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Syllabus- (IIW) Welding Engineer

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  • 1. Tujuan Diklat IWE adalah untuk mencetak tenaga ahli dalam bidang enjinering pengelasan yang kompeten dan berkualifikasi, sebagai persyaratan jabatan “Welding Coordinator” Dengan Diklat ini diharapkan peserta mampu memahami dan melaksanakan tugas-tugasnya antara lain: 1. Memahami dan menghayati ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi bahan, pengelasan, desain, fabrikasi, konstruksi dan inspeksi las. 2. Merencanakan dan menetapkan konstruksi perakitan las, prosedur las, proses las dan bahan las. 3. Merencanakan dan menetapkan Kualifikasi Juru Las dan Operator Las yang melaksanakan pekerjaan las. 4. Merencanakan dan menetapkan Jenis Inspeksi dan uji rakitan las yang disyaratkan serta kriteria keberterimaannya. 5. Menganalisa dan memecahkan problem-problem pengelasan. 6. Melakukan review design, contract dan subcontract dalam bidang pengelasan. 7. Dokumentasi pengelasan. 8. Koordinasi pengelasan dengan berpegang pada sikap dan kode etik profesi seorang Welding Engineer.
  • 2. Section I: Theoretical and Practical Education, Syllabus and Performance Objectives I.1. Theoretical Education Module 1: Welding processes and equipment 1.1 General introduction to welding technology Objective: Understand the developments in welding processes including accepted terminology, standards and abbreviations. Expected Result: 1. Detail the differences between each major type of welding process, e.g. fusion, resistance, flame, forge, etc. 2. Differentiate between processes with reference to standards. 3. Recognise a welding process by the common abbreviation. 4. Explain the historical evolution of welding. 1.2 Oxy-gas welding and related processes Objective: Understand the fundamentals of oxy -gas combustion, characteristics of the different fuel gases, equipment, safety and typical applications. Expected Result: 1. Explain fully the characteristics of the three flame types and reasons for application of each. 2. Detail the characteristics of flames from different fuel gases. 3. Define comprehensively potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 4. Explain the purpose and working principle of each component of the equipment. 5. Interpret appropriate standards. 6. Define the range of application and potential problems to overcome. 1. 3 Electrotechnics, a review Objective: Understand the basics of electricity and electronic components used in electrical welding power sources. Expected Result: 1. Explain current, voltage and electrical resistance. 2. Detail the functions of the most important components of welding power sources. 3. Discuss competently the differences between DC and AC current. 4. Interpret and apply knowledge of electricity and electronics to welding applications. 1. 4 The Arc Objective: Understand in detail the fundamentals of an electric arc, its characteristics, limitations and application in welding, including arc stability problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the physical fundamentals of an electrical arc, including the major parameters influencing arc stability. 2. Detail arc heat generation, and the arc voltage distribution. 3. Deduce the influence of magnetic fields on the electric arc. 4. Predict how to solve magnetic deflection problems. 5. Explain arc characteristics for DC and AC including control and limitations. 1.5 Power sources for arc welding Objective: Understand in detail the characteristics and main components of arc welding power sources. Expected Result:
  • 3. 1. Explain each type of arc welding power source both AC and DC including the most common devices used. 2. Detail for each type of arc welding power source the static and dynamic electrical characteristics, Operation point and control of arc stability. 3. Explain the meaning of open circuit voltage, short circuit current, duty cycle of a power source, voltage losses, and current to cable section relationship. 4. Explain the differences of the above characteristics for each type of power source and welding process. 1. 6 Introduction to gas shielded arc welding Objective: Understand the principles and physical phenomena of gas shielded welding processes. Expected Result: 1. Explain the characteristics and working principles of TIG, MIG/MAG and Flux-cored welding. 2. Interpret arc characteristics associated with each type of shielding gas used for each process. 3. Detail methods for safe handling and storage of shielding gases. 4. Interpret and use standards for shielding gases and filler materials. 1. 7 TIG Welding Objective: Understand in detail TIG welding fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the principles of TIG welding including arc ignition techniques and their applications. 2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity, shielding gas and electrode according to application. 3. Detail the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome. 4. Detail appropriate welding parameters for particular applications. 5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories. 6. Interpret appropriate standards. 7. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1. 8 MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Welding Objective: Understand in detail MIG/MAG and Flux Cored welding fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the principles of MIG/MAG and Flux Cored welding including metal transfer modes and their applications. 2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and electrode according to application. 3. Detail the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome. 4. Detail appropriate welding parameters for particular applications. 5. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 6. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories. 7. Interpret appropriate standards 8. Explain selection of consumables. 1. 9 MMA Welding Objective: Understand in detail MMA welding fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the principles of MMA welding including special techniques, arc ignition techniques and their applications. 2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and electrode according to application. 3. Detail the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
