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Communication And Awareness Raising

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    Communication And Awareness Raising Communication And Awareness Raising Presentation Transcript

    • I.  WHAT  IS  EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION?   II.  THE  COMMUNICATION  PROCESS   III.  COMMUNICATION  BARRIERS   IV.  ACTIVE  LISTENING   V.  COMMUNICATION  &  RAISING  PUBLIC  AWARENESS     VI.  PHASES  OF  BEHAVIOR  CHANGE  
    • PART  I   WHAT  IS  EFFECTIVE   COMMUNICATION?  
    • In  a  recent  survey  of  recruiters  from  companies     with  more  than  50,000  employees,    communication  skills  were  cited     as  the  single  most  important     decisive  factor  in  choosing     managers.  
    • The  survey,  conducted  by  the     University  of  Pittsburgh’s  Business  School,     points  out  that  communication  skills  (including   written  and  oral  presentations)  and  the  ability  to   work  with  others,  are  the  main  factor   contributing  to  job  success.  
    •  People  who  possess  exceptional  communications  skills   maintain  a  competitive  advantage  in  securing  the  best  jobs:   •  Communication/Interpersonal  skills    89.0%   •  Ability  to  work  well  within  a  team    86.9%   •  Personal  ethics  and  integrity      86.2%   •  Analytical  and  problem  solving  skills    84.3%   •  Work  ethic            82.9%   •  Fit  the  corporate  culture        74.5%   •  Success  with  past  hires        74.0%   •  Leadership  potential        72.5%   •  Strategic  thinking          67.1%  
    • In  spite  of      increasing  importance     placed  on  communications  skills,     many  individuals  continue  to  struggle,        unable  to  communicate  their  thoughts  effectively,     whether  in  verbal  or  written  format.    This  inability  makes  it  nearly  impossible  for  them     to  compete  effectively  in  the  workplace,      and  stands  in  the  way  of      career  progression.  
    • •  Effective  communication  is  all  about  conveying   your  messages  to  other  people  clearly.   •  It  is  also  about  receiving  information  that  others   are  sending  to  you,  with  as  little  distortion  as   possible.   •  Communication  is  only  successful  when  both  the   sender  and  the  receiver  understand  the  same   information  as  a  result  of  the  communication.  
    • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION •  By  successfully  getting  your  message  across,  you   convey  your  thoughts  and  ideas  effectively.   •  When  communication  is  unsuccessful,  the   thoughts  and  ideas  that  you  send  do  not   necessarily  reflect  what  you  mean.   •  This  will  cause  a  communication  breakdown  and   create  roadblocks.    
    •  Tell  me,  and  I  will  forget.      Show  me,  and  I  may  remember.      Involve  me,  and  I  will  understand.              Confucius,  circa  450  B.C.    
    •                          We  learn:        1%    through  taste          1.5%  through  touch          3.5%  through  smell          11%  through  hearing          83%  through  seeing    
    •    10%  of  what  we  read      20%  of  what  we  hear        30%  of  what  we  see      50%  of  what  we  see  and  hear      80%  of  what  we  say        90%  of  what  we  say  and  do  
    • •  Effective  communicators  get  their  point  across   without  misunderstanding  and  confusion.   •  The  goal  of  the  effective  communicator  should   be  to  lessen  the  frequency  of  problems  at  each   stage  of  the  communication  process.   •  This  is  only  possible  with  clear,  concise,  accurate,   and  well-­‐planned  communications.    
    • STEP  II   THE  COMMUNICATION  PROCESS  
    • •  Problems  with  communication  can  pop-­‐up  at  every  stage  of   the  communication  process  which  consists  of:   •  Sender   •  Message   •  Encoding   •  Channel   •  Decoding   •  Receiver   •  Feedback     •  The  context     •  At  each  stage,  there  is  the  potential  for  misunderstanding   and  confusion.  
    • MESSAGE   CONTEXT   SENDER   ENCODING   CHANNEL   DECODING   RECEIVER   FEEDBACK  
    •  As  the  source  of  the  message,  you  need  to  be  clear  about   why  you're  communicating,  and  what  you  want  to   communicate.   •  Communications  is  a  two-­‐way  process  that  starts  with  the  sender.       •  The  sender  should  be  conveying  information  necessary  for   mission  accomplishment.       •  The  sender  must  be  proactive  in  making  the  receiver  understand   the  message.       •  Too  often,  what  is  said  is  not  always  what  is  heard.    
