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  • 1. Grammar Book
    Por: Adi Baker
  • 2. Table of Contents
    Conditional + irregulars
    Perfect Tenses
    Present Perfect Irregulars
    Subjunctive Perfect
    Impersonal “se”
    Saber vs. Conocer
    Los Mandatos
    DOP+IOP placement
    Nosotros Commands
    Mono verbs
    Subjunctive + irregulars
    Trigger phrases
    Impersonal expressions
    Expressions of emotion
    Conjunctions of time
    Demonstrative adjectives + pronouns
  • 3. Conditional
    Would, should, could, must have, probably
  • 4. Conditional irregulars
    Conditional tense used the same irregulars as future tense
  • 5. Perfect Tenses
    Haber + past participle
    Past participle formed by changing –ar to –ado, -er to –ido, and –ir to –ido.
    Perfect tenses used to show actions that are completed
  • 6. Present
    Used to indicate actions that have occurred prior to the present time
    Present forms of haber
  • 7. Past
    Used to indicate an action that occurred prior to another past action
    Ex. Juan dijo que había viajado a México.
    He traveled to Mexico before he said it, so past perfect is used.
    Past forms of haber
  • 8. Present Perfect Irregulars
  • 9. Subjunctive Perfect
    Used to express doubt or uncertainty of a past action
    Formed by using the subjunctive form of haber + past participle
    Ex. Es bueno que haya estudiado.
  • 10. Tanto/Tan
    Both tan and tanto are used to make comparisons of equality. However...
    Tan is used for comparisons using adjectives or adverbs
    Tan + adjective/adverb + como
    Tanto is used for comparisons using nouns
    Tanto + noun + como
    If actions are being compared...
    Use tanto if there is no adjective, and tan if there is an adjective
    Verb + tanto + como, or verb + tan + adjective + como
  • 11. Impersonal “se”
    Used to make general statements that don’t have a subject.
    Ex. ¿Cómose dice ... en español?
    Se + third person singular
    Plural impersonal (unknown they) does not use se
    Ex. Abren las tiendas a las nueve de la mañana.
  • 12. Saber vs. Conocer
    Both saber and conocer means “to know”.
    Use saber when talking about knowing facts or information.
    Juan sabe donde está María.
    Use conocer when talking about knowing a person, place, object, or work of literature.
    Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.
  • 13. Los Mandatos
    Used when telling or ordering someone to do something.
    There are formal, informal, nosotros, and vosotros commands.
  • 14. Informal/Formal
    Informal commands are used among friends, relatives, coworkers, or when addressing a child.
    Formal commands are used to show politeness and respect.
  • 15. Affirmative
    Informal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the vowel that goes with the infinitive.
    -ar to –a/an, -er to –e/en, -ir to –e/en
    Formal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the opposite vowel.
    -ar to –e/en, -er to –a/an, -ir to –a/an
  • 16. Negative
    Negative formal commands are formed the same way as affiramtive formal commands.
    “yo” form->drop the “o”->add opposite vowel
    Negative informal commands are formed by dropping the “o” from the “yo” form, adding the opposite vowel, and adding s
    Ex. No hablesmás lentamente.
  • 17. Irregular
    There are eight verbs that are irregular in the affirmative tú commands
  • 18. DOP+IOP Placement
    In affirmative commands, both DOPs and IOPs are attached directly to the verb.
    If both are used, IOP comes before the DOP.
    Ex. Cómpremelo
    In negative commands, nither object pronoun is attached to the verb.
    IOP still comes before DOP.
    Ex. No me lo compre.
  • 19. Nosotros Commands
    Commands used when the speaker is included, equivalent to “let’s...”
    To form, change the ending to that of the opposite vowel.
    Ex. Comer-> comamos
    Exception is “ir”
    Affirmative- vamos
    Negative- vayamos
    “Let’s...” can also be formed by using vamos a + infinitive.
  • 20. -mono verbs
    Before attaching “nos” or “se” to a nosotros command, drop the “s” at the end.
    Ex.Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos
    Ex.Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela.
    This is not used for negative commands because pronouns are not attached to them.
  • 21. Subjuntive
    Used to express doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity. Not used to express certainty and objectivity.
    Formed by adding the opposite ending to verbs after dropping the “o” from the “yo” form
  • 22. Irregulars
    There are six verbs that are irregular in the present subjunctive form
    Dar Estar Haber Ir Saber Ser
  • 23. Trigger phrases
    Phrases used to show that the subjunctive is required by introducing uncertainty or doubt.
    Impersonal Expressions
    Expressions of Emotion
    Conjunctions of Time
  • 24. Impersonal Expressions
    Impersonal expressions are used to introduce the subjunctive tense by showing uncertainty or doubt
    Some examples...
  • 25. Expressions of emotion
    Used as main clause, it is followed by a subjunctive clause.
    Only use subjunctive if there is a change of subject from the main clause to the subjunctive; otherwise, use infinitive.
  • 26. Conjunctions of Time
    Used with the subjunctive when it shows a command, something in the future, or something uncertain.
  • 27. Demonstrative adjectives + Pronouns
    Demonstrative adjectives are used to describe a noun, while demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun.
    Ex. Adjective- This book is mine.
    Ex. Pronoun-This is mine.
    Adjectives Pronouns