Why we need ipv6...


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Why we need ipv6...

  1. 1. Introduction to IPv6 Presented by: Hafiz Syed Adnan Ahmed(2122) Zuhair ul Haq(2230)
  2. 2. Agenda  Why we need IPv6  The length of IPv6  Features of IPv6  Header Comparisons  How can I write IPv4 to IPv6  How to subnet IPv6
  3. 3. What is IPv6?  IPv6 is the abbreviation for Internet Protocol version 6. We are currently on Internet Protocol version 4, or IPv4, but IPv6 will be the next generation protocol for Internet communication. Not only will IPv6 provide a much larger address space, but it will also provide features such as improved routing traffic and better security.
  4. 4. Why do we need IPv6?  The Internet has experienced a phenomenal increase of devices accessing the Internet. Because of this increase, IPv4 addresses are running out. The solution is for IPv6 to accommodate this increased demand by providing a much larger address space, along with improved traffic routing and better security.
  5. 5. Some of the advantages of IPv6 are: Larger IP address space: IPv6 has 128-bit address space or 4 times more address bits compared to IPv4's 32-bit address space. This large address space will provide enough address space for many decades to come. In real terms, every residential or commercial customer will be able to receive more address space from TWC than the entire IPv4 address space contains – several billion IP addresses!
  6. 6. Better optimization:  IPv6 takes the best of what made IPv4 successful and gets rid of minor flaws and unused features
  7. 7. Why we need IPv6  INTERNET  world’s largest public data network, doubling in size every nine months  IPv4, defines a 32-bit address - 232 (4,294,967,296) IPv4 addresses available  The first problem is concerned with the eventual depletion of the IP address space.  Traditional model of classful addressing does not allow the address space to be used to its maximum potential.
  8. 8. Features of IPv6  Larger Address Space  Aggregation-based address hierarchy – Efficient backbone routing  Efficient and Extensible IP datagram  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration  Security (IPsec mandatory)  Mobility
  9. 9. The Length of IPv6 128-bit IPv6 Address 3FFE:085B:1F1F:0000:0000:0000:00A9:1234 8 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers separated by “:” Leading zeros can be removed 3FFE:85B:1F1F::A9:1234 :: = all zeros in one or more group of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers
  10. 10. Header comparison   the length of the ipv6 header in bytes On the Internet, data is transmitted in the form of network packets. IPv6 specifies a Removed (6) new packet format, designed to minimize • ID, flags, flag offset packet header processing by routers. • TOS, hlen • header checksum Changed (3) • total length => payload • protocol => next header • TTL => hop limit 20 bytes 40 bytes Added (2) • traffic class • flow label Expanded • address 32 to 128 bits
  11. 11. Major Improvements of IPv6 Header  No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP header.  No header checksum: Result in fast processing.  No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP forwarding.
  12. 12. IPv6 Address with an Embedded IPv4 Address  IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is a special unicast IPv6 address used by transition mechanisms on hosts and routers to automatically create IPv4 tunnels to deliver IPv6 packets over IPv4 networks.  Address is made up of six high-order fields of 16-bit hexadecimal values, represented by X characters, followed by four low-order fields of 8-bit decimal values (IPv4 address), represented by d characters (for a total of 32 bits).
  13. 13. IPv6 Address with an Embedded IPv4 Address  Two kinds of IPv6 addresses have an embedded IPv4 address: 1. IPv4-compatible IPv6 address   Used to establish an automatic tunnel to carry IPv6 packets over IPv4 networks. related to a transition mechanism of the IPv6 protocol. 2. IPv4-mapped IPv6 address    Used only on the local scope of nodes having both IPv4 and IPv6 stacks. Nodes use IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses internally only. These addresses are never known outside the node itself and should not go on the wire as IPv6 addresses.
  14. 14. IPv6 Address with an Embedded IPv4 Address IPv4-compatible IPv6 address IPv4-mapped IPv6 address
  15. 15. IPv6 Addressing  128 bits (or 16 bytes) long: four times as long as its predecessor.  2128 : about 340 billion billion billion billion different addresses  Colon hexadecimal notation:  addresses are written using 32 hexadecimal digits.  digits are arranged into 8 groups of four to improve the readability.  Groups are separated by colons 2001:0718:1c01:0016:020d:56ff:fe77:52a3
  16. 16. HOW TO Subnet IPv6 First some background… an IPv4. IPv6 address is comprised of eight (8) blocks of four hexadecimal digits separated with a colon “:”. Each digit can be either a number [0-9] or a letter [a-f] for a total of 16 possible combinations per digit. 164 (yes this should be written 216) gives 65,536 possible combinations per block. The double colon “::” abbreviation is commonly used in place of all zeros. This double colon can only be used once while specifying and address.
  17. 17. IPv6 Prefixes
  18. 18.  The next thing to point out is the major IPv6 subnet boundaries. For example:
  19. 19. Questions?