PAPER BATTERY ADHIP SEBIN GEORGE B090466EE S8EE
INTRODUCTION The creation of the Paper Battery drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage and chemistry. In August 2007, a research team at RENSSELEAR POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, John H.Broadbent, Pulickel M.Ajayan, Omkaram Nalamasu with a joint appointment in Material science and engineering developed the Paper Battery, also known as Nano Composite Paper. In December 2009 Yi Cui and his team at STANFORD UNIVERSITY successfully made an actual prototype that gave a terminal voltage of 1.5V
NICD BATTERY Rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic Cadmium as electrodes. Terminal voltage of 1.2V Rugged, high specific power(150W/kg), long life, light. Used in UPS, portable power tools, photography equipment, flashlights, emergency lighting, and portable electronic devices. Disadvantages include Memory effect, Environmental hazards, cost.
LI-ION BATTERY Constructed using graphite rod, Lithium cobalt oxide(or Lithium manganese oxide) as electrodes and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as electrolyte. Nominal cell voltage of 3.6-3.7V High specific power(300W/kg), no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use,possibility of a range of shape and size. Used in laptops, mobiles, other consumer electronics. However it is expensive, delicate, has high internal resistance and safety concerns.
PROBLEMS WITH CONVENTIONAL BATTERIES Lower specific power compared to fuels Weight and size High charging time Environmental hazards Explosion, corrosion, leakage High cost Terminal voltage constraints
PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. The nano materials are a one-dimensional structure with very small diameters. It can be bent and twisted, trimmed with scissors or molded into any needed shape. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. It is non toxic, environment friendly and is everything that a conventional battery is not.
PRINCIPLE The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries, but all the components have been incorporated into a lightweight, flexible sheet of paper. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes. The electrolyte and the ions that carry the charge can be varied depending the use of the battery. A conventional Li-ion battery can be incorporated in cellulose-nanotube composite as shown in the next slide.
The Nanotubes, which colour the paper black, act as electrodes and allow the storage devices to conduct electricity. The device functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a super-capacitor, which stores charge like a battery but has no liquid electrolyte. The paper battery provides a long, steady power output as against a conventional battery burst of high energy. The ionic liquid electrolyte that is soaked into the paper is a liquid salt and contains no water, so it won’t freeze or boil. Research is going on around the world to replace this ionic electrolyte with body fluids, blood, sweat etc.
FABRICATIONThe materials required for the preparation of paperbattery are:Copier paper and Carbon nano ink 1: Carbon nano ink which is black in colour is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesive agent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread on one side of the paper. 2: The paper is kept in the oven at 150 degree Celsius. This evaporates the water content on the paper.The battery is ready and would provide a terminalvoltage enough to power an LED
ADVANTAGES Light, rugged, flexible, can be rolled, crunched, cut, made into any shape. The nano composite paper is compatible with a number of electrolyte, like blood, urine, sweat etc. If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, thats 500 times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue. Non toxic and hence ca be used to power pacemakers and RF tags. It is very useful where burst of energy is required for operation like mostly electric vehicles.
The electrolyte contains no water, thus there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate, potentially allowing operation in extreme temperatures. Environment friendly. The organic radical materials inside the battery are in an "electrolyte-permeated gel state,“ which helps ions make a smooth move, allowing the batteries to charge at lightning speeds. (It could charge 10-20 times faster than conventional Li- ion batteries.) “Paper Battery Would Be THE Answer To Electrical Energy Storage Problems.”
LIMITATIONS Presently, the devices are only a few inches across and they have to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable. Carbon nanotubes are expensive. The idea is still in the labs and a commercially viable paper battery will take at least 40-60 years to become a reality. Researches in nanotechnology to mass produce nanotubes is promising.
APPLICATIONS Pace makers (uses blood as electrolyte) Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets. Devices in space shuttles Powered smart cards RF id tags, smart clothes.
Disposable medical devices - Single-use delivery and diagnostic devices could have Power Paper incorporated into their construction to allow for sensors and smart labels. Paper battery is set in iontophoresis patch. It helps to deliver functional drugs, local anesthesia, antichloristic, anodyne, etc into skin. In iontophoresis patch for whitening and wrinkles Paper battery could one day power motor vehicles and aircrafts and replace the conventional fossil fuel based engines with electric motors.
CONCLUSIONS The range of possible applications for paper batteries derives from their important advantages as compared to conventional battery technologies. They can be made in virtually any shape and size to meet the requirements of each application. The batteries are rechargeable, and have reduced cost and weight which in itself may give birth to new applications. Paper battery could solve all the problems associated with electrical energy storage. However the reality is still very far away, though the researches are promising.
REFERENCES Highly Conductive Paper for Energy Storage Devices Yi Cui, Liangbing Hu, JangWook Choi, Yuan Yang - Aug 2010 Flexible Nanocomposite Thin Film Energy Storage Devices V. L Pushparaj, S. M. Manikoth, A. Kumar, S. Murugesan, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, R. J. Linhardt, O. Nalamasu, P. M. Ajayan. - Sept 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_battery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_(electricity) http://www.stanford.edu/group/cui_group/papers/87%20paper%20 battery.pdf The youtube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPTcQJPbGHw