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Public Speaking Public Speaking Presentation Transcript

  • Necva Ozgur M.Ed. MERIT Muslim Educators’ Resource, Information & Training Center www.meritcenter.org nozgur@meritcenter.org
  • PART I: INTRODUCTION PART II: 7 STEPS TO PLANNING & DELIVERING A MEMORABLE SPEECH PART III: PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS
  • PART I: INTRODUCTION •  HOW TO MAKE YOUR SPEECH MEMORABLE •  PUBLIC SPEAKING MYTHS AND REALITIES
  • !  Exceptional speakers manage to inspire their audiences to take action. !  Audience members leave with the intention of doing something. !  This power to inspire has many names: Charisma, persuasion, allure, influence. !  Whatever we call it, it all comes down to one thing: the ability to move people.
  • !  What do you remember about the last speech you heard? !  Do you remember the message, the style? !  It’s likely that you only remember one or two things the speaker talked about
  • • 10% of what we read • 20% of what we hear • 30% of what we see • 50% of what we hear and see • 70% of what we say • 90% of what we say and do
  • !  Myth #1 Good speakers are born, not made. “I was not born a good speaker, so I am a hopeless case.” !  Reality #1 People are not born as good speakers. They require preparation and practice in order to become effective speakers
  • !  Myth #2 I failed the first time I spoke in front of people, so I will fail again. !  Reality #2 Many successes start with failure. Thomas Watson, the President and Founder of the FBI says, “In order to succeed, double your failure rate.”
  • !  Myth #3 If I follow exactly what someone says and does, I will be as effective as that person. !  Reality #3 Other peoples’ styles are extremely useful as models, but you must present in the way that is most comfortable and effective for you.
  • !  Myth #4 People who speak and look confident do not feel nervous !  Reality #4 Most speakers experience some type of nervous energy that they acknowledge but try to transform it into positive energy
  • !  Myth #5 People who speak well have an innate talent for giving impromptu talks. !  Reality #5 Impromptu speakers prepare as much as possible and use some type of structured format even when speaking impromptu.
  • !  Myth #6 Everyone has to love me and my talk or I am a failure. !  Reality #6 It does not matter if people like or dislike you or your talk. What is important is that you are confident in the subject matter.
  • !  Myth #7 Every presentation I do must be perfect. !  Reality #7 The knowledgeable speaker is always aware of the possibility of mistakes, and should not expect a completely flawless performance.
  • !  Myth #8 I am too old and set in my ways to learn new things !  Reality #8 You are never too old or too young to learn, as long as you have a welcoming attitude and willingness to learn and change.
  • !  Myth #9 I do not get enough chances to practice, so I will never feel confident. !  Reality #9 If you really want to practice your presentation skills, you can find many opportunities to do so
  • !  Myth #10 I know I will die if I get up there to talk. !  Reality #10 You may feel like you are going to die before having to get up and talk, but you will not. The National Safety Council reported that there were 50,000 deaths in motor vehicles. There is not one recorded death of anyone dying from stage fright.
  • PART II: 7 STEPS TO PLANNING A MEMORABLE SPEECH STEP 1 CONQUER YOUR FEAR STEP 2 KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR SPEECH STEP 4 PRESENT YOUR SPEECH STEP 5 NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION STEP 6 VISUAL AIDS STEP 7 MANAGING QUESTIONS
  • 7. 1. MANAGING CONQURE QUESTIONS YOUR FEAR 2. 6. VISUAL AIDS KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE 5. NON- 3. VERBAL ORGANIZE COMMUNIC YOUR ATION SPEECH 4. PRESENT YOUR SPEECH
  • 1. CONQUER YOUR FEARS
  • 1.  Speaking before a group 2.  Heights 3.  Insects and bugs 4.  Financial problems 5.  Deep water 6.  Sickness 7.  Death 8.  Flying 9.  Loneliness 10.  Dogs
  • !  You are waiting your turn to make a speech, when you suddenly realize that your stomach is doing strange things and your mind is rapidly going blank. !  How can you handle public speaking nervousness, fears, jitters, anxieties – and the physical symptoms these feelings produce? !  There is no single answer. It’s totally natural to be nervous. !  You overcome nervousness by preparing for your speech mentally, logistically, and physically.
  • Mentally !  Spend a lot more time!preparing than speaking. As a general rule, invest three hours of preparation for a half hour speech, a six to one ratio. !  Know your opening and closing by heart. Knowing your opening and closing lets you start and end smoothly, thereby connecting with your audience when you are most nervous. Logistically !  Go to the room where you’ll be speaking as early as possible so you can become comfortable in the environment. !  If you will be speaking on stage, acquaint yourself with the stage beforehand in order to gain familiarity !  During your presentation, you can concentrate on your audience, not your environment.