  • 4. 4. Detail appropriate welding parameters for particular applications 5. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working 6. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories. 7. Detailed explanation of the handling and storage of the various types of consumable. 8. Interpret appropriate standards. 9. Identify the influence of electrode coating on droplet transfer and weld metal 1.10 Submerged-Arc Welding Objective: Understand in detail SAW welding fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the principles of SAW welding including arc ignition methods, special techniques and their applications. 2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and consumable according to application. 3. Detail the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome. 4. Detail appropriate welding parameters for particular applications. 5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories. 6. Explain slag-metal/gas-metal reactions and their influence on weld metal properties 7. Interpret appropriate standards. 8. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working 1.11 Resistance Welding Objective: Understand in detail resistance welding fundamentals, applications and specifications, including common problems and their solution. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the principles of resistance welding and the application of the various sub-processes. 2. Explain the selection of appropriate parameters to give sound welds. 3. Detail the range of application, appropriate material preparation and potential problems to be over come. 4. Detail appropriate welding parameters for particular applications. 5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories. 6. Interpret appropriate standards. 7. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.12 Other Welding Processes Objective: Understand in detail plasma; electron beam; LASER, electro-slag, friction; friction stir, magnetically impelled arc butt (MIAB); magnetic pulse welding, ultrasonic; explosive; diffusion; aluminothermic; high-frequency; stud, coldpressure welding, hybrid processes, etc. fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain the principles of the processes mentioned in the objective and their application. 2. Determine appropriate applications for each type of process, and the precautions necessary to achieve a sound weld. 3. Describe the welding parameters, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome for each process for a given application. 4. Explain the purpose and functions of each major component of the equipment and accessories. 5. Interpret appropriate standards. 6. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
  • 5. 1.13 Cutting and other edge preparation processes Objective: Understand in detail the basic principles of the most common cutting and edge preparation processes used in weld construction, including equipment, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the working principles of: mechanical, flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, LASER, and water jet cutting. 2. Explain the influence of each parameter on the edge surface for: mechanical, flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, LASER, and water jet cutting. 3. Detail the range of applications for: flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, and water jet cutting. 4. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.14 Surfacing and Spraying Objective: Understand in detail the most common surfacing techniques and their working principles, including equipment, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain the working principles for the most common cladding techniques. 2. Explain the working principles for the most common spraying techniques. 3. Deduce the quality of a surfacing with respect to the base material preparation. 4. Predict the different applications between "cold" and "fusion" spraying techniques. 5. Describe the different applications for each spraying technique. 6. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.15 Fully mechanised processes and robotics Objective: Understand in detail welding mechanisation and the use of robotics in welding, including applications and systems. Expected Result: 1. Predict the best solution for higher productivity in welding using robotics, or automation or mechanisation. 2. Explain in detail the differences between off line and on line programming. 3. Detail the working principles and application of each type of seam tracking. 4. Explain the working principles and applications of narrow gap and orbital welding. 5. Describe the different applications for each welding process when applied to narrow gap or orbital welding. 6. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.16 Brazing and soldering Objective: Understand in detail the fundamentals of brazing and soldering, types of techniques, equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail each type of brazing and soldering technique. 2. Predict precautions to obtain a good and sound bound using brazing or soldering techniques. 3. Describe the different applications for each brazing and soldering techniques. 4. Describe the type of consumable and flux to be use in a certain application 5. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.17 Joining processes for plastics Objective: Understand comprehensively the basic principles involved in joining plastics, including the common techniques, equipment, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain the fundamentals of each type of joining technique.