    •   State  one  idea  at  a  time.     State  ideas  simply  and  clearly.     Explain  when  appropriate.     Repeat  if  appropriate.     Encourage  feedback.     Read  between  the  lines.    Did  your  choice  of  words,  tone  of  voice,  body  language,  intentional  gestures   or  subconscious  movements-­‐  convey  the  same  meaning?    
    •   The  message  is  the  information  that  you   want  to  communicate.     The  message  is  the  information  the  sender   wants  to  communicate  to  the  receiver.     The  message  is  usually  verbal,  but  it  can  also   be  non-­‐verbal.      
    •   Speak  clearly.       Use  correct  terminology.       Use  appropriate  vocal  tone  and  volume.         Time  the  message  to  be  sent  when  the   receiver  is  able  to  listen.      
    • •  Be  relevant  to  the  receiver,  not  a  distraction.    The   message  needs  to  be  inclusive  and  informative.         •  Inclusive  means  that  it  contains  everything   necessary  for  the  receiver  to  understand  the   sender’s  point.       •  Informational  means  it  is  something  that  the   receiver  needs  to  know.    
    • •  This  is  the  process  of  transferring  the  information  you  want  to   communicate  into  a  form  that  can  be  sent  and  correctly  decoded  at   the  other  end.   •  Your  success  in  encoding  depends  partly  on  your  ability  to  convey   information  clearly  and  simply.   •  Your  ability  to  anticipate  and  eliminate  sources  of  confusion:   Cultural  issues,  mistaken  assumptions,  and  missing  information.   •  A  key  part  of  this  is  knowing  your  audience:      Failure  to  understand  who  you  are  communicating  with  will  result  in   delivering  messages  that  are  misunderstood.  
    •              Messages  are  conveyed  through  different  channels:     Verbal  channels:       Face-­‐to-­‐face  meetings     Seminars     Lectures     Telephone       Videoconferencing     Written  channels:     Letters     Emails       Memos       Reports  
    •  Different  channels  have  different  strengths   and  weaknesses:   •  It  is  not  effective  to  give  a  long  list  of  directions   verbally.   •  You  may  cause  problems  if  you  give  someone   negative  feedback  using  email.  
    • •  Just  as  successful  encoding  is  a  skill,  so  is   successful  decoding.   •  For  example,  taking  the  time  to  read  a  message   carefully,  or  listen  actively  to  it.   •  Just  as  confusion  can  arise  from  errors  in   encoding,  it  can  also  arise  from  decoding  errors.   •  This  is  particularly  the  case  if  the  decoder   doesn't  have  enough  knowledge  to  understand   the  message.  
    • •  Your  message  is  delivered  to  individual  members  of   your  audience.   •  No  doubt,  you  have  in  mind  the  actions  or  reactions   you  hope  your  message  will  get  from  this  audience.   •  Each  individual  enters  into  the  communication   process  with  ideas  and  feelings  that  will  influence   their  understanding  of  your  message,  and  their   response.   •  To  be  a  successful  communicator,  you  should  consider   these  feelings  and  ideas  before  delivering  your   message,  and  act  appropriately.  
    • •  Your  audience  will  provide  you  with  feedback,  as   verbal  and  non-­‐verbal  reactions  to  your   communicated  message.   •  Pay  close  attention  to  this  feedback,  as  it  is  the  only   thing  that  can  give  you  confidence  that  your  audience   has  understood  your  message.   •  If  you  find  that  there  has  been  a  misunderstanding,   you  still  have  the  opportunity  to  send  the  message   again  
    •   The  situation  in  which  your  message  is   delivered  is  the  context.     This  may  include  the  surrounding   environment  or  broader  culture.     Context  can  also  include  corporate  culture   or  international  cultures.  
    • STEP  III   BARRIERS  TO  COMMUNICATION  
    • •  Barriers  are  influencing  factors  which  impede   or  breakdown  the  continuous  communications   loop.       •  They  block,  distort,  or  alter    information.       •  By  identifying  barriers  and  applying  counter-­‐ measures,  speakers  can  effectively   communicate.      
    •  Preoccupation        Anger  or  frustration      Personal  bias      Team  diversity      Lack  of  confidence      Inappropriate  priorities      Organizational  structure      Distractions      Tunnel  vision      Interruptions    
    •   To  deliver  your  messages  effectively,  you  must  commit   to  breaking  down  the  barriers  that  exist  within  each  of   the  stages  of  the  communication  process.     If  your  message  is  too  lengthy,  disorganized,  or  contains   errors,  you  can  expect  the  message  to  be  misunderstood   and  misinterpreted.     Use  of  poor  verbal  and  body  language  can  also  confuse     or  distort  the  message.  