  • Physically !  An effective preparation technique for small meetings is to go around shaking hands and making eye contact with everybody beforehand. !  For larger meetings, meet and shake hands with people in the front row at least, and some as they come into the door !  Connect with the audience personally. Speakers are usually not that nervous about individuals, only when faced with the thought of an audience.
  • 1. Saying or doing something to embarrass themselves. 2. Saying or doing something that will ultimately damage their career or reputation. 3. Fear of forgetting what they are going to say. 4. Fear that others will see them as lacking. 5. Fear of rejection. 6. Fear that no one will respond. 7. Fear that someone will question them and they won’t know the answer.
  • The more self-confidence you have, the less fear you are likely to experience at the podium. 1.  Know your audience 2.  Master your material 3.  Prepare your presentation 4.  Practice 5.  Dress for success 6.  Get to the room early, walk around, make it your own room 7.  Bond with the audience: Meet and greet the audience, shake hands, build friendships 8.  Go to an out-of sight area and do some relaxation exercises 9.  Spiritual support
  • 2. KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
  • !  You can give the exact same speech to two different groups, but you should not expect the same responses or results !  Research your audience so you can address their specific needs, concerns and objections. !  If your opening remarks imply that you understand their problem and that you have a solution, the audience will be flattered by your attention and be attentive to your every word.
  • !  By knowing your audience you will determine how best to achieve your objectives in the context of this audience. !  Essentially this is done by identifying their goals and objectives while attending your presentation. !  If you can somehow convince them they are achieving their goals while at the same time achieving your own, you will find a helpful and receptive audience. !  Achieving the goal of audience is the simplest and most effective manner of obtaining their attention at the beginning.
  • 1.  Prisoner: This is the person who does not want to be here. You will find him or her inattentive 2.  Vacationer: This is the person who volunteers to go to any seminar, figuring it is better to be in a meeting than at work or home. 3.  Graduate: This is the person who thinks he does not need to be here because he already knows this information 4.  Student: This is the attentive, hard-working, model audience who wants to hear what you have to say. They are eager to learn and share and will do what is possible to learn and become effective personally and professionally.
  • As you prepare your speech, check off each point listed below regarding your audience: ! How many people will be attending the presentations? ! What is the level of their knowledge about the topic? ! What is the audiences’ attitude toward the subject? ! Is it a specific group or a general audience? ! Why are they attending? ! What are their educational levels? ! What is the general age group of the audience? ! Will any cultural factors come into play? ! Will there be all men? All women? Mixed audience? ! What other audience demographics should I know?
  • During your introduction address these points: "  Signal #1: I will not waste your time "  Signal #2: I know who you are "  Signal #3: I am well organized "  Signal #4: I know my subject "  Signal #5: Here is my most important point "  Signal #6: I am finished
  • !  “As you know, my subject this morning is fire prevention. In a few seconds (signal), I am going to give you the three cornerstones of good fire safety (reinforcing signal). But first, I’d like to tell you a true story about a boy, a dog, and a box of matches….” !  “I have three points to cover this morning, and each will take about 5 minutes. But first, let me take a few seconds to tell you about a phone call I received last week from a director of communications from a national magazine. They wanted to write an article about my recent published book.”
  • !  “If you don’t take anything else away from my talk today, I hope you’ll remember this one point (signal)….” !  “I want to leave you with this one last thought…”
  • 3. ORGANIZE YOUR SPEECH
  • ORGANIZE YOUR SPEECH !  DEFINE YOUR OBJECTIVE !  KNOW YOUR TOPIC !  ORGANIZATION OF YOUR SPEECH: OPENING BODY CLOSING !  ADD SPARK TO YOUR TALK !  WRITE YOUR SPEECH !  PRACTICE YOUR SPEECH
  • DEFINE YOUR OBJECTIVE KNOW YOUR TOPIC KNOW YOUR TOPIC INSIDE OUT ORGANIZE OF YOUR SPEECH: OPENING BODY CLOSURE PUT SPARKLE TO YOUR TALK WRITE YOUR SPEECH PRACTICE YOUR SPEECH
  • !  Clear objectives are the bedrock of good presentations, without a clear objective a presentation lacks focus, direction and value. !  The objective of communication is to make your message understood and remembered. !  The objective of communication is not the transmission but the reception of the message !  Preparation, presentation, and content of a speech must be geared not to the speaker but to the audience.
  • What is your reason for delivering this speech to this audience? •  The starting point in planning any speech is to formulate a precise objective. •  This should take the form of a simple, concise statement of intent. What is the objective of this speech? •  What is it that you want your audience to say, think, or do differently as a result of hearing your speech? •  When you answer this question you have found your objective. The purpose of your speech may be: •  To inform •  To instruct •  To persuade •  To entertain •  To motivate your team •  To obtain funds
  • !  The answer: Not many !  It is far more productive to achieve one goal than to blunder over several. !  The best approach is to focus upon the essential objective. !  You might list at most two other objectives which can be addressed providing they do not distract from the main one. !  Focus is key: If you do not focus upon your objective, it is unlikely that the audience will.
