INVESTIGATION OF DETERMINANTS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS SUBSTANCE USE AND ABUSE AMONGADOLESCENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN IBADAN, OYO STATE By Oyewumi, Abebomi Ph.D Department of Special Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. And Adigun, Olufemi T. Department of Special Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
INTRODUCTION Substance use and abuse is a long standing major public health issue all over the world. It has for long being an issue of debate among stakeholders in order to find a lasting solution to its menace. The world health Organization (WHO, 2012) pointed out that substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous, use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome-a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences. Adolescents (those with hearing-impairment inclusive) may abuse substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other illicit drugs for varied and complicated reasons ranging from depression, isolation, and potential to belong to the highly placed gang among other. John and Paul (1995) observed deficits in social skills among adolescents who use and abuse substance. Basically, attitude toward substance use has been found to have correlation with personal self and environment or social influences (Hung, Yen and Wu, 2009). In other words, some factors are responsible for the use and abuse of various illicit substances, the characteristics of the individual, the relationship with the friend, and the contexts all may be important in leading the adolescent to conform to peer behavior.
•Introduction Cont’d Other variables such as perception of the harm of substance use, information seeking behavior, self-esteem and a commitment to traditional social values have been shown to be risk factors for substance use (Hawkins, Catalano and Miller, 1992; Petraitis, Flay and Miller, 1995). Unfortunately, adolescents with hearing-impairment are in double jeopardy as a result of their inability involves speech. Ademokoya and Oyewumi (2001) noted that one obvious fact about this group is that they can hardly benefit from the general education programmes. Falase and Oyewumi (2008) posited that individuals with hearing-impairment find their bewilderment constrained by communication limitation due to hearing loss, and they suffer relatively more when compared to other hearing adolescents because they lack the ability to fully integrate themselves into a world of the hearing. Adolescents with hearing impairments are just like hearing counterparts in experiencing turmoil characterized by the stage of adolescenthood. Although, they feel insecure but often conform to certain behaviour which they pick or see in the environment. They tend to depend more on their colleagues with hearing loss (deaf culture), hearing peers and media than to parents, teacher, and other adults for social recognition and rewards.
Introduction Cont’d McCone (1982) estimated that in deaf population there may be 73,000 deaf alcoholics, 85,000 deaf heroine users, 147,000 deaf cocaine users and 110,000 deaf people who use marijuana on regular basis. The United Nations (2008) observed that the inhalants are increasing among the adolescents irrespective of any disability. NCETA (2004) reiterated that the most common routes of administration are oral ingestion which is probably the most common form of taking substances, chewing which is used for coca leaf, tobacco, betel-nut and tea; Nasal insufflations which includes snuffing, nasal inhalation or snorting; smoking and rectal administration commonly used in medical treatment, it is also a method sometimes used by substance users. Adolescent substance use and abuse is determined by various factors in the person and in the social environment. Researches provides evidence that drug use is associated with personality traits such as self-esteem and social influence variables such as peer pressure, parental attitude, family drug use, and genetic factors among others (Abood and Conway, 1992). Lawrence and Gilbert (1995) observed that alcohol and drug use have been hypothesized to negatively influence a wide array of social psychological and physical facets of functioning. Abood and Conway (1992) found a relationship between self-esteem and health values, and between self-esteem and tobacco or alcohol use while Gugliemo (1985) found out that low self-esteem and familial environment are causatively linked to substance use and abuse, and that the parent- child relationship provides the experiences from which self esteem is learned.