  • 6. 2. Predict precautions to obtain a good and sound joining, for each type of technique. 3. Describe the different applications for each type of technique. 4. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.18 Joining processes for ceramics and composites Objective: Understand the general principles of joining ceramics and composites, including the common techniques, applications, procedures and common problems. Expected Result: 1. Explain the fundamentals for joining ceramics and composites. 2. Predict precautions to obtain a good and sound joining for some advanced materials. 3. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working. 1.19 Welding laboratory Objective: Understand in detail the key effects of parameters on weld beads and cut surfaces. Expected Result: 1. Predict weld bead shape and morphology (internal and external), according to the welding parameters used. 2. Explain in detail the factors that can change the weld bead, and why. 3. Predict the morphology of cut surfaces, according to the cutting parameters used. 4. Explain in detail the factors that can change the cut surface, and why. 5. Be able to evaluate and diagnose weld beads and cut surfaces. Module 2: Materials and their behaviour during welding 2.1 Manufacture and designation of steels Objective: Understand the principles of iron extraction and steelmaking and designation of steels Expected Result: 1. Explain the various steel making processes. 2. Detail the reasons for and principles of special treatments in steel making. 3. Explain the different methods of desoxidation 4. Explain potential defects, their cause and elimination. 5. Explain the designation of steels 2.2 Testing Materials and the weld joint Objective: Understand the fundamental aspects of testing materials with particular reference to weldment test pieces. Expected Result: 1. Discuss the reasons for destructive testing and the limitations of the data generated. 2. Describe in detail each of the major testing methods and the measurements to be made. 3. Predict when and why special testing should be specified. 4. Show competence in carrying out testing to a given schedule. 2.3 Structure and properties of pure metals Objective: Understand in detail the principles of solidification, deformation and recrystallisation and the characteristics of typical metal structures. Expected Result: 1. Explain basic crystalline structures 2. Explain in detail elastic-plastic deformation and their role in cold and hot deformation. 3. Explain recrystallisation giving examples. 4. Demonstrate understanding of the relationship between mechanical properties and temperature, grain size and structure.
  • 7. 2.4 Alloys and Phase Diagrams Objective: Understand in detail the principles of alloying, the structures of alloys and their representation in phase diagrams. Expected Result: 1. Describe lattice distortion of alloying elements and subsequent structural changes. 2. Explain in detail solidification structure and segregation with relevant examples. 3. Detail mechanisms of precipitation, types of precipitate and their location within the microstructure. 4. Explain in detail the principles of transformation and conditions under which it occurs. 5. Detail the principles of hardening mechanisms with appropriate examples. 6. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties. 7. Explain in detail the principles of phase diagrams, their construction and use. 8. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and phase diagrams. 2.5 Iron – Carbon Alloys Objective: Understand the principles of alloying iron with carbon, the crystal structures developed under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions and their representation in phase and transformation diagrams. T8/5 concept Expected Result: 1. Interpret the reasons for different structures under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. 2. Explain the use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for welding) to show the development of particular steel microstructures. 3. Predict the changes to structure caused by alloying by reference to TTT diagrams. 4. Detail hardening mechanisms with reference to the microstructure developed. 5. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and toughness. 2.6 Heat treatment of base materials and welded joints Objective: Understand in detail the metallurgical principles of material behaviour when heat treated. Expected Result 1. Explain each of the major heat treatments and their objectives. 2. Explain the mechanisms of structural changes which take place when a material is heat treated. 3. Interpret the effects of temperature and time on transformations including effects from rate of temperature change. 4. Explain code requirements for heat treatment and why they are stipulated. 5. Predict the necessity to heat treat after welding depending of the type and thickness of steel, the application and the code. 6. Deduce appropriate heat treatment equipment for a given application. 7. Detail appropriate temperature measurement and recording for typical applications. 2.7 Structure of the welded joint Objective: Understand in detail the formation of the different metallurgical structures within a weldment. Expected Result: 1. Explain the temperature distribution in welds and the microstructure formed as a result. 2. Interpret the effects of heat input, cooling rate and multi -pass operation on weld metal solidification and the microstructure formed. 3. Explain the effects of the weld protection, the type of consumables on the microstructure of the weld metal and on it properties. 4. Detail areas of HAZ, the reasons for grain, size and microstructure changes and their effects on properties. 5. Discuss the various aspects of weldability. 6. Deduce the microstructural and weldability modifications induced by dilution.