  • Speak as an expert about your subject !  Write down ideas which you already know. !  Research your topic from different sources. !  Gather specific information to: 1. Prove your ideas and points 2. Clarify your points 3. Make points memorable 4. Add a unique element to your speech
  • !  If you don’t know what your audience thinks and feels about your subject, then you only know your subject on the “inside.” !  Knowing your subject “inside out” means understanding the subject from all points of view. !  The big mistake most speakers make is to research only the information that supports their own point of view. !  Prepared speakers gather a bunch of statistics, stories, anecdotes, case studies and analogies that prove the point they want to make, which is the “inside” knowledge. !  “Inside” knowledge is necessary, but you need more than that to persuade your audience. You need to know your audiences’ expectations and questions too.
  • !  All speeches should have a definite structure or format. !  If you do not put your thoughts into a structured manner, the audience will not be able to follow you. !  All speeches have three parts: 1. Opening 2. Body 3. Closing
  • !  After you organize the structure of your speech, you need to determine how much time you will spend on each point. !  How would you break down a 20-minute speech? "  Opening 5 to 10% of your allotted time "  Body 80 to 90% of your allotted time "  Conclusion 5 to 10% of your allotted time
  • • Foundation-Opening: Your opening in which you gain your listeners' attention; tell them why you're here, and introduce your core message. • Pillars-Body of your Speech: Your supporting arguments, holding up your core message and helping to convince your audience of your point of view. • Roof-Closure: Your conclusion-where you review your core message and invite a call to action.
  • ROOF CLOSING PILLARS CORE MESSAGE, KEY POINTS FOUNDATION OPENING LAY YOUR FOUNDATION
  • The goal of the Introduction: 1.  Set the Tone 2.  Create Rapport 3.  Gain Attention A strong opening typically contains: 1.  A hook or attention-grabber 2.  Reasons for your presentation 3.  Your core message
  • The audience has several questions that they want answered within the first few minutes of your talk. Be sure you answer these questions: !  Who are you? Do you have any experience or credentials? !  What are you going to talk about? !  When will you be finished? !  What is the organization of your talk? !  Why should I listen? What is in it for me? (WIIFM)
  • !  If you can win the audience over in the first minute, you will keep them for the remainder of the presentation !  You should plan exactly how you wish to appear to the audience and use the beginning to establish that relationship. !  You may be presenting yourself as their friend, or as an expert, but whatever role you choose you must establish it at the very beginning.
  • !  Too often in a speech, the first few minutes of the presentation are lost while people settle, get their coffee and finish their conversation. !  You only have a limited time and every minute is precious to you-so, from the beginning, make sure you have their attention
  • 1.  Personal anecdotes 2.  Quotations 3.  Rhetorical questions 4.  Stories 5.  Analogies 6.  Startling statistics 7.  Startling facts 8.  Historic events 9.  Case studies 10.  Developing a common bond
  • !  Your childhood memory !  Your happiest memory !  Your most embarrassing experience !  The biggest mistake you ever made !  Your first day on the job !  The weirdest thing that happened at a meeting !  Your first job interview
  • !  Avoid saying “Before I begin….” !  Avoid getting the names wrong !  Avoid admitting that you’d rather be anywhere else !  Avoid admitting that you’re not prepared !  Avoid admitting that you’ve given this speech million times !  Avoid using offensive humor !  Avoid apologizing !  Avoid reading the introduction
  • An effective core message is: !  Clear: It contains one unmistakable central theme, unclouded by other ideas. !  Concise: It is short, powerful, and to the point. !  Memorable: It remains in the minds of your audience. !  Important to your audience: They can understand how your message affects them.
  • !  The final impression you make on the audience is the one they will remember. !  It is worth planning your last few sentences with extreme care. !  As with the beginning, it is necessary to finish strong. !  This requires a change of pace, a new visual aid or perhaps the introduction of one final culminating idea. !  In some formats, the ending will be a summary of the main points of the talk.
  • You can use the same techniques as for the opening. !  You can choose a question for your opening and then close with a quotation, or open with an analogy and close with a statistic. !  As with the opening, it’s important for your closing message to closely reflect the objective. !  Finally, if you can come up with only one creative idea, it’s certainly okay to simply repeat the opening, but do so in a slightly different way.
  • It’s important to add spark to your talk with: !  Personal anecdotes: Personal anecdotes are amongst your most valuable assets as a speaker because they are real. !  Quotations: It is always wisest to quote someone well known to the audience. !  Rhetorical Questions: You can start with a sharp question; you are not expecting an answer, you are engaging the minds of the audience. !  Story-telling: You could tell your own story, or a story of a friend or relative. !  Analogies: You could make a comparison or use an analogy. !  Statistics: A startling statistic will get the attention of the audience. !  Humor: Select well, practice well; if you fail, the audience will tune out. !  Common ground: Talk about how you share the values of the audience.
