1. Necva Ozgur M.Ed.
Muslim Educators’ Resource, Information & Training Center
2. PART I: INTRODUCTION
PART II: 7 STEPS TO PLANNING & DELIVERING
A MEMORABLE SPEECH
PART III: PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS
3. PART I: INTRODUCTION
• HOW TO MAKE YOUR SPEECH MEMORABLE
• PUBLIC SPEAKING MYTHS AND REALITIES
4. ! Exceptional speakers manage to inspire their
audiences to take action.
! Audience members leave with the intention of
! This power to inspire has many names:
Charisma, persuasion, allure, influence.
! Whatever we call it, it all comes down to one thing:
the ability to move people.
5. ! What do you remember about the last speech
! Do you remember the message, the style?
! It’s likely that you only remember one or two
things the speaker talked about
6. • 10% of what we read
• 20% of what we hear
• 30% of what we see
• 50% of what we hear and see
• 70% of what we say
• 90% of what we say and do
7. ! Myth #1
Good speakers are born, not made.
“I was not born a good speaker, so I am a hopeless case.”
! Reality #1
People are not born as good speakers. They
require preparation and practice in order to
become effective speakers
8. ! Myth #2
I failed the first time I spoke in front of people,
so I will fail again.
! Reality #2
Many successes start with failure. Thomas
Watson, the President and Founder of the FBI
says, “In order to succeed, double your failure
9. ! Myth #3
If I follow exactly what someone says and does,
I will be as effective as that person.
! Reality #3
Other peoples’ styles are extremely useful as
models, but you must present in the way that is
most comfortable and effective for you.
10. ! Myth #4
People who speak and look confident do not
! Reality #4
Most speakers experience some type of
nervous energy that they acknowledge but try
to transform it into positive energy
11. ! Myth #5
People who speak well have an innate talent
for giving impromptu talks.
! Reality #5
Impromptu speakers prepare as much as
possible and use some type of structured
format even when speaking impromptu.
12. ! Myth #6
Everyone has to love me and my talk or I am a
! Reality #6
It does not matter if people like or dislike you
or your talk. What is important is that you are
confident in the subject matter.
13. ! Myth #7
Every presentation I do must be perfect.
! Reality #7
The knowledgeable speaker is always aware of
the possibility of mistakes, and should not
expect a completely flawless performance.
14. ! Myth #8
I am too old and set in my ways to learn new
! Reality #8
You are never too old or too young to learn, as
long as you have a welcoming attitude and
willingness to learn and change.
15. ! Myth #9
I do not get enough chances to practice, so I
will never feel confident.
! Reality #9
If you really want to practice your presentation
skills, you can find many opportunities to do
16. ! Myth #10
I know I will die if I get up there to talk.
! Reality #10
You may feel like you are going to die before
having to get up and talk, but you will not.
The National Safety Council reported that there
were 50,000 deaths in motor vehicles. There is not
one recorded death of anyone dying from stage
17. PART II: 7 STEPS TO PLANNING A
STEP 1 CONQUER YOUR FEAR
STEP 2 KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR SPEECH
STEP 4 PRESENT YOUR SPEECH
STEP 5 NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
STEP 6 VISUAL AIDS
STEP 7 MANAGING QUESTIONS
18. 7. 1.
QUESTIONS YOUR FEAR
AIDS KNOW YOUR
5. NON- 3.
19. 1. CONQUER YOUR FEARS
20. 1. Speaking before a group
3. Insects and bugs
4. Financial problems
5. Deep water
21. ! You are waiting your turn to make a speech, when you
suddenly realize that your stomach is doing strange things
and your mind is rapidly going blank.
! How can you handle public speaking nervousness, fears,
jitters, anxieties – and the physical symptoms these feelings
! There is no single answer. It’s totally natural to be nervous.
! You overcome nervousness by preparing for your speech
mentally, logistically, and physically.
! Spend a lot more time!preparing than speaking. As a general rule, invest
three hours of preparation for a half hour speech, a six to one ratio.
! Know your opening and closing by heart. Knowing your opening and
closing lets you start and end smoothly, thereby connecting with your
audience when you are most nervous.
! Go to the room where you’ll be speaking as early as possible so you can
become comfortable in the environment.
! If you will be speaking on stage, acquaint yourself with the stage
beforehand in order to gain familiarity
! During your presentation, you can concentrate on your audience, not
! An effective preparation technique for small meetings is to go
around shaking hands and making eye contact with
! For larger meetings, meet and shake hands with people in the
front row at least, and some as they come into the door
! Connect with the audience personally. Speakers are usually
not that nervous about individuals, only when faced with the
thought of an audience.
24. 1. Saying or doing something to embarrass themselves.