    • •  Barriers  in  context  tend  to  stem  from  senders  offering  too   much  information  too  quickly.   •  When  in  doubt,  less  is  oftentimes  more.  It  is  best  to  be   mindful  of  the  demands  on  other  peoples’  time  in  today’s   ultra-­‐busy  society.   •  You  need  to  understand  your  audience’s  culture,  making   sure  you  can  converse  and  deliver  your  message  to  people   of  different  backgrounds  and  cultures.  
    • STEP  IV   ACTIVE  LISTENING    
    • •  Active  listening  is  a  process  used  by  the  receiver  to  facilitate   communication  and  enhance  performance.       •  It  requires  the  receiver  to  be  active  in  the  communications  process.   •  Listening  is  one  of  the  most  important  skills  you  can  have.   •  How  well  you  listen  has  a  major  impact  on  your  job  effectiveness,   and  on  the  quality  of  your  relationships  with  others.   ▪  Listen  more  than  talk   ▪  Listen  to  obtain  information   ▪  Listen  to  understand   ▪  Listen  for  enjoyment   ▪  Listen  to  learn  
    •   Focus  attention  on  the  message.     Look  at  the  sender.     Listen  and  look  for  the  nonverbal  message.     Observing  non-­‐verbal  messages  provides  information   regarding  what  the  sender  wants  to  convey.  
    • •  Your  perception  of  the  message  and  the  sender’s   message  may  be  different.   •  Word  choice,  tone  of  voice,  body  position,  gestures   and  eye  contact  reflect  the  feelings  behind  the  spoken   word.   •  Keep  an  open  mind  and  suspend  judgment.   •  Verify  what  was  heard.   •  Provide  the  sender  feedback  
    • •  According  to  the  results  of  research,  we  remember   only  25-­‐50%  of  what  we  hear.   •  That  means  that  when  you  talk  to  your  boss,   colleagues,  customers  or  spouse  for  10  minutes,  they   only  really  hear  2½-­‐5  minutes  of  the  conversation.   •  Research  also  reveals  that  when  you  are  receiving   directions  or  being  presented  with  information,  you   are  not  hearing  the  whole  message  either.     •  You  hope  the  important  parts  are  captured  in  your  25-­‐   50%,  but  what  if  they  are  not?  
    • •  Clearly,  listening  is  a  skill  that  we  can  all  benefit  from   improving.     •  By  becoming  a  better  listener,  you  will  improve  your   productivity,  as  well  as  your  ability  to  influence,  persuade,   and  negotiate.   •  What’s  more,  you’ll  avoid  conflict  and  misunderstandings   –  all  necessary  for  workplace  success.    
    • •  The  way  to  become  a  better  listener  is  to  practice   “active  listening.”   •  Make  a  conscious  effort  to  hear  not  only  the  words   that  another  person  is  saying  but,  try  to   understand  the  total  message  being  sent.   •  In  order  to  do  this  you  must  pay  attention  to  the   other  person  very  carefully.  
    • •  Don’t  become  distracted  by  the  things  going  on   around  you,  or  by  forming  counter  arguments  that   you’ll  make  when  the  speaker  stops  speaking.   •  Nor  can  you  allow  yourself  to  lose  focus  on  what   the  other  person  is  saying.     •  All  of  these  barriers  contribute  to  a  lack  of  listening   and  understanding.  
    •  If  you're      finding  it  difficult      to  concentrate  on      what  someone  is  saying,      try  repeating  their  words  mentally      as  they  say  it  –  this  will  reinforce  their  message     and  help  you  control  a  mind  drift.  
    • •  As  a  listener  you  need  to  let  the  speaker  know  that  you  are   listening  to  what  he  or  she  is  saying.   •  Acknowledgement  can  be  something  as  simple  as  a  nod  of   the  head  or  a  simple  “uh  huh.”     •  You  aren’t  necessarily  agreeing  with  the  person,  you  are   simply  indicating  that  you  are  listening.   •  Using  body  language  and  other  signs  to  acknowledge  you   are  listening  also  reminds  you  to  pay  attention  and  not  let   your  mind  wander.  
    • •  You  should  try  to  respond  to  the  speaker  in  a  way  that  will   both  encourage  him/her  to  continue  speaking,  so  that  you   can  get  the  information  if  you  need.     •  While  nodding  and  saying  “uh  huh”  if  you  are  interested,   an  occasional  question  or  comment  to  recap  what  has   been  said  communicates  that  you  understand  the   message  as  well.  