  • !  After you’ve completed your research, defined your purpose, and organized your content, it is time to write your speech. !  The most memorable and successful speeches in history are speeches that were written and rewritten. !  You definitely should not read your entire speech; instead, spend time in writing and re-writing it.
  • Editing Areas !  Timing "  Words per minute "  Presenter’s reading speed !  Language "  Level "  Grammar "  Conversational !  Editing for the ear "  Read out loud and record "  Look for sentences with double meaning "  Eliminate unnecessary words and/or phrases
  • !  Practice frequently while you’re preparing your talk. Most people start late and end up having to work until the last minute !  Some people might practice aloud once or twice the night before.!Worse, some people try to wing it without any practice at all. !  Try to practice individual slides or sections as you are working on them. Don’t worry if you’re not completely done with the entire presentation. !  The best way to practice is with a partner. Explain your ideas and try a few different ways of explaining the same material.
  • !  Capture the sequence of your ideas, not the exact words. With each practice session, rehearse the previous parts then the new material !  Research shows that people are more likely to remember your first and last words. For this reason, you will want to practice your opening and concluding points more. !  Giving extra practice to transitions also helps a great deal. Ideally, you’ll want to practice enough times so that you can present your speech without having to rely on anything but your mind.
  • !  FIRST IMPRESSION !  USE REPETITION TO MAKE YOUR POINT !  USE QUESTIONS TO MAKE YOUR POINT !  USE QUOTATIONS TO MAKE YOUR POINT !  USE JOKES TO MAKE YOUR POINT !  USE STORIES TO MAKE YOUR POINT
  • !  Whether or not your message will make an impact on your listeners depends on how well you communicate it to your audience: This is your delivery. !  The better the delivery, the better you’ll connect with your listeners. !  By presenting your message clearly you will convince your audience and share your point of view. !  The presenter has the power both to kill the message and to enhance it a hundred times beyond its worth. !  The presenter must concentrate not only upon the facts being presented but upon the style, pace, tone and speech tactics which will be used. !  Your job as a presenter is to use the presentation to ensure that the audience is motivated and inspired rather than disconcerted or distracted.
  • !  The average audience is very busy: they have husbands and wives, schedules and appointments, cars and mortgages. !  Even if they try hard to concentrate on your speech, their minds will inevitably stray. !  Your job is to do everything you can to capture the audience’s attention and make a lasting impression upon them.
  • The audience gains their first impression of a speaker from four areas: 1.  Appearance: Dress and grooming 2.  Orderliness: Giving an image of being organized 3.  Qualities as a host: Making the audience feel comfortable 4.  Credibility: Knowledge of subject and speaking ability
  • !  The average audience is very busy: but repetition makes them understand and retain !  The average audience is easily distracted, and their attention will slip during the most important message of your speech, so repeat it. !  State the point again and again through different explanations and formats.
  • If you are giving a talk about importance of losing weight you might ask questions to get the attention of the audience: !  Do you know what your body mass index is? !  Which do you think is healthier: a slice of apple pie or a slice of pumpkin pie? !  Which burns more calories: swimming for 20 minutes or jumping rope for five minutes?
  • You can use quotes from literature, research, competitors, newspapers, and quotes from anyone credible who might prove your point. !  “To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.” (La Rochefoucauld). !  “The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human being with drugs, but rather will cure and prevent disease with nutrition.” Thomas Edison !  Remember to use the power of “PEP” to make your ideas more interesting and credible. !  PEP: Point, Evidence, Point. Statistics, analogies, comparisons, stories, questions, and quotations are just a few of the forms of evidence that can appeal to logic, emotion, and character.
  • !  Some jokes can work very well, but it can also lead to disaster. !  You must choose a joke which will not offend any member of the audience. !  This advice tends to rule out all racist, sexist or generally rude jokes. !  Jokes are useful in maintaining the attention of the audience, and for relieving the tension of the speech.
  • !  Stories connect communities. Stories connect people. !  Stories promote social cohesion, and communicate common values and rules. !  Stories help us learn from other peoples’ experiences. !  If you’re trying to inform, persuade, motivate, or entertain, you need to incorporate stories. !  Every time you speak, you should think about how to enhance your message with stories.