2. Saying or doing something that will ultimately damage their career
3. Fear of forgetting what they are going to say.
4. Fear that others will see them as lacking.
5. Fear of rejection.
6. Fear that no one will respond.
7. Fear that someone will question them and they won’t know the
25. The more self-confidence you have, the less fear you
are likely to experience at the podium.
1. Know your audience
2. Master your material
3. Prepare your presentation
5. Dress for success
6. Get to the room early, walk around, make it your own room
7. Bond with the audience: Meet and greet the audience, shake
hands, build friendships
8. Go to an out-of sight area and do some relaxation exercises
9. Spiritual support
26. 2. KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
27. ! You can give the exact same speech to two different
groups, but you should not expect the same
responses or results
! Research your audience so you can address their
specific needs, concerns and objections.
! If your opening remarks imply that you
understand their problem and that you have a
solution, the audience will be flattered by your
attention and be attentive to your every word.
28. ! By knowing your audience you will determine how best to
achieve your objectives in the context of this audience.
! Essentially this is done by identifying their goals and
objectives while attending your presentation.
! If you can somehow convince them they are achieving their
goals while at the same time achieving your own, you will
find a helpful and receptive audience.
! Achieving the goal of audience is the simplest and most
effective manner of obtaining their attention at the beginning.
29. 1. Prisoner: This is the person who does not want to be here. You
will find him or her inattentive
2. Vacationer: This is the person who volunteers to go to any
seminar, figuring it is better to be in a meeting than at work or
3. Graduate: This is the person who thinks he does not need to
be here because he already knows this information
4. Student: This is the attentive, hard-working, model audience
who wants to hear what you have to say. They are eager to
learn and share and will do what is possible to learn and
become effective personally and professionally.
30. As you prepare your speech, check off each point
listed below regarding your audience:
! How many people will be attending the presentations?
! What is the level of their knowledge about the topic?
! What is the audiences’ attitude toward the subject?
! Is it a specific group or a general audience?
! Why are they attending?
! What are their educational levels?
! What is the general age group of the audience?
! Will any cultural factors come into play?
! Will there be all men? All women? Mixed audience?
! What other audience demographics should I know?
31. During your introduction address these points:
" Signal #1: I will not waste your time
" Signal #2: I know who you are
" Signal #3: I am well organized
" Signal #4: I know my subject
" Signal #5: Here is my most important point
" Signal #6: I am finished
32. ! “As you know, my subject this morning is fire
prevention. In a few seconds (signal), I am going to
give you the three cornerstones of good fire safety
(reinforcing signal). But first, I’d like to tell you a
true story about a boy, a dog, and a box of
! “I have three points to cover this morning, and
each will take about 5 minutes. But first, let me
take a few seconds to tell you about a phone call I
received last week from a director of
communications from a national magazine. They
wanted to write an article about my recent
33. ! “If you don’t take anything else away from my
talk today, I hope you’ll remember this one
! “I want to leave you with this one last
34. 3. ORGANIZE
35. ORGANIZE YOUR SPEECH
! DEFINE YOUR OBJECTIVE
! KNOW YOUR TOPIC
! ORGANIZATION OF YOUR SPEECH:
! ADD SPARK TO YOUR TALK
! WRITE YOUR SPEECH
! PRACTICE YOUR SPEECH
36. DEFINE YOUR OBJECTIVE
KNOW YOUR TOPIC
KNOW YOUR TOPIC INSIDE OUT
ORGANIZE OF YOUR SPEECH: OPENING
PUT SPARKLE TO YOUR TALK
WRITE YOUR SPEECH
PRACTICE YOUR SPEECH
37. ! Clear objectives are the bedrock of good
presentations, without a clear objective a
presentation lacks focus, direction and value.
! The objective of communication is to make your
message understood and remembered.
! The objective of communication is not the
transmission but the reception of the message
! Preparation, presentation, and content of a speech
must be geared not to the speaker but to the
38. What is your reason for delivering this speech to this audience?
• The starting point in planning any speech is to formulate a precise objective.
• This should take the form of a simple, concise statement of intent.
What is the objective of this speech?
• What is it that you want your audience to say, think, or do differently as a result
of hearing your speech?
• When you answer this question you have found your objective.
The purpose of your speech may be:
• To inform
• To instruct
• To persuade
• To entertain
• To motivate your team
• To obtain funds
39. ! The answer: Not many
! It is far more productive to achieve one goal than to blunder
! The best approach is to focus upon the essential objective.
! You might list at most two other objectives which can be
addressed providing they do not distract from the main one.
! Focus is key: If you do not focus upon your objective, it is
unlikely that the audience will.