Introduction Cont’d Both peers and family influence alcohol use over the child’s course of development (Brian and Kate, 2001). Windle (2000) opined that rather than being supplanted by peer influences, parental factors affect substance use. None the less, peer influences are powerful determinant of late adolescent drinking behavior (Brian and Kate, 2001). Studies have found that alcohol, hypnosedatives, tobacco and psycho stimulants were the commonly abused substances; with varying prevalence rate found for both overall and specific substance use (Adelekan, 1989; Fatoye & Morakinyo , 2002; Abdulkarim, Moluolu and Adeniyi; 2005). For instance, in Ilorin, Nigeria the life time prevalence rate of substance use among secondary and university students was found to vary between 1.5% (for tobacco) and 47% (for psycho stimulants) (Abdulkarim, Mokuolu and Adeniyi, 2005). Currently, there is little or no research on the factors that is responsible for substance use among the adolescents with hearing impairments. Therefore, this study tends to investigate the determinants of knowledge and attitude to substance and abuse among adolescents with hearing impairment.
Objectives of the Study The broad objective of the study is to investigate factors that determine substance use and abuse among adolescents with hearing impairment. The study also examined the knowledge of adolescents with hearing impairments about the effects of substance use and abuse The study investigated the knowledge of the availability and route of intake of substances among adolescents with hearing impairment.
Research Questions Do adolescents with hearing impairment have knowledge about the effect of substance use and abuse? What are the determinants of substance use and abuse among adolescents with hearing impairment? Does adolescent with hearing impairment have knowledge about places where substances are known to be available as well as its route of intake?Research Hypotheses There will be no significant differences in the knowledge of adolescents with hearing impairment who has high self esteem and those who have low self esteem towards substance use and abuse. There will be no significant difference in the attitude towards use and abuse of substances among adolescents with hearing impairment who has low and high self esteem.
Research Methodology The research design employed in this study was a survey research method. It was directed at surveying the determinants of knowledge and attitude of substance use among adolescents with hearing impairment.Research Participants The participants for the study were adolescents with hearing impairment found in Ibadan. Two hundred and thirteen adolescents with hearing impairment participated in the study and they were drawn from four special secondary schools within Ibadan.Research instruments The research made use of the Rosenberg Self Esteem scale to determine the level of the self esteem of the participants. Also, a structured questionnaire was used in data collection. The questionnaire were divided into section A, B, and C. Section A elicited information about the biosocial characteristics of the participants, section B was on substance use profile and section C dealt with the reason why adolescents with hearing impairments uses and abuses substances.Method of data analysis Descriptive statistics involving frequency count, simple percentage, mean and standard deviation as well as inferential statistics involving t- test was used to analysed the data collected.
Biosocial Characteristics of the Participants Male Female Female 35% Male 65%
Age distribution ofrespondents 39 39 13 - 15 years 16 - 19 years 20 - 25 years 135
Research Question 1. Do adolescents with hearing impairment have knowledge about the effectof substance use and abuse? Table showing Knowledge of respondents about the effect of substance use and abuse Variables Yes % No % Mean Std Hang over 67.6 32.4 1.68 0.469 Hallucination 67.6 32.4 1.68 0.469 Disorientation 69.0 31.0 1.69 0.494 Behavioral change 59.2 40.8 1.59 0.493 Loss of judgment 56.3 43.7 1.56 0.497 Sense of quilt 56.3 43.7 1.56 0.497 Increase blood 56.3 43.7 1.56 0.497 pressure Drowsiness 53.5 46.5 1.54 0.500 Loss of control over 56.3 43.7 1.56 0.497 movement quarrelsome 49.3 50.7 1.49 0.501 Chronic cough 54.9 45.1 1.55 0.499
The table reveals that hearing loss ( =2.68), depression ( =2.52), deaf culture/friends(=2.89), and peer influences ( =2.51) all account for the reasons why adolescents withhearing Impairment indulge in the habit of using and the abuse of substances. The resulton table 3 shows that loneliness, dejection or rejection of adolescents with hearingimpairment which account for ( =2.30); and inability to do without substance use ( =2.03)are not factors that influence the use and abuse of substances among adolescents withhearing impairments.
