foundation. Wooden stakes are added along the outside surface of the form to brace against the outward movement of the poured concrete. Next up, the boards that will form the face of the risers are installed. Bracing should be added to the centre of each riser as the stair is pretty wide. The cement is poured starting from the bottom, it is done one step at a time. A spade or rod is used to remove air bubbles. A screed board- a piece of lumber which is longer than the width of the stairs is used to get the excessive concrete off the treads. A wood float is used to level the surface. A wood float is a flat lumber with a handle that is attached on one of it’s surfaces. A steel trowel is used to produce a finer finish, which is somewhat similar to wood float but it is much smoother which will result in a better and an almost flawless surface. Once the surface is smooth, keep the concrete damp for about a week while it cures. This can be done by covering it with burlap or plastic. The stairs should be sprayed with curing compound. It is important to do so as the humidity of the concrete will decrease if it is exposed to open air, and it will affect the strength of the concrete. Example process of constructing concrete stairs. After a week, the concrete will have its final shape. Lumbers can be removed but curing has to continue to take place until about a month. 40
  • 5.4 Components of a Concrete Stair 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rise surface Decorated surface (Recess) Chamfer Stepping surface Site surface 6. Slip prevention part 7. Displacement prevention groove 8. Rear surface 9. Rear surface recess 10. Round part 41 S TA I R CAS E
  • 5.4 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a W o o d e n S ta i r cas e • Carriages/rough stringers are inclined beams supporting the treads and risers. The number and spacing of the carriages depends on the spanning capability of the tread material. • Stringers, sloping finish members alongside a • staircase. Tread • Riser; some stairs have no risers. • Carriages may be attached to supporting beam, header or wall framing with metal hangers or a ledger. • Kick plate, anchors and absorb the thrust of inclined stair carriage. • • Finishing Full stringer • Softfit • Fireblocking • Carriage • Chamfer edges for carpeting 42 S TA I R CAS E
  • 5.4 C o m p o n e n t s o f a W o o d e n S ta i r 43 S TA I R CAS E
  • 5.4 Ramp Apart from stairs, ramps provide smooth transitions between the floor levels of a building. To have comfortable low slopes, they require relatively long runs. They are typically used to accommodate a change in level along an accessible route to provide access for wheeled equipment. Short, straight ramps act as a beams and may be constructed as wood, steel, or concrete floor systems. Long or curvilinear ramps are usually of steel or reinforced concrete. 44 S TA I R CAS E
  • 2.0 ROOF CHEN ROU ANN AND NUR ADILA
  • 6.1 R O O F USES OF ROOF THE PROMISE OF PROTECTION Protect against different kinds of weather and reflection (sun radiation) from entering the b u i l d i n g ’s i n t e r i o r. K E E P I N G T H E WAT E R O U T It is used to shed water to a system drains , gutters and downspouts. Therefore, the form and slope of a roof must be compatible with the type of roofing. A DESIRE FOR A COVERING This section picture shows how a human can feel comfortable with a roof on top of his head. He has the desire to cover himself from infiltration of air and the flow of heat and solar radiation. This is because roof s h o u l d c o n t r o l t h e w a t e r f l o w, a i r a n d h e a t f l o w. I n conclusion, it has got a desire to cover the interior of the spaces. 45
