Paper battery

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A presentation on the history, fabrication,use, advantages and limitations of paper battery or nano composite paper

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Paper battery

  1. 1. PAPER BATTERY ADHIP SEBIN GEORGE B090466EE S8EE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The creation of the Paper Battery drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage and chemistry. In August 2007, a research team at RENSSELEAR POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, John H.Broadbent, Pulickel M.Ajayan, Omkaram Nalamasu with a joint appointment in Material science and engineering developed the Paper Battery, also known as Nano Composite Paper. In December 2009 Yi Cui and his team at STANFORD UNIVERSITY successfully made an actual prototype that gave a terminal voltage of 1.5V
  3. 3. BASIC BATTERY CHEMISTRY A Voltaic Cell
  4. 4. NICD BATTERY Rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic Cadmium as electrodes. Terminal voltage of 1.2V Rugged, high specific power(150W/kg), long life, light. Used in UPS, portable power tools, photography equipment, flashlights, emergency lighting, and portable electronic devices. Disadvantages include Memory effect, Environmental hazards, cost.
  5. 5. LI-ION BATTERY Constructed using graphite rod, Lithium cobalt oxide(or Lithium manganese oxide) as electrodes and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as electrolyte. Nominal cell voltage of 3.6-3.7V High specific power(300W/kg), no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use,possibility of a range of shape and size. Used in laptops, mobiles, other consumer electronics. However it is expensive, delicate, has high internal resistance and safety concerns.
  6. 6. PROBLEMS WITH CONVENTIONAL BATTERIES Lower specific power compared to fuels Weight and size High charging time Environmental hazards Explosion, corrosion, leakage High cost Terminal voltage constraints
  7. 7. PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. The nano materials are a one-dimensional structure with very small diameters. It can be bent and twisted, trimmed with scissors or molded into any needed shape. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. It is non toxic, environment friendly and is everything that a conventional battery is not.
  8. 8. PRINCIPLE The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries, but all the components have been incorporated into a lightweight, flexible sheet of paper. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes. The electrolyte and the ions that carry the charge can be varied depending the use of the battery. A conventional Li-ion battery can be incorporated in cellulose-nanotube composite as shown in the next slide.
  9. 9. LI-ION PAPER BATTERY
  10. 10.  The Nanotubes, which colour the paper black, act as electrodes and allow the storage devices to conduct electricity. The device functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a super-capacitor, which stores charge like a battery but has no liquid electrolyte. The paper battery provides a long, steady power output as against a conventional battery burst of high energy. The ionic liquid electrolyte that is soaked into the paper is a liquid salt and contains no water, so it won’t freeze or boil. Research is going on around the world to replace this ionic electrolyte with body fluids, blood, sweat etc.
  11. 11. FABRICATIONThe materials required for the preparation of paperbattery are:Copier paper and Carbon nano ink  1: Carbon nano ink which is black in colour is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesive agent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread on one side of the paper.  2: The paper is kept in the oven at 150 degree Celsius. This evaporates the water content on the paper.The battery is ready and would provide a terminalvoltage enough to power an LED
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES Light, rugged, flexible, can be rolled, crunched, cut, made into any shape. The nano composite paper is compatible with a number of electrolyte, like blood, urine, sweat etc. If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, thats 500 times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue. Non toxic and hence ca be used to power pacemakers and RF tags. It is very useful where burst of energy is required for operation like mostly electric vehicles.
  13. 13.  The electrolyte contains no water, thus there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate, potentially allowing operation in extreme temperatures. Environment friendly. The organic radical materials inside the battery are in an "electrolyte-permeated gel state,“ which helps ions make a smooth move, allowing the batteries to charge at lightning speeds. (It could charge 10-20 times faster than conventional Li- ion batteries.) “Paper Battery Would Be THE Answer To Electrical Energy Storage Problems.”
  14. 14. LIMITATIONS Presently, the devices are only a few inches across and they have to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable. Carbon nanotubes are expensive. The idea is still in the labs and a commercially viable paper battery will take at least 40-60 years to become a reality. Researches in nanotechnology to mass produce nanotubes is promising.
  15. 15. APPLICATIONS Pace makers (uses blood as electrolyte) Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets. Devices in space shuttles Powered smart cards RF id tags, smart clothes.
  16. 16.  Disposable medical devices - Single-use delivery and diagnostic devices could have Power Paper incorporated into their construction to allow for sensors and smart labels. Paper battery is set in iontophoresis patch. It helps to deliver functional drugs, local anesthesia, antichloristic, anodyne, etc into skin. In iontophoresis patch for whitening and wrinkles Paper battery could one day power motor vehicles and aircrafts and replace the conventional fossil fuel based engines with electric motors.
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS The range of possible applications for paper batteries derives from their important advantages as compared to conventional battery technologies. They can be made in virtually any shape and size to meet the requirements of each application. The batteries are rechargeable, and have reduced cost and weight which in itself may give birth to new applications. Paper battery could solve all the problems associated with electrical energy storage. However the reality is still very far away, though the researches are promising.
  18. 18. REFERENCES Highly Conductive Paper for Energy Storage Devices Yi Cui, Liangbing Hu, JangWook Choi, Yuan Yang - Aug 2010 Flexible Nanocomposite Thin Film Energy Storage Devices V. L Pushparaj, S. M. Manikoth, A. Kumar, S. Murugesan, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, R. J. Linhardt, O. Nalamasu, P. M. Ajayan. - Sept 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_battery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_(electricity) http://www.stanford.edu/group/cui_group/papers/87%20paper%20 battery.pdf The youtube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPTcQJPbGHw

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