  • 8. 2.8 Plain Carbon and Carbon-Manganese Steels Objective Understand in detail the metallurgical effects induced by welding C and C-Mn steels. Expected Result 1. Explain the concept and use of carbon equivalent. 2. Explain the principle and use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for welding). 3. Predict the structure of welds and HAZ for given thermal cycles and composition. 4. Explain in detail the effects of a multi -pass welding on the structure, the mechanical properties. 5. Discuss the factors affecting cold cracking. 6. Predict optimal heat input and appropriate preheat for given materials, conditions and applications utilising Codes and Standards as required. 2.9 Fine - grained steels Objective: Understand in detail the effects of micro-alloying elements on structure, mechanical properties and weldability with reference to fine-grained steels. Expected Result: 1. Explain the different methods to obtain fine-grained steels effects of micro – alloying. 2. Explain thoroughly the relationship between grain refinement and mechanical properties. 3. Detail appropriate applications. 4. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability. 5. Detail applicable welding processes and potential problems. 6. Explain the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions (in particular temperature) of such treatment. 2.10 Thermomechanically treated steels (TMCP -steels) Objective: Understand in detail the principles of thermomechanical treatment and its influence on mechanical properties and weldability. Expected Result: 1. Explain the effects of the range of treatment times and temperatures. 2. Explain the structural modifications of material and control methods. 3. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability. 4. Detail applicable welding processes and potential problems. 5. Explain the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions (in particular temperature) of such treatment. 2.11 Cracking phenomena in welded joints Objective: Understand the fundamentals of cracking mechanisms in welded joints and the way in which variables affect the incidence of cracking. Expected Result: 1. Compare the metallurgical mechanisms for each of the major types of cracking. 2. Describe the effects of chemical and physical variables for each of the major types of cracking. 3. Appraise the susceptibility to cracking by reference to the key parameters and suggest appropriate precautions to avoid cracking. 4. Appraise the type of cracking and the reason for its occurrence from study of fractured material and its history. 5. Choose tests which will assist in the solution of cracking problems. 6. Propose alternatives which will reduce or eliminate the occurrence of lamellar tearing in welded construction/fabrication. 7. Appraise the effects of inclusions, joint configuration, stress and fatigue in the control of cracking of welds.