  • 6.1 TYPES OF R O O F ROOF PITCH ROOF Pitch roof has a roof covering and protection against weather, fire and reflection. To ensure for all of the protections, it had been built with a certain kind of slope that can be categorized as low sloped roofs and medium- to high sloped roofs. In addition, the slope can also be harmonized with the site context to make the building look more beautiful. Pitch roof also has layers to ensure the function become more accessible. Example of the layers are load bearing layer, ventilation cavity, sealing layer and etc. In order to make the interior feels comfortable, the vapor barrier layer of the roof will protect against warm, moist interior air The figure above shows how pitch roof can be diffusing into the roof construction. harmonized with THE site context due to the same type of slope (between the roof and mountain’s slope). F L AT R O O F The protection and drainage layer of flat roof is mostly to protect against mechanical damage and ultraviolet radiation while there is structure that can protect against the weather. The minimum recommended slope for this roof is 1/4 per foot. The slope usually flow to the interior drains; perimeter scuppers that can be used as overflow drains. It is compatible for any horizontal dimension and can be designed to serve outdoor space. This type of roof also has a different kind of layer with purposes such as waterproofing layer, thermal insulation, impact sound insulation and etc. 46
  • 6.1 TYPES OF R O O F ROOF F L AT R O O F PITCHED ROOF The sloping of the roofs can be categorized to:- Low Sloped roofs (up to The slope of the roof is recommended to have the minimum slope of ¼ per foot 3:12) and medium –to high – sloped roof (4:12 to 12 : 12) High Slope Medium Slope There are several types of flat roof structures : - Low Slope REINFORCE CONCRETE SLABS There are several types of pitch roof structures : F L AT T I M B E R / STEEL TRUSSES WOOD or STEEL RAFTERS and SHEETING TIMBER OR STEEL BEAMS & DECKING WOOD OR STEEL JOISTS & SHEETING TIMBER or STEEL BEAMS, PURLINS, and DECKINGS TIMBER or STEEL TRUSSES 47
  • 6.0 R O O F COMPONENTS OF ROOF Sketch: Components of Pitch Roof Sketch: Components of Flat Roof 48
  • 6.0 D E TA I L S O F R O O F Sketch : FLAT ROOF EDGE ROOF – PARAPET WALL The intention of parapet walls is to prevent from spread of fire from a building to another WOOD ROOF JOISTS AND RAFTERS F u n c t i o n : To l o a d a n d s u p p o r t t h e roof on top. Flat roof : The spaced of joist or rafters are spaced in different number depending the roof load. Numbers of spaced (12 “, 16” or 24” ) Pitch rafters Roof that : Members supporting are than less 3:12 must be designed as beams. 49 R O O F Sketch : PITCH ROOF
  • 6.1 R O O F I NTO THE SITE SITE A & SITE B – FLAT ROOF The slope of the roof is 5 ° Sketch of Site A Elevation and Detailed of roof One of the flat roof in this building According to both of the site visit that we went, we can observe a flat roof type of building. The r o o f a l s o h a s a p r o p e r s l o p e o f 5 ° t o e n s u r e p r o p e r f l o w o f w a t e r. T h e y a l s o p l a n a p r o p e r drainage system to ensure smooth rain water flow and better piping system. Beside that, with all the concern of proper detailed in every aspect, the workers can start to build it. In addition, this roof also includes a proper parapet wall to prevent spread of fire from a building to another building. 50
  • 6.1 R O O F I NTO THE SITE A ceiling finish is applied underneath of roof or ceiling joists. Above detailed sketch is to show the rafter framing to load t h e f l a t ro o f. T h e s p a c i n g o f t h e j o i s t s h o u l d b e b e t w e e n t o 1 2 ” a n d 1 4 ”. B e s i d e t h a t , t h e j o i s t s m a y b e o v e r s i z e d t o put up the required thermal insulation (which maintain a hygienic indoor climate at low ambient temperatures). T H E E L E VAT I O N D R A W I N G O F T H E R O O F 51
  • 2.0 S U M M A RY A N D C O N C L U S I O N
  • 7.0 S U M M A R Y I N CONCLUSION Being able to explore the actual construction sites, it is an eye opening experience while being exposed to the basic principle and procedures of the construction process and also further understand the cycle harmonization of construction at site. Some things that cannot be learnt in a classroom. Being exposed to the construction technology and also the extensive details of the construction, the group also understands and gained the skills to produce manual sketches, and to include the drawings and detailing , and lastly create a documentation and analysis of the construction fundamentals. The group is able to cooperate in harmony in a larger group than the group is used t o , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y, h o w t o p r o p e r l y m a n a g e w o r k a n d t i m e t o p e r f o r m t h e task distributed to them. With the information gained, the group can incorporate the knowledge and to apply that for the future use. 52