40. Speak as an expert about your subject
! Write down ideas which you already know.
! Research your topic from different sources.
! Gather specific information to:
1. Prove your ideas and points
2. Clarify your points
3. Make points memorable
4. Add a unique element to your speech
41. ! If you don’t know what your audience thinks and feels about your subject,
then you only know your subject on the “inside.”
! Knowing your subject “inside out” means understanding the subject from
all points of view.
! The big mistake most speakers make is to research only the information that
supports their own point of view.
! Prepared speakers gather a bunch of statistics, stories, anecdotes, case
studies and analogies that prove the point they want to make, which is the
! “Inside” knowledge is necessary, but you need more than that to persuade
your audience. You need to know your audiences’ expectations and
42. ! All speeches should have a definite structure or format.
! If you do not put your thoughts into a structured manner,
the audience will not be able to follow you.
! All speeches have three parts:
43. ! After you organize the structure of your speech,
you need to determine how much time you will
spend on each point.
! How would you break down a 20-minute speech?
" Opening 5 to 10% of your allotted time
" Body 80 to 90% of your allotted time
" Conclusion 5 to 10% of your allotted time
44. • Foundation-Opening: Your opening in which you
gain your listeners' attention; tell them why you're
here, and introduce your core message.
• Pillars-Body of your Speech: Your supporting
arguments, holding up your core message and
helping to convince your audience of your point of
• Roof-Closure: Your conclusion-where you review
your core message and invite a call to action.
LAY YOUR FOUNDATION
46. The goal of the Introduction:
1. Set the Tone
2. Create Rapport
3. Gain Attention
A strong opening typically contains:
1. A hook or attention-grabber
2. Reasons for your presentation
3. Your core message
47. The audience has several questions that they want answered within
the first few minutes of your talk. Be sure you answer these
! Who are you? Do you have any experience or credentials?
! What are you going to talk about?
! When will you be finished?
! What is the organization of your talk?
! Why should I listen? What is in it for me? (WIIFM)
48. ! If you can win the audience over in the first minute, you
will keep them for the remainder of the presentation
! You should plan exactly how you wish to appear to the
audience and use the beginning to establish that
! You may be presenting yourself as their friend, or as an
expert, but whatever role you choose you must establish
it at the very beginning.
49. ! Too often in a speech, the first few minutes of
the presentation are lost while people settle, get
their coffee and finish their conversation.
! You only have a limited time and every minute
is precious to you-so, from the beginning, make
sure you have their attention
50. 1. Personal anecdotes
3. Rhetorical questions
6. Startling statistics
7. Startling facts
8. Historic events
9. Case studies
10. Developing a common bond
51. ! Your childhood memory
! Your happiest memory
! Your most embarrassing experience
! The biggest mistake you ever made
! Your first day on the job
! The weirdest thing that happened at a meeting
! Your first job interview
52. ! Avoid saying “Before I begin….”
! Avoid getting the names wrong
! Avoid admitting that you’d rather be anywhere else
! Avoid admitting that you’re not prepared
! Avoid admitting that you’ve given this speech
! Avoid using offensive humor
! Avoid apologizing
! Avoid reading the introduction
53. An effective core message is:
! Clear: It contains one unmistakable central theme,
unclouded by other ideas.
! Concise: It is short, powerful, and to the point.
! Memorable: It remains in the minds of your
! Important to your audience: They can understand
how your message affects them.
54. ! The final impression you make on the audience is the
one they will remember.
! It is worth planning your last few sentences with
! As with the beginning, it is necessary to finish strong.
! This requires a change of pace, a new visual aid or
perhaps the introduction of one final culminating idea.
! In some formats, the ending will be a summary of the
main points of the talk.
55. You can use the same techniques as for the opening.
! You can choose a question for your opening and then
close with a quotation, or open with an analogy and
close with a statistic.
! As with the opening, it’s important for your closing
message to closely reflect the objective.
! Finally, if you can come up with only one creative idea,
it’s certainly okay to simply repeat the opening, but do
so in a slightly different way.
56. It’s important to add spark to your talk with:
! Personal anecdotes: Personal anecdotes are amongst your most valuable assets
as a speaker because they are real.
! Quotations: It is always wisest to quote someone well known to the audience.
! Rhetorical Questions: You can start with a sharp question; you are not expecting
an answer, you are engaging the minds of the audience.
! Story-telling: You could tell your own story, or a story of a friend or relative.
! Analogies: You could make a comparison or use an analogy.
! Statistics: A startling statistic will get the attention of the audience.
! Humor: Select well, practice well; if you fail, the audience will tune out.
! Common ground: Talk about how you share the values of the audience.
57. ! After you’ve completed your research, deﬁned your
purpose, and organized your content, it is time to
write your speech.