  • 9. 2.12 Application of structural and high strength steels Objective: Understand welding problems dealing with the fundamental aspects of structural and high strength steels application with particular reference to physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the importance of choice of material with reference to application. 2. Appraise the use of structural and high strength steels and their application fields 3. Describe examples of the practical application and design of bridges, cranes, pressure vessels, automotive equipment. 2.13 Low-alloy steels for very low temperature application Objective: Describe solutions to welding applications requiring the use of the relationship between toughness and temperature, metallurgical structure and the weldability of cryogenic steels. Expected Result: 1. State the toughness testing and the parameters affecting toughness. 2. Appraise the relationship between microstructure and toughness. 3. Identify the effect of nickel on crystallographic structure. 4. Describe the effect of nickel content on weldability. 5. Appraise the range of applications for the various types of cryogenic steels. 2.14 Low alloy creep resistant steels Objective: Appraise the fundamental aspects of creep phenomena. Understand in detail creep resistant steel types, their structure and alloying elements. Expected Result: 1. Identify the fundamental aspects of the phenomena and phases of creep. 2. Appraise the effects of alloying elements and Cr-Mo steels structure. 3. Appraise the weldability of Cr-Mo steels considering appropriate welding processes and types of consumables. 4. Identify remaining life by use of the most common methods. 2.15 Introduction to corrosion Objective: Identify the fundamentals of the various types of corrosion. Expected Result: 1. Appraise the chemical and electrochemical phenomena involved in corrosion. 2. State the rules involving the mechanisms of the different types of corrosion. 3. Appraise different protection methods. 2.16 High-alloyed (stainless) steels Objective: Identify in detail the fundamentals of the various types of stainless steel and their weldability including the principles of joining dissimilar materials and filler material choice. Expected Result: 1. Appraise the structures of the various stainless steels; parent plate, HAZ and weld metal 2. Identify the results of a given high alloy welding situation using the Fe-Cr phase diagram. 3. State the rules and principles governing embrittlement phenomena. 4. State the rules and principles governing in detail corrosion phenomena. 5. Identify the results of a given high alloy welding situation using the Fe-Cr phase diagram with various carbon contents. 6. Predict the choice of consumables for each type of stainless steel using different diagrams. 7. Predict the necessity of treatment after welding. 2.17 Introduction to wear Objective:
  • 10. Identify the fundamentals of wear and its control Expected Result: 1. Describe wear situations which involve the mechanisms of the different types of wear. 2. Distinguish the basis and results of tests to define wear resistance. 3. Appraise precautions and procedures designed to avoid excessive wear. 2.18 Protective layers Objective: Identify the fundamentals of protective layers and the methods and materials used Expected Result: 1. Describe the various techniques for applying protective layers. 2. Design weldments using protective layers stating the materials used and the reasons for their choice. 3. Appraise the problems associated with the different types of protective layer and methods of their solution. 2.19 High alloy creep resistant and heat resistant steels Objective: Identify the relationship between microstructure and creep resistance including detailed knowledge of different types of creep resistant and heat resistant steels Expected Result: 1. Distinguish the effects of alloying elements on creep and heat resistance. 2. Appraise in detail the microstructural phenomena occurring in materials at high temperature. 3. Identify the types of creep resistant and heat resistant steels. 4. Appraise the weldability of creep and heat resistant steels. 2.20 Cast irons and steels Objective: Interpret the metallurgy of the different types of cast irons and steels, their application fields and weldability. Expected Result: 1. Explain the Fe - C phase diagram with particular attention to carbon content over 2%. 2. Identify the different types of cast irons and steels, their chemical composition and crystallographic structures. 3. Appraise the weldability problems and applicable welding processes and types of consumable for the welding of cast irons. 2.21 Copper and copper alloys Objective Understand in detail the metallurgy, application fields and weldability of copper and copper alloys Expected Result 1. Explain the metallurgy of copper and copper alloys. 2. Interpret copper and copper alloys weldability including the dissimilar joint. 3. Explain applicable welding processes and type of consumable for copper and copper alloys. 4. Explain copper and copper alloys application fields. 2.22 Nickel and nickel alloys Objective Understand in detail the metallurgy, application fields and weldability of nickel and nickel alloys Expected Result 1. Explain the metallurgy of nickel and nickel alloys. 2. Interpret nickel and nickel alloys weldability. 3. Explain applicable welding processes and type of consumable for nickel and nickel alloys. 4. Explain examples of nickel and nickel alloys application fields. 2.23 Aluminium and aluminium alloys 6 Objective