  • 1. The Plot Putting actions into a sequence is a story; stories make listening to anything a more interesting experience. 2. The Setting !  Usually a story begins by establishing the setting. This tells us where and when the actions take place.!The purpose is to engage us or transport us directly into the story.! !  "As I was driving home from work…" or "Two years ago when I was living in New York City…” or “This past Saturday afternoon when I was supposed to be finalizing my presentation…”
  • 5. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • 5. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION !  EYE CONTACT !  VOCAL QUALITY !  POSTURE !  GESTURES !  EXPRESSION !  APPEARANCE
  • !  Fact #1: Your words only count for small percentage of the actual message that you deliver: The biggest part of your message is conveyed through: !  Body language !  Facial expression !  Tone of voice
  • !  Fact #2: The audience wants to feel positive emotions from hearing you: •  The audience want comfort, relief, hope, and peace of mind. That experience does not come from your words. •  We've all heard words that sound empty, where emotion doesn't match the actual words. •  Create emotion and connection
  • !  Fact #3: Your non-verbal communication will immediately make an impression on your audience: •  When you are speaking your intention is to connect with the audience. That is what communication is all about. •  People connect at the heart. That's where those non- verbal elements come into play. •  The audience is watching your eyes. They're looking to see if you care about them and their problem.
  • !  How you use your body, how you stand, sit, move, and gesture, affects how an audience receives your message. !  If your body language communicates confidence, sincerity and enthusiasm, people will be more likely to believe you. !  If not, they will have a harder time accepting what you say. !  Pay attention to your non-verbal message; it should match your verbal message. When the non-verbal message does not match the verbal message there is a barrier.
  • !  The most effective way to bond with your listeners is to establish and maintain eye contact as you speak. !  Eye contact can create the appearance of movement even when you are standing or sitting still. !  The eyes are the most effective tool in convincing the audience of your honesty, openness and confidence in your presentation. !  During the presentation you should use eye contact to enhance rapport with the audience. Establish eye contact with each and every member of the audience.
  • !  By establishing eye contact with the people at the back of a lecture hall it is possible to convince each of them individually that he or she is the object of your attention. !  During presentations, try to hold your gaze fixed in specific directions for five or six seconds at a time and move your eyes to different directions. !  Shortly after each change in position, a slight smile will convince each person in that direction that you have seen and acknowledged them.
  • !  People associate a strong voice with confidence and a weak voice with a lack of confidence. !  Develop a strong, confident voice. Don’t scream, don’t yell. Just SPEAK UP. !  If people are distracted, bored or irritated by your voice, your message will be lost on them.
  • !  Knowing when to slow down, speed up, and pause, have an effect on the way your message is received. !  A monotone speech is boring, so it is important to try to vary the pitch and speed of your presentation. !  Each new sub-section should be proceeded by a pause and a change in tone.
  • !  Volume: Nothing is more frustrating than not being able to hear a speaker’s words. !  Clarity: Pronounce your words clearly. !  Speed: Slow down when giving a presentation.
  • !  Pacing: A change of pace attracts attention. •  Incorporate meaningful pauses to add emphasis to key spots. •  Slow down when making a vital point, repeating your core message, or inviting your audience to a call to action. !  Tone: Check your pitch. People tend to speak in a slightly higher voice when they’re nervous. !  Authority: Audiences respond better to speakers who project a confidence. Avoid sentences such as , “ I am not expert but…” or “You might not agree with me, but…”
  • !  When you stand before an audience, your posture should convey strength, steadfastness and power. !  You want to appear alert, engaged and authoritative. !  Stand up straight: Be careful not to slouch, even if you are tired. !  Don’t lean on anything, including the podium or table. !  Move purposefully from one side of stage to the center, then to the other side, to connect with your entire audience throughout your presentation. !  Use movement as punctuation. Stop moving when you are making an important point.
  • !  While you are on stage, your posture will convey a great deal about you. !  Make sure your posture does not convey boredom; you can use your whole body as a dynamic tool to reinforce your rapport with the audience. !  Using gestures adds emphasis to key points, provides visual interest, and makes you seem relaxed. !  Many presenters are confused with what to do with their hands while they speak. !  When you are not gesturing or using a prop, the best place for your hands is by your sides. !  Avoid putting them in your pockets, playing with a pen, pointer, or prop. !  The key is to keep your hands still, except when used in unison with your speech.
  • !  The audience watches your face. If you are looking distracted then they will be distracted; if you are smiling, they will be wondering why and listen to find out. !  In normal conversation your meaning is enhanced by facial reinforcement. !  Make sure that your facial expressions are natural and have a smile on your face.
  • !  When you are giving a presentation you must dress for the audience, not for yourself; if they think you look out of place, then you are. !  When you are giving a presentation it is safe to wear a business suit. !  Dress at or above the level of your audience. !  It is better to be slightly overdressed than underdressed, as it shows respect for your audience. !  Dress conservatively when giving a major presentation. !  Choose colors that project authority. Select strong neutral colors such as black, gray, or dark blue.