! The most memorable and successful speeches in
history are speeches that were written and rewritten.
! You definitely should not read your entire speech;
instead, spend time in writing and re-writing it.
58. Editing Areas
" Words per minute
" Presenter’s reading speed
! Editing for the ear
" Read out loud and record
" Look for sentences with double meaning
" Eliminate unnecessary words and/or phrases
59. ! Practice frequently while you’re preparing your talk. Most
people start late and end up having to work until the last
! Some people might practice aloud once or twice the night
before.!Worse, some people try to wing it without any practice
! Try to practice individual slides or sections as you are
working on them. Don’t worry if you’re not completely done
with the entire presentation.
! The best way to practice is with a partner. Explain your ideas
and try a few different ways of explaining the same material.
60. ! Capture the sequence of your ideas, not the exact words.
With each practice session, rehearse the previous parts
then the new material
! Research shows that people are more likely to remember
your first and last words. For this reason, you will want
to practice your opening and concluding points more.
! Giving extra practice to transitions also helps a great
deal. Ideally, you’ll want to practice enough times so that
you can present your speech without having to rely on
anything but your mind.
61. ! FIRST IMPRESSION
! USE REPETITION TO MAKE YOUR POINT
! USE QUESTIONS TO MAKE YOUR POINT
! USE QUOTATIONS TO MAKE YOUR POINT
! USE JOKES TO MAKE YOUR POINT
! USE STORIES TO MAKE YOUR POINT
62. ! Whether or not your message will make an impact on your listeners depends on
how well you communicate it to your audience: This is your delivery.
! The better the delivery, the better you’ll connect with your listeners.
! By presenting your message clearly you will convince your audience and share
your point of view.
! The presenter has the power both to kill the message and to enhance it a hundred
times beyond its worth.
! The presenter must concentrate not only upon the facts being presented but upon
the style, pace, tone and speech tactics which will be used.
! Your job as a presenter is to use the presentation to ensure that the audience is
motivated and inspired rather than disconcerted or distracted.
63. ! The average audience is very busy: they have
husbands and wives, schedules and appointments,
cars and mortgages.
! Even if they try hard to concentrate on your speech,
their minds will inevitably stray.
! Your job is to do everything you can to capture the
audience’s attention and make a lasting impression
64. The audience gains their first impression of a speaker
from four areas:
1. Appearance: Dress and grooming
2. Orderliness: Giving an image of being organized
3. Qualities as a host: Making the audience feel
4. Credibility: Knowledge of subject and speaking ability
65. ! The average audience is very busy: but
repetition makes them understand and retain
! The average audience is easily distracted, and
their attention will slip during the most
important message of your speech, so repeat it.
! State the point again and again through different
explanations and formats.
66. If you are giving a talk about importance of losing
weight you might ask questions to get the attention
of the audience:
! Do you know what your body mass index is?
! Which do you think is healthier: a slice of apple pie
or a slice of pumpkin pie?
! Which burns more calories: swimming for 20
minutes or jumping rope for five minutes?
67. You can use quotes from literature, research, competitors, newspapers, and
quotes from anyone credible who might prove your point.
! “To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.” (La Rochefoucauld).
! “The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human being with drugs,
but rather will cure and prevent disease with nutrition.” Thomas Edison
! Remember to use the power of “PEP” to make your ideas more interesting
! PEP: Point, Evidence, Point. Statistics, analogies, comparisons, stories,
questions, and quotations are just a few of the forms of evidence that can
appeal to logic, emotion, and character.
68. ! Some jokes can work very well, but it can also lead
! You must choose a joke which will not offend any
member of the audience.
! This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or
generally rude jokes.
! Jokes are useful in maintaining the attention of the
audience, and for relieving the tension of the
69. ! Stories connect communities. Stories connect people.
! Stories promote social cohesion, and communicate
common values and rules.
! Stories help us learn from other peoples’ experiences.
! If you’re trying to inform, persuade, motivate, or
entertain, you need to incorporate stories.
! Every time you speak, you should think about how to
enhance your message with stories.
70. 1. The Plot
Putting actions into a sequence is a story; stories make
listening to anything a more interesting experience.
2. The Setting
! Usually a story begins by establishing the setting. This tells us
where and when the actions take place.!The purpose is to
engage us or transport us directly into the story.!
! "As I was driving home from work…" or "Two years ago
when I was living in New York City…” or “This past Saturday
afternoon when I was supposed to be finalizing my
73. ! Fact #1: Your words only count for small
percentage of the actual message that you deliver:
The biggest part of your message is conveyed
! Body language
! Facial expression
! Tone of voice
74. ! Fact #2: The audience wants to feel positive
emotions from hearing you:
• The audience want comfort, relief, hope, and peace of mind.