  • 11. Understand in detail the metallurgy, application fields and weldability of aluminium and aluminium alloys Expected Result 1. Explain the metallurgy of aluminium and aluminium alloys. 2. Interpret aluminium and aluminium alloys weldability including the dissimilar joint. 3. Explain applicable welding processes and type of consumable for aluminium and aluminium alloys. 4. Explain aluminium and aluminium alloys application fields. 2.24 Other metals and alloys Objective Gain basic knowledge of the metallurgy, application fields and weldability of the specified metals Expected Result 1. Explain the metallurgy of the specified metals. 2. Interpret the weldability of the metals. 3. Explain appropriate welding processes and applications. 2.25 Joining dissimilar materials Objective Understand the principles of joining dissimilar materials and the problems involved Expected Result 1. Explain weldability aspects involved when joining dissimilar materials. 2. Interpret and use Schaeffler / De Long diagram. 3. Deduce welding methods which decrease metallurgical problems. 4. Interpret the correct choice of filler material. 2.26 Metallographic examinations Objective Understand in detail crystallographic structures and the application of metallographic examination Expected Result 1. Explain in detail and be able to use methods for sample preparation. 2. Explain aspects of macro and micro examination. 3. Interpret micro structure, metallurgical imperfections. Module 3: Construction and design 3.1 Basic theory of structural systems Objectives: Understand the effect of external loads on structures, the kinds of structural systems and the relationship between external loads and internal forces. Expected Results: 1. Explain the composition of forces. 2. Explain the resolution of forces. 3. Define the conditions of equilibrium. 4. Explain the equilibrium of structural systems. 5. Explain bearings, constraints and the basic types of connections. 6. Explain the difference between a statically determinate and a statically indeterminate system. 7. Determine the internal forces and moments of simple statically determinate systems. 8. Explain and sketch the equilibrium diagram of simple statically determinate systems 3.2 Fundamentals of the strength of materials Objectives: Understand in detail the principles controlling the behaviour of metallic structures under loading. Expected Results: 1. Explain the different types of stresses (normal stress, shear stresses). 2. Explain the different types of deformation (axial strain, shear strain etc.). 3. Explain the stress-strain relationships.
  • 12. December 2003 3 von 3 4. Deduce Young’s modulus; shear modulus and transversal contraction coefficient from the stress-strain relationships. 5. Explain the determination of characteristic material properties. 6. Explain the stresses resulting from internal forces and moments. 7. Calculate the different types of section properties. 8. Calculate nominal stresses in sections. 3.3 Welded Joint design Objectives: Design and draw weld details related to given material, wall thickness, accessibility, loading, welding process, welding position, NDT, available equipment, tolerances Expected Results: 1. Classify different types of welded joints. 2. Design a weld according to the given conditions. 3. Detail and use appropriate weld symbols. 4. Explain the symbolic representation of welded, brazed and soldered joints on drawings 3.4 Basics of weld design Objectives: Understand in detail the relationship between external loads on structures, internal forces and the stresses induced with special regard to welds. Expected Results: 1. Explain the different types of stresses in welded joints (nominal stress, hot spot stress, notch stress) 2. Calculate in detail simple welded joints (internal forces). 3. Calculate the values of cross sections for welded joints. 4. Calculate nominal stresses in welds. 5. Calculate combined stresses in welds (superposition). December 2003 4 von 4 3.5 Behaviour of welded structures under different types of loading Objectives: Understand in detail the different types of loading and the influence of ambient conditions on constructions. Expected Results: 1. Explain the requirements according to different types of loading and temperatures. 2. Determine materials which meet strength / temperature requirements. 3. Select appropriate materials according to application. 4. Explain different types of fracture (ductile fracture, fatigue fracture, brittle fracture, lamellar tearing) 3.6 Design of welded structures with predominantly static loading Objectives: Be able to design and calculate joints and all relevant details of welded metallic structures Expected Results: 1. Competently design different connection zones. 2. Calculate appropriate weld geometry. 3. Calculate the relevant weld stresses. 4. Outline stresses in frames. 5. Nominate the stresses in welds of frames. 6. Detailed knowledge of advantage and disadvantage of different types of welds. 3.7 Behaviour of welded structures under dynamic loading Objectives: Understand fully the development of fatigue, calculation of load cycles, the influence of notches