  • 6. VISUAL AIDS
  • 6. VISUAL AIDS WORKING WITH VISUAL AIDS HANDOUTS
  • !  Most people expect visual reinforcement for any verbal message being delivered. While it would be unfair to blame television entirely for this, it is useful to understand that the audience is accustomed to visuals. !  You can meet their expectations using PowerPoint, overhead projectors, a slide show, or even a video presentation. !  Use different formats as visuals: For instance, if you are describing the four functions of a project manager then you might display the four "hats" he/she must wear.
  • !  Remember that it is as easy to make your point with low-tech visual aids as it is with high-tech ones. !  Your visual aids, whether you are using handouts, whiteboards, or videos, should always be designed to reinforce your core message and lead your audience to your call to action.
  • 1.  Speakers’ aids: "  Notes "  Note cards "  Entire presentation written out word by word "  PowerPoint presentation "  Microphones "  LCD Projector 2.  Low-tech/high-tech visual aids "  Flip-charts "  Whiteboards "  Handouts "  Video and audio "  Multi-media
  • !  Both high-tech and low-tech visual aids can work wonders in capturing and keeping your audience’s attention. !  They help listeners remember your core message and stay focused on your presentation. !  When used correctly, audio and visual aids enhance your presentation, boost your credibility, and strengthen your message.
  • !  Audiences love handouts. !  Make sure the handout complements your points in a new way. !  It is difficult to know how much information to include and how much to save for the presentation.
  • THE PROS THE CONS !  Listeners may pay more !  Listeners may pay less attention to your spoken attention to your spoken remarks. remarks. !  Your listeners may skip !  Handouts will prove to ahead. the audience that the presenter is well prepared. !  This can make it harder for you to build the case for your !  Your listeners will better core message. remember your message !  Your listeners may leave early.
  • 7. MANAGING QUESTIONS & OBJECTIONS "  THE BENEFITS OF Q&A "  CHALLENGES OF Q&A "  THREE STEP PROCESS OF HANDLING QUESTIONS "  DIFFICULT QUESTIONS
  • !  They allow you to demonstrate your expertise on the topic. !  They provide another opportunity to interact and build rapport with the audience. !  They help you understand whether an audience understands and accepts your message. !  They provide feedback that helps you strengthen your presentation the next time you deliver it.
  • !  You may be asked questions you cannot answer. !  They can give a platform to someone who wants to discredit your message or undermine your authority. !  A member of the audience may make a long, rambling statement rather than ask a question. !  Since Q&A usually comes last, they can close your presentation on a sour note.
  • 1. Listen carefully and attentively to the question, and repeat it for all to hear. 2. Pause and think about best way to answer the question: Allow yourself a few seconds to construct a response. 3. Answer the question as directly as possible: Be concise if time is an issue; expand on your answer if you have time to fill.
  • THINK ANSWER THE LISTEN TO AND REPEAT CAREFULLY; QUESTION; THE QUESTION CONSIDER THE CALL ON THE BEST RESPONSE NEXT PERSON
  • !  When you are preparing your speech be sure to think about the audience and project what questions they will be asking. !  If you don’t know the answer, admit it and say I don’t know. !  Paraphrase: Repeat the question in your own words. !  Agree with the person by saying, “ You are right, this is a concern.”
  • !  Refer to the audience for their answer to the question. “What do you all think about…?” !  Refer to a higher source: “Well, that question should be answered by our business manager.” !  Close the Q&A with your final message. Be sure to restate your core message and call to action. !  Do not end your presentation with your last answer to a question. Get the attention back on your presentation by ending with a powerful closing statement.
  • !  Before every presentation, sit down with few friends and go over every possible question that might be asked. !  This process may help in preventing “surprise” questions !  Suppose you prepare thoroughly, yet you still hear a surprise question. See the following suggestions:
  • You might say: !  Please see me at break, and we can discuss your question. !  I do not have the information now; I will make a note to get back to you. !  I will cover the answer to your question in the second part of my talk. !  Your question is beyond the scope of what we are discussing today.
  • PART III: PUBLIC SPEAKING TIPS 1.  HOW TO CONNECT WITH THE AUDIENCE 2.  SEVEN REASONS SPEAKERS FAIL 3.  SEVEN SECRETS TO HANDLING A HOSTILE AUDIENCE 4.  LESSONS TO LEARN FROM MEMORABLE SPEECHES 5.  EVALUATE YOURSELF AS A SPEAKER
  • !  When you communicate face-to-face with the audience, the audience will want to hear your story; they want to hear the passion in your voice and see the excitement in your eyes. !  Audiences do come to listen to content; they want speakers who have an energy and excitement that will create a lasting impact. !  Donald Trump put it this way, "If you don't have passion, you don't have energy, and if you don't have energy, you have nothing.” !  When you are getting ready for your speech: Think about the speakers who have had the most impact in your life --the ones who have inspired you. Think about how they made you feel when they talked. You can probably still remember that feeling and perhaps even the words that they said.