    • •  There  are  five  key  elements  of  active  listening.   •  They  all  help  you  ensure  that  you  hear  the  other  person,  and   that  the  other  person  knows  you  are  hearing  what  they  are   saying.   1.  Pay  attention   2.  Show  that  you  are  listening   3.  Provide  feedback   4.  Defer  judgment   5.  Respond  appropriately    
    • Give  the  speaker  your  undivided  attention  and  acknowledge  the  message.         Recognize  that  what  is  not  said  also  speaks  loudly.       Look  at  the  speaker  directly.       Put  aside  distracting  thoughts.       Don’t  mentally  prepare  a  rebuttal!       Avoid  being  distracted  by  environmental  factors.       “Listen”  to  the  speaker’s  body  language.       Refrain  from  side  conversations  when  listening  in  a  group  setting.  
    •  Use  your  own  body  language  and  gestures  to  convey  your   attention.   •  Nod  occasionally.   •  Smile  and  use  other  facial  expressions.   •  Note  your  posture  and  make  sure  it  is  open  and  inviting.   •  Encourage  the  speaker  to  continue  with  small  verbal   comments  like  yes,  and  uh  huh.  
    •  Our  assumptions,  judgments,  and  beliefs  can  distort  what  we  hear.    As  a   listener,  your  role  is  to  understand  what  is  being  said  and  provide   feedback.   •  This  may  require  you  to  reflect  what  is  being  said  and  ask  questions.   •  Reflect  what  has  been  said  by  paraphrasing:    “What  I’m  hearing  is…”        “Sounds  like  you  are  saying…”     •  Ask  questions  to  clarify  certain  points:      “What  do  you  mean  when  you  say…”      “Is  this  what  you  mean?”   •  Summarize  the  speaker’s  comments  periodically.  
    • Don’t  interrupt  the  speaker.  Interrupting  is  a       waste  of  time.     •  It  frustrates  the  speaker  and  limits  full   understanding  of  the  message.   •  Allow  the  speaker  to  finish.   •  Don’t  interrupt  with  counter-­‐arguments.    
    •  Active  listening  is  a  model  for  respect  and  understanding.     •  You  are  gaining  information  and  perspective.     •  You  add  nothing  by  attacking  the  speaker  or  otherwise   putting  him  or  her  down.   •  Be  candid,  open,  and  honest  in  your  response.   •  Assert  your  opinions  respectfully.   •  Treat  the  other  person  as  he  or  she  would  want  to  be   treated.    
    • •  It  takes  a  lot  of  concentration  and  determination  to  be  an   active  listener.   •   Old  habits  are  hard  to  break,  and  if  your  listening  habits  are  as   bad  as  many  people’s  are,  then  there’s  a  lot  of  habit-­‐breaking   to  do!   •  Be  deliberate  with  your  listening  and  remind  yourself   constantly  that  your  goal  is  to  truly  hear  what  the  other   person  is  saying.  
    • •  Set  aside  all  other  thoughts  and  behaviors  and   concentrate  on  the  message.   •  Ask  question,  reflect,  and  paraphrase  to  ensure  you   understand  the  message.   •  Start  using  active  listening  today  to  become  a   better  communicator  and  improve  your  workplace   productivity  and  relationships.  
    •  In  many  parts  of  the  world,  children  play  games  that  involve  passing  messages  from  one   child  to  the  next.  Wherever  these  games  are  played  and  whatever  they  are  called,  they   serve  as  simple  yet  profound  reminders  of  the  difficulties  associated  with  human   communication.       Try  playing  this  game  with  stakeholders  as  an  'ice-­‐breaker'  activity  before   brainstorming  an  awareness-­‐raising  campaign.  The  rules  are  quite  simple.        Participants  space  themselves  out  so  they  can  whisper  to  their  immediate   neighbors  to  the  right,  left,  in  front  and  behind  but  not  hear  anyone  seated  further   away.       The  facilitator  writes  a  short  message  -­‐  no  more  than  one  sentence  -­‐  on  a  small   piece  of  paper  and  shows  it  to  the  first  participant  at  the  front  of  the  room.    The   facilitator  keeps  the  paper.    
    • •  As  the  "Pass-­‐it-­‐On"  game  demonstrates,  communication  is   not  an  easy  process.   •  The  idea  of  this  game  is  simply  to  pass  or  transmit  a  basic   message,  from  one  player  to  another.   •  The  fun  of  the  game  lies  in  the  subtle  alteration  of  the   message  as  it  is  passes  from  the  first  player  to  the  last.   •  The  critical  lesson  for  observers  is  just  how  easily  information   can  be  altered  through  repetitive  and  careless   communication.  