  • 13. and their avoidance. Expected Results: 1. Draw and use a S-N diagram. 2. Describe methods of counting load cycles. 3. Calculate the stress ratio. 4. Detail the influence of notches and weld defects. 5. Describe modifications to welds for improved performance. 3.8 Design of dynamically loaded welded structures Objectives: Understand the different design details and notch classes in the fields of application Expected Results: 1. Design welded joints in accordance with given details. 2. Interpret the influence of notch effects on the classification of welded joints. 3. Interpret appropriate standards. 4. Compare details in different standards and classify them. 3.9 Design of welded pressure equipment Objectives: Understand in detail the special requirements of design of structural elements in this field of application with regard to the calculation of welds Expected Results: 1. Explain the advantages of different weld details. 2. Explain design of given structural weld details. 3. Interpret appropriate standards. 4. Understand isometric drawings. 5. Calculate circumferential and longitudinal welds. 6. Design given structural details. 7. Explain the advantages of different structural details. 3.10 Design of structures of aluminium and its alloys Objectives: Understand fully the behaviour of welded aluminium structures with respect to strength, stresses and design Expected Results: 1. Interpret stress calculations in the HAZ. 2. Design aluminium profiles for a given use. 3. Explain causes and development of stresses and strains in an aluminium weldment. 4. Explain the strength of different alloys. 5. Select alloys for given applications. 3.11 Reinforcing-steel welded joints Objectives: Understand the principles of choice of joints and their design in full. Expected Results: 1. Explain the basics of the different joints in full. 2. Differentiate between load bearing and non-load bearing joints. 3. Detail applicable processes. 4. Determine the length of weld with respect to diameter. 5. Deduce the required preheating temperature. 3.12 Introduction to fracture mechanics Objectives: Understand the use of fracture mechanics for welded structures Expected Results: 1. Explain the principles of linear-elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics.
  • 14. 2. Describe the influence factors for linear-elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics. 3. Describe the use of fracture mechanics for dynamically loaded structures. 4. Describe fracture mechanics testing methods. Module 4: Fabrication, applications engineering 4.1 Introduction to quality assurance in welded fabrication Objective: Understand in detail the principles of quality assurance and quality control as applied to welded fabrication. Expected Result: 1. Explain the principles of quality assurance, quality control and inspection systems and their usage for welded fabrication. 2. Be capable of writing quality control procedures and quality plans for welded fabrication. 3. Explain in detail the purpose of an audit of plant. 4. Be capable of carrying out audits of welding related plant, personnel, equipment and product. 5. Interpret appropriate standards (e.g. ISO 9000, and ISO 3834/EN 729). 6. Explain in detail the main factors related to personnel and equipment, which influence the quality in a welded fabrication. 7. Explain the role of the welding engineer in the fabrication industry. 4.2 Quality control during manufacture Objective: Understand in detail the requirements and function of Quality Control during manufacture. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the main purpose of a WPS and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication. 2. Compile and review detailed WPS for welded components in accordance with national and international standards. 3. Interpret the standard for the qualification of WPS, determine the main variables for a particular WPS qualification and its range of qualification. 4. Explain in detail the main purpose of a welder qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication. 5. Interpret the standard for a welder qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welder qualification and its range of qualification. 6. Explain the main purpose of a welding operator qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication. 7. Interpret the standard for a welding operator qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welding operator qualification and its range of qualification. 8. Detail the traceability requirements for materials procedures and certificates. 9. Detail methods available for the monitoring and storage of fabrication data. 10. Detail the calibration requirements of measuring equipment explaining why it is needed. 4.3 Welding Stresses and Distortion Objective: Understand in detail the factors affecting welding stress and distortion in welded fabrications and how these effects can be measured and minimised. Expected Result: 1. Explain the origin, influencing factors and magnitude of residual stress and distortion in welded fabrications. 2. Predict qualitatively contraction and distortion in joints and structures. 3. Produce detailed procedures to minimise distortion and stress. 4. Explain how residual stresses may affect the behaviour of a structure in service.
