Contact Bar Code Readers

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  • 1. AUTOMATIC DATA CAPTURE Presented To: Prof .Dr. Amjad Pervaiz Submitted By: Muhammad Aslam Adil Farooq
  • 2. OVERVIEW OF AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION AND DATA CAPTURE METHODS
    • The term automatic data capture is also known as automatic identification and data capture.
    • ADC refers to the technologies that provide direct entry of data into a computer or other microprocessor controlled system without using a keyboard.
    • Many of these technologies require no human involvement in the data capture and entry process.
    • ADC are used to collect data in
      • Material handling
      • Manufacturing
      • Service Industry
  • 3. APPLICATION OF ADC IN MATERIAL HANDLING
    • Material handling systems
      • Shipping and receiving
      • Storage
      • Sortation
      • Order picking
      • Kitting of parts for assembly
  • 4. APPLICATION OF ADC IN MANUFACTURING
    • Application include
      • Monitoring the status of order processing
      • Work-in-process
      • Machine utilization
      • Worker attendance
      • Inventory control
      • Warehousing
      • Other measures of factory operations
  • 5. APPLICATION OF ADC IN SERVICE SECTOR
    • Distribution centre operations
    • Mail and parcel handling
    • Patient identification in hospitals
    • Check processing in banks
    • Security systems
    • Transportation
    • Education sector
  • 6. MANUAL COLLECTION AND ENTRY OF DATA
    • This involves recording data on a paper and later entering them into the computer by means of keyboard.
    • There are several drawbacks to this method
      • Errors occur in both data collection and keyboard entry of data when accomplished manually. The average error rate of manual keyboard entry is one error per 300 characters.
      • In manual methods, there is a time delay between when the activities and events occurs and when data on status are entered into computer. Manual methods are more time consuming.
      • The full time attention of human workers is required in manual data collection and entry, with associated labor cost.
  • 7. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION METHODS
    • Nearly all of the automatic identification technologies consists of three principal components,
      • Encoded data: A code is a set of symbols or signals representing alphanumeric characters. When data are encoded, the characters are translated into a machine-readable code. A label or tag containing the encoded data is attached to the item that is to be later identified.
      • Machine Reader or Scanner: The device reads the encoded data, converting them to alternative form, usually an electrical signal.
      • Decoder: This component transforms the electrical signal into digital data and finally into the original alphanumeric characters.
  • 8. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION METHODS
    • ADC Technologies can be divided into the following six categories:
      • Optical: Most of these technologies-use high contrast graphical symbols that can be interpreted by an optical scanner. They include linear and two dimensional bar codes, optical character recognition and machine vision.
      • Magnetic: Which encode data magnetically, similar to recording tape. The two important techniques in this category are
        • Magnetic stripe, widely used in plastic credit cards and banking access card
        • Magnetic ink character recognition, widely used in the banking industry for check processing.
  • 9. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION METHODS
      • Electromagnetic: The important ADC technology in this group is radio frequency identification.
      • Smart card: This term refers to small plastic cards (the size of a credit card) imbedded with microchips capable of containing large amounts of information.
      • Touch techniques: Such as touch screen and button memory.
      • Biometric: These are used to identify humans or to interpret vocal commands of humans. They include voice recognition, fingerprints analysis and retinal eye scans.
  • 10. GOOD REASONS FOR USING ADC
    • Data Accuracy: Accuracy of data collected is improved with ADC. The error rate in bar code technology is approximately 10,000 times lower than in manual keyboard data entry.
    • Timeliness: the second reason is to reduce time required by human workers to make data entry. The speed of data entry for handwritten documents is approximately 5-7 characters per second. Automatic identification methods are capable of reading hundreds of characters per second.
    • Labor Reduction: The time savings in using automatic identification techniques can mean substantial labor cost benefits for large plants with many workers.
  • 11. BAR CODE TECHNOLOGY
    • Bar codes divide into two basic types
      • Linear or one dimensional bar codes
      • In which the encoded data are read using a linear sweep of the scanner.
      • Two dimensional bar codes
      • In which the encoded data must be read in both directions.
  • 12. LINEAR (ONE DIMENSIONAL) BAR CODES
    • Linear bar codes are currently the most widely used automatic identification and data collection technique.
    • There are two forms of linear bar code symbologies.
      • Width modulated
      • In which the symbol consists of bars and spaces of varying width.
      • Height modulated
      • In which the symbol consists of evenly spaced bars of varying height
  • 13. WIDTH MODULATED
    • In linear width – modulated bar code technology, the symbol consist of wide and narrow colored bars separated by wide and narrow spaces .
    • The pattern of bars and spaces is coded to represent numeric or alphanumeric characters.
    • Height Modulated
    • The only significant application of the height modulated bar code symbologies is in U.S. postal service for zip code identification.