That experience does not come from your words.
• We've all heard words that sound empty, where emotion
doesn't match the actual words.
• Create emotion and connection
75. ! Fact #3: Your non-verbal communication will
immediately make an impression on your audience:
• When you are speaking your intention is to connect
with the audience. That is what communication is
• People connect at the heart. That's where those non-
verbal elements come into play.
• The audience is watching your eyes. They're looking
to see if you care about them and their problem.
76. ! How you use your body, how you stand, sit, move, and
gesture, affects how an audience receives your message.
! If your body language communicates confidence,
sincerity and enthusiasm, people will be more likely to
! If not, they will have a harder time accepting what you
! Pay attention to your non-verbal message; it should
match your verbal message. When the non-verbal
message does not match the verbal message there is a
77. ! The most effective way to bond with your listeners is
to establish and maintain eye contact as you speak.
! Eye contact can create the appearance of movement
even when you are standing or sitting still.
! The eyes are the most effective tool in convincing the
audience of your honesty, openness and confidence
in your presentation.
! During the presentation you should use eye contact
to enhance rapport with the audience. Establish eye
contact with each and every member of the audience.
78. ! By establishing eye contact with the people at the
back of a lecture hall it is possible to convince each
of them individually that he or she is the object of
! During presentations, try to hold your gaze fixed
in specific directions for five or six seconds at a
time and move your eyes to different directions.
! Shortly after each change in position, a slight smile
will convince each person in that direction that you
have seen and acknowledged them.
79. ! People associate a strong voice with
confidence and a weak voice with a lack of
! Develop a strong, confident voice. Don’t
scream, don’t yell. Just SPEAK UP.
! If people are distracted, bored or irritated by
your voice, your message will be lost on them.
80. ! Knowing when to slow down, speed up, and
pause, have an effect on the way your message
! A monotone speech is boring, so it is important
to try to vary the pitch and speed of your
! Each new sub-section should be proceeded by
a pause and a change in tone.
81. ! Volume: Nothing is more frustrating than not
being able to hear a speaker’s words.
! Clarity: Pronounce your words clearly.
! Speed: Slow down when giving a presentation.
82. ! Pacing: A change of pace attracts attention.
• Incorporate meaningful pauses to add emphasis to key spots.
• Slow down when making a vital point, repeating your core
message, or inviting your audience to a call to action.
! Tone: Check your pitch.
People tend to speak in a slightly higher voice when
! Authority: Audiences respond better to speakers who
project a confidence. Avoid sentences such as , “ I am not
expert but…” or “You might not agree with me, but…”
83. ! When you stand before an audience, your posture should convey strength,
steadfastness and power.
! You want to appear alert, engaged and authoritative.
! Stand up straight: Be careful not to slouch, even if you are tired.
! Don’t lean on anything, including the podium or table.
! Move purposefully from one side of stage to the center, then to the other
side, to connect with your entire audience throughout your presentation.
! Use movement as punctuation. Stop moving when you are making an
84. ! While you are on stage, your posture will convey a great deal about you.
! Make sure your posture does not convey boredom; you can use your
whole body as a dynamic tool to reinforce your rapport with the audience.
! Using gestures adds emphasis to key points, provides visual interest, and
makes you seem relaxed.
! Many presenters are confused with what to do with their hands while they
! When you are not gesturing or using a prop, the best place for your hands
is by your sides.
! Avoid putting them in your pockets, playing with a pen, pointer, or prop.
! The key is to keep your hands still, except when used in unison with your
85. ! The audience watches your face. If you are looking
distracted then they will be distracted; if you are
smiling, they will be wondering why and listen to
! In normal conversation your meaning is enhanced
by facial reinforcement.
! Make sure that your facial expressions are natural
and have a smile on your face.
86. ! When you are giving a presentation you must dress for
the audience, not for yourself; if they think you look
out of place, then you are.
! When you are giving a presentation it is safe to wear a
! Dress at or above the level of your audience.
! It is better to be slightly overdressed than
underdressed, as it shows respect for your audience.
! Dress conservatively when giving a major presentation.
! Choose colors that project authority. Select strong
neutral colors such as black, gray, or dark blue.
87. 6. VISUAL AIDS
88. 6. VISUAL AIDS
WORKING WITH VISUAL AIDS
89. ! Most people expect visual reinforcement for any verbal
message being delivered. While it would be unfair to
blame television entirely for this, it is useful to
understand that the audience is accustomed to visuals.
! You can meet their expectations using PowerPoint,
overhead projectors, a slide show, or even a video
! Use different formats as visuals: For instance, if you are
describing the four functions of a project manager then
you might display the four "hats" he/she must wear.
