Obstacles to effective knowledge elicitation
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Obstacles to effective knowledge elicitation

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This presentation provides some supporting evidence to facilitate the introduction and fostering of organizational roles responsible for Knowledge Engineering, Systems thinking, Systems Analysis, ...

This presentation provides some supporting evidence to facilitate the introduction and fostering of organizational roles responsible for Knowledge Engineering, Systems thinking, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering and Business Analysis.

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Obstacles to effective knowledge elicitation Obstacles to effective knowledge elicitation Presentation Transcript

  • Obstacles to Effective Knowledge Elicitation Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 1
  • Introduction • When a proper Knowledge Management environment or system is not explicitly established, promoted and maintained within an organization, there is a natural belief among its workers that only years of experience on the job can provide someone with enough relevant knowledge to become credible, effective or truly influential. • Workers tend to hold these beliefs strongly primarily because the knowledge they possess is “compiled” and often tacit to the extent that they themselves may not have a clear insight into how they put it to work or how they would properly communicate it to the none-initiated. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 2
  • Introduction • While this can be true in some cases, it does not acknowledge situations where individuals have mastered several effective Knowledge Elicitation techniques that are applicable to a variety of fields and situations. • Knowledge Engineering, Systems thinking, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering and Business Analysis are examples of disciplines that leverage heavily on Knowledge Elicitation skills that are robust enough to remain applicable to several professional areas. • These skills enable the proper elicitation, assimilation, organization and communication of complex information much faster than what would be required if knowledge was only acquired through years of field work. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 3
  • Challenges Faced by Knowledge Elicitation • Perhaps the greatest challenge faced when implementing Knowledge Engineering, Systems thinking, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering and Business Analysis is that their proper execution relies heavily on coordinated collaboration involving domain experts from a variety of positions and responsibilities who may be initially skeptical about the true value of such techniques. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 4
  • Challenges Faced by Knowledge Elicitation • This kind of skepticism can be manifested through: – Resistance or lack of motivation for sincerely engaging in collaborative efforts – Information hiding or segregating – Giving lesser priority to Knowledge Elicitation activities Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 5
  • Challenges Faced by Knowledge Elicitation • Without sufficient buy in from those workers, individuals responsible for conducting Knowledge Elicitation activities are at a disadvantage and find themselves at the center of a self- fulfilling prophecy. • While there has been significant documentation of techniques used in the execution of Knowledge Elicitation activities, we are more interested in exploring factors that can significantly mitigate the challenges raised by resistance to and devaluation of Knowledge Elicitation professionals when they find themselves in environment not receptive to the significance of their contribution. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 6
  • Factors facilitating the acceptance of Knowledge Elicitation activities • Knowledge Elicitation activities are better accepted when the Domain Experts see them as opportunities to either: – Organize their thoughts and knowledge for educational or training of others [1 Moon et al.] – Gaining more clarity on their own tacit knowledge [1] – Respond to a mission critical need to identify important information buried in a sea of routinely handled information [2] – Increase the effectiveness of a team in its work environment by capturing knowledge of importance and sharing it [3] – Embrace the strategic value of transferring knowledge ownership from the people employed by an organization to the Organization [4] Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 7
  • Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts • Proper organization and sharing of data, information, and knowledge is a critical component to the prevention or mitigation of human errors responsible for poor system or process reliability. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 8
  • Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts • Almost any system or process failure can be traced to a root cause involving some type of human error such as: [5] – Use Studies or Use Cases – Requirements Analysis – Configuration Control – Assumptions – Calculations / Simulations – Design – Testing Scenario – Statistical Analysis Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 9 – Manufacturing or Coding – Quality Control – Maintenance – System Documentation or Operation Manual – Incorrect Feedback of Information
  • • People are also the best alternative to identifying the root causes of failures. • People need proper assistance in the organization, documentation, and timely communication of pertinent and accurate information required to achieve higher system and process reliability. • Knowledge Elicitation activities aim precisely at delivering this capability in a systematic manner. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 10 Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts
  • • Recent research and industry results have been published that address maximizing the effectiveness of Knowledge Elicitation techniques based on specific environmental conditions within the organization. • This author strongly suggests reading the Paper by Tatiana Gavrilova and Tatiana Andreeva titled “Knowledge elicitation techniques in a knowledge management context”. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 11 Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts
  • • Of particular interest, their paper proposes the following Taxonomy of knowledge elicitation techniques where the Analyst and the Expert play different leading roles: Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 12 Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts Leading Role Knowledge Elicitation Techniques Variations Analyst Interviews Structured Unstructured Questionnaires Face to Face E-Quiz Expert Individual Focused Observation Storytelling Collective Round Table Brainstorming Expert and Analyst Role Games Verbal Report
  • • Their paper also evaluates how appropriate each knowledge elicitation technique is to 4 types of targeted Knowledge: Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 13 Knowledge Elicitation Value Proposition for Organizations and their Domain Experts Elicitation Technique Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Individual Knowledge Group Knowledge Interview Low High High Low Questionnaire N/A Medium Low Low Observation Medium Low High Medium Storytelling Low High High Medium Round table N/A Medium Medium Medium Brainstorming Medium High Medium Low Role Game High Medium Medium High Verbal Report Low High High Medium
  • Conclusion • While the ultimate business benefit of proper knowledge Elicitation has become obvious in our highly complex and interconnected technological world, human issues still undermine its acceptance and effective application in routine business activities. • We hope that this presentation has provided some supporting evidence to facilitate the introduction and fostering of organizational roles responsible for Knowledge Engineering, Systems thinking, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering and Business Analysis. Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 14
  • Copyrights (c) 2011-2013 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting 15 Contact Didier for more information on Knowledge Elicitation. References: [1] Brian M. Moon; Matthew H. Kelly. 2010. LESSONS LEARNED IN KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION WITH NUCLEAR EXPERTS. [2] Timothy Hanratty et al. KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION TO PROTOTYPE THE VALUE OF INFORMATION. [3] Barbara L. Bowen et al. USING TEAM KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION AND CONCEPT MAPPING TO ENHANCE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR A PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCY. [4] Tatiana Gavrilova and Tatiana Andreeva. KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION TECHNIQUES IN A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CONTEXT. [5] Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reliability_engineering#Reliability_culture