  • 14. BAR CODE READERS
  • 15. CONTACT BAR CODE READERS
    • They are hand held wands or light pens operated by moving the tip of the wand quickly past the bar code on the object or document.
    • The wand tip must be in contact with the bar code surface or very close proximity during the reading procedure.
    • In factory data collection application, they are usually part of a keyboard entry terminal.
    • The terminal is sometimes referred to as stationary terminal in the sense that it is placed in a fixed location in the shop.
  • 16. CONTACT BAR CODE READERS (CONT.)
    • They are also available as portable units that can be carried around the factory or warehouse by a worker.
    • They are battery powered and include a solid – state memory device capable of storing data acquired during the operation.
  • 17. NON-CONTACT BAR CODE READERS
    • These readers focus a light beam on the bar code and a photo detector reads the reflected signal to interpret the code.
    • The reader probe is located a certain distance from the (several inches to several feet) during the read procedure.
  • 18. NON-CONTACT BAR CODE READERS
    • Fixed beam readers: these are stationary units that use a fixed beam of light. they are usually mounted beside a conveyor and depend on the movement of the bar code past the light beam for their operation.
  • 19. NON-CONTACT BAR CODE READERS
    • Moving beam scanners : they use a highly focused beam of light , actuated by rotating mirror to traverse an angular sweep in search of the bar code on the object.
    • Lasers are often used to achieve the highly focused light beam.
  • 20. MOVING BEAM SCANNERS
    • Stationary scanners : they are located in a fixed position to read bar codes on objects as they move past on a conveyor or other material handling equipment.
    • They are used in warehouses and distribution centers to automate the product identification and sortation operations.
  • 21. MOVING BEAM SCANNERS
    • Portable scanners: these are hand held devices that the user points at the bar code like a pistol.
    • The vast majority of bar code scanners used in factories and ware houses are of this type.
  • 22. BAR CODE PRINTERS
    • In some bar code applications, the labels are printed off-site in medium to large quantities for product packages and the cartons used to ship the packaged products.
    • Bar codes can be printed on-site by methods in which the process is controlled by microprocessors. These applications tend to require multiple printers distributed at locations where they are needed .
  • 23. BAR CODE PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES
    • Following printing technologies are commonly used.
    • Dot matrix
    • Ink-jet
    • Direct thermal
    • Thermal transfer
    • Laser printing
    • Laser etching
  • 24. DOT MATRIX
    • In this technique the bars are printed by overlapping dots to form wide or narrow bands.
    • It is a low cost technique , but the quality of the printed bars depends on the degree of overlap , accordingly, there is a lower limit on the size of the bar code.
  • 25. INK-JET
    • Like dot matrix, the ink-jet bars are formed by overlapping dots , but the dots are made by ink droplets.
  • 26. DIRECT THERMAL
    • In this technique , light-colored paper labels are coated with a heat sensitive chemical that darkens when heated.
    • The printing head of the thermal printer consists of a linear array of small heating elements that heat localized areas of the label as it moves past the head , causing the desired bar code image to be formed.
    • Bar codes by direct thermal printing are of good quality ,and the cost is low.
  • 27. THERMAL TRANSFER
    • This technology is similar to direct thermal printing , except that the thermal printing heads is in contact with a special ink ribbon that transfers its ink to the moving label in localized areas when heated.
  • 28. LASER PRINTING
    • Laser printing is the technology that is widely used in printers for personal computers.
    • In laser printing , the bar code image is written onto a photosensitive surface (usually a rotating drum) by a controllable light source (the laser), forming an electrostatic image on the surface.
    • The surface is then bought into contact with toner particles that are attracted to selected regions of the image.
    • The toner image is then transfer to plain paper and cured by heat and pressure.
    • High quality bar codes can be produced by this method.
  • 29. LASER ETCHING
    • This process can be used to mark bar codes onto metal parts . The process provides a permanent identification mark on the item that is not susceptible to damage in the harsh environments that are encountered in many manufacturing processes.
  • 30. TWO DIMENSIONAL BAR CODES
    • Two dimensional symbologies divide into two basic types
    • Stacked bar codes
    • Matrix symbologies
  • 31. STACKED BAR CODES
    • The first 2-D bar code to be introduced was a stacked symbology.
    • It was developed in an effort to reduce the area required for a conventional bar code.
    • But its real advantage is that it can contain significantly greater amount of data.
    • It consist of multiple rows of conventional linear bar codes stacked on top of each other .
  • 32. MATRIX SYMBOLOGIES
    • A matrix symbology consist of 2-D patterns of data cells that are usually square and are colored dark (usually black) or white.
    • There advantage over stacked bar codes is their capability to contain more data.
    • Applications of the matrix symbologies are currently found in part and product identification during manufacturing and assembly.