90. ! Remember that it is as easy to make your point
with low-tech visual aids as it is with high-tech
! Your visual aids, whether you are using
handouts, whiteboards, or videos, should
always be designed to reinforce your core
message and lead your audience to your call to
91. 1. Speakers’ aids:
" Note cards
" Entire presentation written out word by word
" PowerPoint presentation
" LCD Projector
2. Low-tech/high-tech visual aids
" Video and audio
92. ! Both high-tech and low-tech visual aids can
work wonders in capturing and keeping your
! They help listeners remember your core
message and stay focused on your
! When used correctly, audio and visual aids
enhance your presentation, boost your
credibility, and strengthen your message.
93. ! Audiences love handouts.
! Make sure the handout complements your
points in a new way.
! It is difficult to know how much information
to include and how much to save for the
94. THE PROS THE CONS
! Listeners may pay more ! Listeners may pay less
attention to your spoken attention to your spoken
! Your listeners may skip
! Handouts will prove to ahead.
the audience that the
presenter is well prepared.
! This can make it harder for
you to build the case for your
! Your listeners will better core message.
remember your message
! Your listeners may leave
95. 7. MANAGING QUESTIONS &
" THE BENEFITS OF Q&A
" CHALLENGES OF Q&A
" THREE STEP PROCESS OF HANDLING
" DIFFICULT QUESTIONS
96. ! They allow you to demonstrate your expertise on
! They provide another opportunity to interact and
build rapport with the audience.
! They help you understand whether an audience
understands and accepts your message.
! They provide feedback that helps you strengthen
your presentation the next time you deliver it.
97. ! You may be asked questions you cannot answer.
! They can give a platform to someone who wants to
discredit your message or undermine your
! A member of the audience may make a long,
rambling statement rather than ask a question.
! Since Q&A usually comes last, they can close your
presentation on a sour note.
98. 1. Listen carefully and attentively to the question,
and repeat it for all to hear.
2. Pause and think about best way to answer the
question: Allow yourself a few seconds to
construct a response.
3. Answer the question as directly as possible: Be
concise if time is an issue; expand on your
answer if you have time to fill.
99. THINK ANSWER THE
LISTEN TO AND REPEAT CAREFULLY; QUESTION;
THE QUESTION CONSIDER THE CALL ON THE
BEST RESPONSE NEXT PERSON
100. ! When you are preparing your speech be sure to think about
the audience and project what questions they will be asking.
! If you don’t know the answer, admit it and say I don’t know.
! Paraphrase: Repeat the question in your own words.
! Agree with the person by saying, “ You are right, this is a
101. ! Refer to the audience for their answer to the question.
“What do you all think about…?”
! Refer to a higher source: “Well, that question should be
answered by our business manager.”
! Close the Q&A with your final message. Be sure to
restate your core message and call to action.
! Do not end your presentation with your last answer to a
question. Get the attention back on your presentation by
ending with a powerful closing statement.
102. ! Before every presentation, sit down with few
friends and go over every possible question
that might be asked.
! This process may help in preventing “surprise”
! Suppose you prepare thoroughly, yet you still
hear a surprise question. See the following
103. You might say:
! Please see me at break, and we can discuss your
! I do not have the information now; I will make a note
to get back to you.
! I will cover the answer to your question in the second
part of my talk.
! Your question is beyond the scope of what we are
104. PART III: PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS
1. HOW TO CONNECT WITH THE AUDIENCE
2. SEVEN REASONS SPEAKERS FAIL
3. SEVEN SECRETS TO HANDLING A HOSTILE AUDIENCE
4. LESSONS TO LEARN FROM MEMORABLE SPEECHES
5. EVALUATE YOURSELF AS A SPEAKER
105. ! When you communicate face-to-face with the audience, the
audience will want to hear your story; they want to hear the
passion in your voice and see the excitement in your eyes.
! Audiences do come to listen to content; they want speakers
who have an energy and excitement that will create a lasting
! Donald Trump put it this way, "If you don't have passion,
you don't have energy, and if you don't have energy, you
! When you are getting ready for your speech: Think about
the speakers who have had the most impact in your life --the
ones who have inspired you. Think about how they made
you feel when they talked. You can probably still remember
that feeling and perhaps even the words that they said.
106. ! Great communicators give us not only solid content, but they
make us feel good- they inspire us.
! Great communicators share and show their natural passion.
! Move from being a good communicator to being an inspirational
! Think about your passion- move out of your day-to-day comfort
zone and find the courage to share your passion publicly.
! Think about not only what you want to communicate to the
people around you, but also how you want to communicate it.