  • !  Great communicators give us not only solid content, but they make us feel good- they inspire us. !  Great communicators share and show their natural passion. !  Move from being a good communicator to being an inspirational communicator. !  Think about your passion- move out of your day-to-day comfort zone and find the courage to share your passion publicly. !  Think about not only what you want to communicate to the people around you, but also how you want to communicate it. !  Think about the impact you want to make. Let others feel your passion, energy, and enthusiasm.
  • !  Share and show your natural passion. Be honest. Be genuine. !  Be your authentic self when you communicate with other people. !  Speakers who are real, honest, and able to share their passion will have the biggest positive impact on the audience. !  Many science, technology, and business professionals are often trained to communicate about their work in a non- passionate and objective manner.
  • !  Encouraging audience participation breaks down the wall between you and your listeners. !  By bringing you psychologically and physically closer to your audience, interaction can be powerful tool for establishing rapport. !  Making a successful connection with your audience improves the chances that they’ll be receptive to your message and that you’ll give a memorable presentation. !  Greeting the guests at the door and having a short conversation will also help building a relationship with your audience.
  • !  You can give a more energetic and engaging presentation when you incorporate the audience during the course of the presentation. !  Ask for a show of hands: Take a quick poll about an issue related to your topic. !  Ask the audience to share personal experiences: By asking your audience to share their stories, you gather stories to support your message, while getting you closer to your audience. !  Ask volunteers from the audience: When you bring people to demonstrate a product or act out a scenario, the rest of the audience feels closer to you. It transform them from spectators to participants in your presentation.
  • SEVEN REASONS SPEAKERS FAIL 1. IGNORE THE CLOCK 2. FORGET THE OBJECTIVE 3. INADEQUATE PREPARATION 4. FAILURE TO CAPTURE ATTENTION 5. ATTEMPTING TO FULFILL EGOS 6. BOREDOM 7. FALSE ENDINGS
  • !  Start on time and stop on time. Not only will your audience respect you for it, but it will prove that you respect your audience. !  The problem of speaking too long or taking more time than allotted seems to be an epidemic among high-level business leaders. !  The length of a presentation shouldn’t be a function of title or power, but a function of how long the speaker agreed to talk. !  If you say what you need in ten minutes, quit after 10 minutes. If you need more time, negotiate for it in advance. !  Don’t take the next three speakers’ time because you either don’t pay attention to your watch or you are too arrogant to realize that the high point of the meeting just might not be listening to you speak twice as long as expected.
  • !  Executives who do not have clear objectives for their presentation usually achieve little. !  Design your speech the way the pros do. Begin by asking, “At the end of this presentation, what do I want listeners to think, feel and do? !  Good presenters speak to the mind, the heart and the hands. !  Begin with an overt statement of purpose: “The reason I’m speaking to you today is…”
  • !  There is no excuse for “winging it.” The best speakers are always prepared for what they say. !  That brilliant presenter you heard that came up with the wonderful analogy and spectacular quotes “on the spot” really didn’t. !  They planned carefully not only what they were going to say but also what the audience is going to ask. !  Don’t ever beginning by saying, “I really haven’t thought about what I’m going to say…”or “I didn’t get a chance to prepare”. !  If you are asked to give speeches quite often, prepare three or four of the most important messages to offer your audiences
  • !  The average listener is bombarded with messages from many different sources. !  From email to radio to voicemail to cell phones, everybody is trying to tell us something, and your attempt to give a speech is just one more bombardment. !  That is why what you say and how you say it had better grab the audience’s attention right away . !  You do not have time to “warm up.” (“Thank you for inviting me to be here today. It is indeed my pleasure to address you.”) !  Prove that your message matters to the listener and be sure your remarks are relevant. !  Most people in your audience are interested with “How does it affect me?” and you need to be intellectually honest to prove your points.
  • !  Ego-driven leaders are more concerned with what followers think about them than they are with what followers do because of them. !  Self-absorbed speakers present to get their needs met, rather than meet the needs of the audience. The audience can instantly recognize this. !  You would not be asked to speak unless someone believed that you have credibility, and something to say. That is enough. Do not undo that assumption through efforts to prove your status to others.
  • !  An audience today contains many people who were raised on Sesame Street and MTV. !  That means they spent their formative years watching music videos that often contained 150 images in the course of a minute. !  To be simply entertaining is not in itself a worthwhile goal for a presenter, but it sure beats the alternative, which is boring.
  • !  The value of entertainment for a speaker is that it mentally engages listeners. I’ve found the best way to educate is to slip good ideas in on the wings of entertainment. !  Telling a joke is risky. When it works, it works well. When it fails, nothing fails worse. !  The best way to use humor in such a way that it illustrates your point. If the audience doesn’t laugh, the illustration is still of value. And if they get a chuckle out of the humor, that’s just icing on the cake.
