Table of Contents Conditional + irregulars Perfect Tenses Present Past Present Perfect Irregulars Subjunctive Perfect Tanto/tan Impersonal “se” Saber vs. Conocer Los Mandatos Informal/Formal Affirmative Negative Irregular DOP+IOP placement Nosotros Commands Mono verbs Subjunctive + irregulars Trigger phrases Impersonal expressions Expressions of emotion Conjunctions of time Demonstrative adjectives + pronouns
Conditional Would, should, could, must have, probably Infinitive+
Conditional irregulars Conditional tense used the same irregulars as future tense
Perfect Tenses Haber + past participle Past participle formed by changing –ar to –ado, -er to –ido, and –ir to –ido. Perfect tenses used to show actions that are completed
Present Used to indicate actions that have occurred prior to the present time Present forms of haber
Past Used to indicate an action that occurred prior to another past action Ex. Juan dijo que había viajado a México. He traveled to Mexico before he said it, so past perfect is used. Past forms of haber
Subjunctive Perfect Used to express doubt or uncertainty of a past action Formed by using the subjunctive form of haber + past participle Ex. Es bueno que haya estudiado.
Tanto/Tan Both tan and tanto are used to make comparisons of equality. However... Tan is used for comparisons using adjectives or adverbs Tan + adjective/adverb + como Tanto is used for comparisons using nouns Tanto + noun + como If actions are being compared... Use tanto if there is no adjective, and tan if there is an adjective Verb + tanto + como, or verb + tan + adjective + como
Impersonal “se” Used to make general statements that don’t have a subject. Ex. ¿Cómose dice ... en español? Se + third person singular Plural impersonal (unknown they) does not use se Ex. Abren las tiendas a las nueve de la mañana.
Saber vs. Conocer Both saber and conocer means “to know”. Use saber when talking about knowing facts or information. Juan sabe donde está María. Use conocer when talking about knowing a person, place, object, or work of literature. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid.
Los Mandatos Used when telling or ordering someone to do something. There are formal, informal, nosotros, and vosotros commands.
Informal/Formal Informal commands are used among friends, relatives, coworkers, or when addressing a child. Formal commands are used to show politeness and respect.
Affirmative Informal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the vowel that goes with the infinitive. -ar to –a/an, -er to –e/en, -ir to –e/en Formal commands are formed by taking the “yo” form, dropping the o, and adding the opposite vowel. -ar to –e/en, -er to –a/an, -ir to –a/an
Negative Negative formal commands are formed the same way as affiramtive formal commands. “yo” form->drop the “o”->add opposite vowel Negative informal commands are formed by dropping the “o” from the “yo” form, adding the opposite vowel, and adding s Ex. No hablesmás lentamente.
Irregular There are eight verbs that are irregular in the affirmative tú commands
DOP+IOP Placement In affirmative commands, both DOPs and IOPs are attached directly to the verb. If both are used, IOP comes before the DOP. Ex. Cómpremelo In negative commands, nither object pronoun is attached to the verb. IOP still comes before DOP. Ex. No me lo compre.
Nosotros Commands Commands used when the speaker is included, equivalent to “let’s...” To form, change the ending to that of the opposite vowel. Ex. Comer-> comamos Exception is “ir” Affirmative- vamos Negative- vayamos “Let’s...” can also be formed by using vamos a + infinitive.
-mono verbs Before attaching “nos” or “se” to a nosotros command, drop the “s” at the end. Ex.Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos Ex.Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela. This is not used for negative commands because pronouns are not attached to them.
Subjuntive Used to express doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity. Not used to express certainty and objectivity. Formed by adding the opposite ending to verbs after dropping the “o” from the “yo” form
Irregulars There are six verbs that are irregular in the present subjunctive form Dar Estar Haber Ir Saber Ser
Trigger phrases Phrases used to show that the subjunctive is required by introducing uncertainty or doubt. Impersonal Expressions Expressions of Emotion Conjunctions of Time
Impersonal Expressions Impersonal expressions are used to introduce the subjunctive tense by showing uncertainty or doubt Some examples...
Expressions of emotion Used as main clause, it is followed by a subjunctive clause. Only use subjunctive if there is a change of subject from the main clause to the subjunctive; otherwise, use infinitive.
Conjunctions of Time Used with the subjunctive when it shows a command, something in the future, or something uncertain.
Demonstrative adjectives + Pronouns Demonstrative adjectives are used to describe a noun, while demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun. Ex. Adjective- This book is mine. Ex. Pronoun-This is mine. Adjectives Pronouns