! Think about the impact you want to make. Let others feel your
passion, energy, and enthusiasm.
107. ! Share and show your natural passion. Be honest. Be genuine.
! Be your authentic self when you communicate with other
! Speakers who are real, honest, and able to share their passion
will have the biggest positive impact on the audience.
! Many science, technology, and business professionals are
often trained to communicate about their work in a non-
passionate and objective manner.
108. ! Encouraging audience participation breaks down the wall
between you and your listeners.
! By bringing you psychologically and physically closer to your
audience, interaction can be powerful tool for establishing
! Making a successful connection with your audience improves
the chances that they’ll be receptive to your message and that
you’ll give a memorable presentation.
! Greeting the guests at the door and having a short
conversation will also help building a relationship with your
109. ! You can give a more energetic and engaging presentation when
you incorporate the audience during the course of the
! Ask for a show of hands: Take a quick poll about an issue related
to your topic.
! Ask the audience to share personal experiences: By asking your
audience to share their stories, you gather stories to support your
message, while getting you closer to your audience.
! Ask volunteers from the audience: When you bring people to
demonstrate a product or act out a scenario, the rest of the
audience feels closer to you. It transform them from spectators to
participants in your presentation.
110. SEVEN REASONS SPEAKERS FAIL
1. IGNORE THE CLOCK
2. FORGET THE OBJECTIVE
3. INADEQUATE PREPARATION
4. FAILURE TO CAPTURE ATTENTION
5. ATTEMPTING TO FULFILL EGOS
7. FALSE ENDINGS
111. ! Start on time and stop on time. Not only will your audience
respect you for it, but it will prove that you respect your audience.
! The problem of speaking too long or taking more time than
allotted seems to be an epidemic among high-level business
! The length of a presentation shouldn’t be a function of title or
power, but a function of how long the speaker agreed to talk.
! If you say what you need in ten minutes, quit after 10 minutes. If
you need more time, negotiate for it in advance.
! Don’t take the next three speakers’ time because you either don’t
pay attention to your watch or you are too arrogant to realize that
the high point of the meeting just might not be listening to you
speak twice as long as expected.
112. ! Executives who do not have clear objectives for their
presentation usually achieve little.
! Design your speech the way the pros do. Begin by
asking, “At the end of this presentation, what do I want
listeners to think, feel and do?
! Good presenters speak to the mind, the heart and the
! Begin with an overt statement of purpose: “The reason
I’m speaking to you today is…”
113. ! There is no excuse for “winging it.” The best speakers are always
prepared for what they say.
! That brilliant presenter you heard that came up with the
wonderful analogy and spectacular quotes “on the spot” really
! They planned carefully not only what they were going to say but
also what the audience is going to ask.
! Don’t ever beginning by saying, “I really haven’t thought about
what I’m going to say…”or “I didn’t get a chance to prepare”.
! If you are asked to give speeches quite often, prepare three or four
of the most important messages to offer your audiences
114. ! The average listener is bombarded with messages from many different
! From email to radio to voicemail to cell phones, everybody is trying to tell
us something, and your attempt to give a speech is just one more
! That is why what you say and how you say it had better grab the
audience’s attention right away
! You do not have time to “warm up.” (“Thank you for inviting me to be
here today. It is indeed my pleasure to address you.”)
! Prove that your message matters to the listener and be sure your remarks
! Most people in your audience are interested with “How does it affect
me?” and you need to be intellectually honest to prove your points.
115. ! Ego-driven leaders are more concerned with what
followers think about them than they are with what
followers do because of them.
! Self-absorbed speakers present to get their needs met,
rather than meet the needs of the audience. The audience
can instantly recognize this.
! You would not be asked to speak unless someone
believed that you have credibility, and something to say.
That is enough. Do not undo that assumption through
efforts to prove your status to others.
116. ! An audience today contains many people who were raised
on Sesame Street and MTV.
! That means they spent their formative years watching music
videos that often contained 150 images in the course of a
! To be simply entertaining is not in itself a worthwhile goal
for a presenter, but it sure beats the alternative, which is
117. ! The value of entertainment for a speaker is that it
mentally engages listeners. I’ve found the best way to
educate is to slip good ideas in on the wings of
! Telling a joke is risky. When it works, it works well.
When it fails, nothing fails worse.
! The best way to use humor in such a way that it
illustrates your point. If the audience doesn’t laugh, the
illustration is still of value. And if they get a chuckle out
of the humor, that’s just icing on the cake.
118. ! A speaker starts to conclude, even tells the
audience of his intent, and then tells a story.
! The audience responds favorably. The speaker
gets excited. “Wow, they liked that. I’ve got an
even better story,” he thinks to himself.