Research Question 2: What are the determinants of substance use and abuse among adolescentswith hearing impairment?Table showing the response of respondents on the reasons for substance use and abuseItems SA A D SD Mean StDMy hearing loss gives me much 35.2 18.3 25.4 21.1 2.68 1.163concernI always feel depressed 12.7 43.7 26.8 16.9 2.52 0.919I prefer to be among friend with 28.2 45.1 14.1 12.7 2.89 0.960hearing impairmentI use substances when I feel lonely, 16.9 29.6 19.7 33.8 2.30 1.108dejected or rejected by hearing peopleSome of my friends use and abuse 28.2 28.2 23.9 19.7 2.65 1.092substancesI function best in groups when I make 26.5 22.5 25.4 25.4 2.51 1.139use of substancesI cannot do without the use of 12.7 22.4 19.7 19.7 2.03 1.090substances
Knowledge of availability of substances 43.7 73.2 Slums Shops selling Beer/Cigarettes Shops selling traditional 69 medicine Pharmacies 80.3
% Response on routes of substance intake 56.3 56.3 Sniffing with cigarette Chewing swallowing 53.5 Drinking 74.6 Injecting 50.7
Research hypothesis 1: there will be no significant differences in the knowledge of adolescents with hearing impairment who has high self esteem and those who have low self esteem towards substance use and abuse Table of Self-esteem and knowledge about the use and abuse of substancesKnowledge Mean (X) StD Df t-cal t-critical Sig NLow self 123 13.804 2.242esteem 211 2.357 1.960 SHigh self 90 133.333 2.824Esteem
The result on the table indicates that there is a significant difference in the knowledge ofsubstance use and abuse among adolescents with hearing impairments who have lowself-esteem and those who have high self-esteem. This is indicated by the value of t-calculated value (2.357) which is greater than the t-critic (t-cal=2.357, t-critic=1.960,P<=0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is hereby rejected. Research hypothesis 2: there will be no significant difference in the attitude towards use and abuse of substances among adolescents with hearing Impairment who has low and high self esteem.
Table showing analysis of result on substance use and self esteem ofadolescents with hearing impairmentUsability N Mean (X) StD Df t-cal t-critic SigLow self 123 10.804 1.777esteemHigh self 90 10.500 1.794 211 2.232 1.960 SEsteemThe table shows that self esteem have influence on the attitude towards use and abuse ofsubstances among adolescents with hearing impairment. This is indicated by the valueof t-calculated value (2.232) which is greater than the t-critic (t-cal=2.232,t-critic=1.960, P<=0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is hereby rejected.
Discussion of Results This study corroborates the findings of Syed, Rana, Shamim, Annes and Sara (2002) who reported that schooling adolescents are aware of the harmful effect of substance use and abuse on the body and the society. The finding negates the assertion of Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992) and Petraitis, Flay and Miller (1995) who noted that perception of harm of substance use, information seeking behavior, self esteem and a commitment to traditional social values are risk factors for substance use. The result corroborate with the findings of Syed et al (2002) found that school going adolescents are aware that additive drugs can be obtained from slums, Shop selling cigarettes/Betel leaves, Some specific couriers, shops selling traditional Medicine, Pharmacies and other means. This finding lends support to the submission of Hawkins, Catalano. And Miller (1992) who identified self esteem as a risk factors for substance use This finding supports Gugliemo (1985) who found that low self esteem and familiar environment are causatively linked to substance use and abuse.
ConclusionThe study revealed that factors resident in the person (adolescents withhearing impairments) as well as some environmental factors affect theuse and abuse of substances among adolescents with hearingimpairment. The use and abuse of substance have posed variouschallenges to the well being of adolescents with hearing impairment.Recommendation All stakeholders and professionals working with adolescents with hearing impairment should discourage them from the use and abuse of substances. Counselors, Teachers, Peers and other family members should help to develop the self esteem of adolescents with hearing impairments and they should not be exposed to environment where substances are being used and abused. All stakeholders and professionals working with adolescents with hearing impairment should develop programs that aim to create awareness about the effects of substance use and abuse and its impact on their wellbeing.