  • !  A speaker starts to conclude, even tells the audience of his intent, and then tells a story. !  The audience responds favorably. The speaker gets excited. “Wow, they liked that. I’ve got an even better story,” he thinks to himself. !  And then he continues and ends again, with another story or a quote. The speaker keeps continuing, until there is no positive response, but rather visible signs of disgust. By then, it is too late.
  • !  You can only effectively conclude once, yet I’ve seen some speakers conclude over and over. Each false ending weakens the message. !  The false ending nightmare usually begins with these words, “In conclusion….” That triggers hope in the audience’s mind. “Hey, it’s almost over!” They expect you to wrap up quickly. !  In my mind that means either summarizing or making a final point. Several points, or the introduction of new points, is not a conclusion. !  A simple rule to remember: a good ending happens only once.
  • 1.  Have an objective 2.  Stay calm 3.  Be positive 4.  Be prepared 5.  Stick to the facts 6.  Be aware of your body language 7.  Establish common ground
  • “There’s not a liberal America And a conservative America there’s the United States of America” Barack Obama
  • There are three things that you can do to make your speeches have the Obama impact: 1. Have A Conversation: The more that you are able to work a conversational tone into your speeches, the deeper the connection that you'll be able to make with your audience. •  Using fancy words or "talking over their heads" will only serve to increase the distance between you and them. •  Have a conversation with them and you'll be able to make your point.
  • 2. Add Some Punctuation: We usually only think about punctuation when we are writing, but politicians show us that it plays a role in speeches too. •  Adding periods and semicolons to the way that you deliver your speech will allow your audience to catch up and follow along with your thinking.
  • 3.  Pause For Effect: The Worst speakers never seem to take a breath when they are speaking •  Adding pauses to your speech is a fantastic way to make it have more of an impact. •  Pausing allows your audience to laugh, consider a point, or just catch up and ponder what you've just said.
  • !  In his 2004 keynote address, we see many of the outstanding communication practices that have helped make Barack Obama one of the most compelling speakers of our time. !  Public and media praise Obama’s keynote address as, “One of the best addresses we’ve heard in many, many years.” !  In the days to come, the press continued to commend the address as a masterpiece of oration.
  • Many of the outstanding communication techniques Obama employed are highlighted here: 1.  Creating a strong first impression 2.  Effective use of body language and voice 3.  Using effective gestures 4.  Establishing common ground 5.  Connecting one-on- one 6.  Winning hearts and minds by speaking to audiences’ concerns 7.  Strong beginning 8.  Stressing common dreams and values
  • 9. Knowing your audience 10. Personalizing the message 11. Illustrating with anecdotes 12. Using rhetorical questions 13. Effective repetition 14. Power of three 15. Comparing and contrasting 16. Knowing your objective 17. Inspiring others 18. Creating a sense of momentum and urgency 19. Motivate listeners to action 20. Strong ending
  • !  Antithesis is the use of two contrasting words, phrases or sentences placed directly in opposition to one another. !  Famous people used this technique in their speeches: !  “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.” — JFK !  “Give me liberty or give me death!” — Patrick Henry
  • !  Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in neighboring words or syllables. !  The most famous line Martin Luther King Jr. ever spoke was: !  “I have a dream … that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” !  Notice how the sound of the hard “c” punctuates the sentence. !  Also note that the phrase combines antithesis with alliteration. “not be judged by … but by …”
  • Using a list of three words or phrases in succession is a time-tested technique for creating memorable hooks. Lists of three that are embedded in our brains are: !  American Constitution Of the people By the people For the people !  Patrick Henry Life Liberty And the pursuit of happiness
  • !  Napoleon I came I saw I conquered !  Churchill I have nothing to offer but Blood Sweat and Tears
  • You can use repetition to create hooks that your audience will remember: !  One hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. !  One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. !  One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. !  One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself in exile in his own land.”
  • The beginning of excellence is the elimination of foolishness. You can bump up your speaking performance by analyzing your last presentation by asking these seven questions: •  Did I stick to my allotted time? •  Did I develop and present purposefully? •  Was I thoroughly prepared? •  Did I capture attention at the very beginning? •  Did I positively influence listeners? •  Was I appropriately entertaining, or at least not boring? •  Did I end only once?
  • In closing I want to leave you with this final thought: The secret to creating a memorable presentation is PREPARATION.
  • This list of 14 steps will lead you to become a successful presenter: 1.  Conquer Your Fear 2.  Know Your Audience 3.  Organize Your Speech 4.  Define your objective 5.  Know your topic inside out 6.  Plan for a strong opening 7.  Develop the main points 8.  Research and gather supporting materials 9.  Add spark to your speech 10.  Plan for a strong closing 11.  Write and re-write your speech 12.  Rehearse your speech 13.  Pay attention to non-verbal communication skills 14.  Plan for visual aids