! And then he continues and ends again, with
another story or a quote. The speaker keeps
continuing, until there is no positive response,
but rather visible signs of disgust. By then, it is
119. ! You can only effectively conclude once, yet I’ve seen
some speakers conclude over and over. Each false
ending weakens the message.
! The false ending nightmare usually begins with these
words, “In conclusion….” That triggers hope in the
audience’s mind. “Hey, it’s almost over!” They expect
you to wrap up quickly.
! In my mind that means either summarizing or making a
final point. Several points, or the introduction of new
points, is not a conclusion.
! A simple rule to remember: a good ending happens only
120. 1. Have an objective
2. Stay calm
3. Be positive
4. Be prepared
5. Stick to the facts
6. Be aware of your body language
7. Establish common ground
121. “There’s not a liberal America
And a conservative America
there’s the United States of America”
122. There are three things that you can do to make
your speeches have the Obama impact:
1. Have A Conversation: The more that you are
able to work a conversational tone into your
speeches, the deeper the connection that you'll
be able to make with your audience.
• Using fancy words or "talking over their heads" will
only serve to increase the distance between you and
• Have a conversation with them and you'll be able
to make your point.
123. 2. Add Some Punctuation: We usually only think
about punctuation when we are writing, but
politicians show us that it plays a role in
• Adding periods and semicolons to the way that you
deliver your speech will allow your audience to
catch up and follow along with your thinking.
124. 3. Pause For Effect: The Worst speakers never
seem to take a breath when they are speaking
• Adding pauses to your speech is a fantastic way to
make it have more of an impact.
• Pausing allows your audience to laugh, consider a
point, or just catch up and ponder what you've just
125. ! In his 2004 keynote address, we see many of the
outstanding communication practices that have
helped make Barack Obama one of the most
compelling speakers of our time.
! Public and media praise Obama’s keynote address
as, “One of the best addresses we’ve heard in
many, many years.”
! In the days to come, the press continued to
commend the address as a masterpiece of oration.
126. Many of the outstanding communication
techniques Obama employed are highlighted
1. Creating a strong first impression
2. Effective use of body language and voice
3. Using effective gestures
4. Establishing common ground
5. Connecting one-on- one
6. Winning hearts and minds by speaking to
7. Strong beginning
8. Stressing common dreams and values
127. 9. Knowing your audience
10. Personalizing the message
11. Illustrating with anecdotes
12. Using rhetorical questions
13. Effective repetition
14. Power of three
15. Comparing and contrasting
16. Knowing your objective
17. Inspiring others
18. Creating a sense of momentum and urgency
19. Motivate listeners to action
20. Strong ending
128. ! Antithesis is the use of two contrasting words,
phrases or sentences placed directly in opposition
to one another.
! Famous people used this technique in their
! “Ask not what your country can do for you.
Ask what you can do for your country.” — JFK
! “Give me liberty or give me death!” — Patrick Henry
129. ! Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in
neighboring words or syllables.
! The most famous line Martin Luther King Jr. ever spoke
! “I have a dream … that my four little children will one day live in
a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin
but by the content of their character.”
! Notice how the sound of the hard “c” punctuates the
! Also note that the phrase combines antithesis with
alliteration. “not be judged by … but by …”
130. Using a list of three words or phrases in succession is a
time-tested technique for creating memorable hooks.
Lists of three that are embedded in our brains are:
! American Constitution
Of the people
By the people
For the people
! Patrick Henry
And the pursuit of happiness
131. ! Napoleon
I have nothing to offer but
Sweat and Tears
132. You can use repetition to create hooks that your audience
! One hundred years later, the Negro still is not free.
! One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly
crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of
! One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of
poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity.
! One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the
corners of American society and finds himself in exile in his own
133. The beginning of excellence is the elimination of
foolishness. You can bump up your speaking
performance by analyzing your last presentation
by asking these seven questions:
• Did I stick to my allotted time?
• Did I develop and present purposefully?
• Was I thoroughly prepared?
• Did I capture attention at the very beginning?
• Did I positively influence listeners?
• Was I appropriately entertaining, or at least not boring?
• Did I end only once?
134. In closing I want to leave you with this
final thought: The secret to creating a
memorable presentation is
135. This list of 14 steps will lead you to become
a successful presenter:
1. Conquer Your Fear
2. Know Your Audience
3. Organize Your Speech
4. Define your objective
5. Know your topic inside out
6. Plan for a strong opening
7. Develop the main points
8. Research and gather supporting materials
9. Add spark to your speech
10. Plan for a strong closing
11. Write and re-write your speech
12. Rehearse your speech
13. Pay attention to non-verbal communication skills
14. Plan for visual aids