  • 15. 4.4 Plant facilities, welding jigs and fixtures Objective: Understand the need for and function of auxiliary equipment, jigs and fixtures from the viewpoint of quality, economics and the environment. Expected Result: 1. Detail workshop layout principles for improved productivity, safety and comfort. 2. Explain in detail the advantages of using fixtures, jigs and positioners. 3. Predict the type of fixture, jig or positioner to be used for a particular welded fabrication. 4. Deduce the type of auxiliary equipment to be used in a particular welded fabrication, including fume extraction, and cables, heat treatment and temperature control equipment. 5. Detail the requirements of facilities for handling and storing consumables. 6. Explain in detail the requirements related to joint fit up and tack welding. 4.5 Health and Safety Objective: Understand in detail the health and safety hazards associated with welding and fabrication processes. Expected Result: 1. Explain the risks associated with welding from electricity, gases, fumes, fire, light and noise. 2. Interpret Health and Safety regulations with respect to the above hazards. 3. Deduce from measurements the risk associated with welding operations. 4. Produce safe working procedures to ensure the requirements are met. 4.6 Measurement, Control and Recording in Welding Objective: Understand in detail the requirements for measurement, control and recording during welding and allied operations. Expected Result: 1. Explain the methods of measurement used in the control of welding and allied operations. 2. Detail working procedures for the measurement of welding parameters. 3. Detail working procedures for the measurement and control of heat treatment operations. 4. Detail procedures for the calibration, validation and monitoring of welding operations. 4.7 Non Destructive Testing Objective: Understand in detail the use of Non Destructive Testing as applied to welding fabrications. Expected Result: 1. Explain the modes of operation of the principal NDT methods, their advantages and disadvantages when applied to welded fabrications. 2. Explain weld imperfections, their causes and methods of detection. 3. Interpret acceptance standards for weld imperfections. 4. Understanding of the principles of NDT interpretation. 5. Detail weld configurations and design to allow adequate application of NDT methods. 6. Interpret the qualification of NDT personnel. 4.8 Economics Objective: Understand in detail the economics of welding operations applied to welded fabrications. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the make up of costs associated with welding. 2. Calculate the cost of welding operations. 3. Devise welding and handling procedures including mechanisation and automation to minimise production costs. 4. Operate software packages used in weld cost calculations.
  • 16. 4.9 Repair Welding Objective: Understand in detail the problems of repair welding both for in-manufacture and in-service situations. Expected Result: 1. Explain in detail the problems of making repair welds. 2. Predict the possible hazards likely to arise in making repair welds particularly for in-service repairs. 3. Detail comprehensive procedures to be applied to weld repairs. 4. Specify the procedural and operator qualifications to be applied to repair welds. 4.10 Fitness for Purpose Objective: To gain an understanding of the need for and use of engineering critical assessment techniques. Expected Result: 1. Explain the principles of fitness for purpose. 2. Describe in detail the effect of imperfection size, morphology and position on structural integrity. 3. Explain typical methods of conducting an engineering critical assessment of a welded structure. 4.11 Case Studies The aim of this final part of the course is to assess the students knowledge in respect to the manufacture of specific welded products. The best way of doing this is a combination of experts from industry presenting special cases and project work of the students split up into groups followed by a general discussion and comments by the experts. All of the following subjects have to be dealt with, the depth to which, however, will depend on the national needs. Subjects: Steel and lightweight structures, boilers and pressure vessels, chemical plants and pipelines, shipbuilding and offshore applications, Transportation (automobiles, railways), aerospace applications. Common items to be covered: Standards and specifications, design, Choice of materials, welding processes, Site welding (transport and final assembly), Consumables, welding procedures, Tolerances on weld preparation and fit-up, Postweld heat treatment, NDT and quality control, I.2. Practical Education (IWE Part II) This part does not aim at practical skills of the welding engineer but on gaining knowledge on the control of the different welding processes. The students shall become as familiar as possible with the difficulties and typical defects associated with incorrect use of the different welding methods. During their exercises the students are guided by skilled welding teachers. Practical Training oxyacetylene welding and cutting MMA 10 TIG 10 MIG/MAG 10 Demonstrations or video presentations on processes Gouging, Brazing, Plasma welding Plasma cutting Submerged-arc welding Resistance welding Friction welding Electron beam welding Laser welding Other processes,

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