    •   Once  something  is  said  or  published  it  cannot  be   taken  back  or  undone.     The  challenge  is  to  avoid  or  minimize  opportunities   for  misunderstanding  and  misinterpretation.    
    •   Communication  is  complicated  and  the   degree  of  complexity  is  most  often   determined  by  factors  or  variables  that  we   can  anticipate  and  to  some  extent  control.     The  challenge  is  to  manage  these  variables   through  effective  planning,  implementation   and  monitoring.    
    •   External  distractions  can  cause  the  message  to  be  missed  or   misunderstood.       For  example,  the  physical  space  in  which  the  communication  is   occurring  may  have  negative  effects.       Is  the  meeting  room  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate   everyone  in  relative  comfort?     The  effectiveness  of  communication  may  be  diminished  if   people  feel  crowded,  they  cannot  hear  the  speaker  properly,  or   if  the  room  is  too  hot  or  too  cold.  
    •   The  credibility  of  the  communicator  -­‐  can  I  believe  this   person?     The  listener  or  reader's  level  of  education  and  background   knowledge  of  the  topic.     The  design  of  the  message  -­‐  is  it  appropriate  to  the   audience?    
    • •  Cultural  differences:  The  bigger  and  more  diverse   your  audience,  the  more  likely  it  is  that  someone  will   misunderstand  your  message.   •  Personal  differences:  Even  outwardly  homogenous   societies  or  communities  are  comprised  of  individuals   with  different  life  experiences  and  opinions.   •  Language  differences:  The  language  of  the  Internet   for  example  is  English-­‐often  idiomatic  English  that  is   poorly  written  and  heavily  abbreviated.  
    •       PART  V   COMMUNICATION  &   PUBLIC  AWARENESS  RAISING  
    • A  well-­‐planned  and     thoughtfully  presented     awareness-­‐raising  campaign     is  arguably  one  of  the  most  efficient  and   effective  means  of  communicating  information   about  a  particular  issue  to  a  large  and     geographically  dispersed  body  of  people.  
    • •  To  raise  awareness  is  to  inform  and  educate   people  about  a  topic  or  issue  with  the  intention   of  influencing  their  attitudes,  behaviors  and   beliefs  towards  the  achievement  of  a  defined   purpose  or  goal.   •  Generally,  awareness-­‐raising  is  understood  to  be   a  constructive  and  potentially  catalytic  force   that  ultimately  leads  to  a  positive  change  in   actions  and  behaviors.    
    •  A  successful  public  awareness  campaign  will   typically  involve  four  key  actions:   1.  Researching  the  issue   2.  Mobilizing  support  and  supporters   3.  Informing  the  public   4.  Lobbying  decision-­‐makers  
    • •  To  raise  public  awareness  of  a  topic  or  issue  is  to   attempt  to  inform  to  influence  a  community's   attitudes,  behaviors  and  beliefs.   •  There  is  a  method  of  influencing  behaviors  and   beliefs  positively  for  the  achievement  of  a  defined   purpose.   •  For  example,  improving  public  health  or  promoting   information  literacy  is  a  defined  purpose.  
    • •  Effective  communication  forms  the  basis  of  all   social  marketing  and  public  awareness  raising.   •  Social  marketing  refers  to  the  practice  of   communicating  or  selling  “an  idea”  with  the   stated  object  of  changing  community  attitudes   and  actions   •  For  example:     –  Information  literacy     –  Public  health  and  education   –  Environmental  concerns  
    • 1.  Know  your  purpose   2.  Let  your  purpose  guide  and  inform  your  message   3.  Know  your  audience:      Be  mindful  of    social,  cultural  and  educational  backgrounds   4.  Anticipate  problems  and  find  solutions-­‐or  manage  the  risk   5.  Ensure  credibility  with  your  audience:  trust  is  vital   6.  Present  information  using  a  variety  of  approaches  and  techniques   but  ensure  each  is  appropriate  to  your  purpose,  message  and   audience   7.      Look  for  practical  ways  to  get  useful  feedback  from  your   audience    
    • PART  VI   PHASES  OF  BEHAVIOR  CHANGE  
    • Five  distinct  phases  of  behavioral  change:     1.  Pre-­‐contemplation   2.  Contemplation     3.  Preparation     4.  Action     5.  Maintenance  
    • 5.  MAINTENANCE   4.  ACTION     3.  PREPARATION     2.   CONTEMPLATION   1.  PRE-­‐ CONTEMPLATION  
    • 1.  Pre-­‐contemplation:  Knowledge    Demonstrating  awareness  of  the  desired  behavior   2.  Contemplation:  Approval    Voicing  endorsement  and  support  for  the  behavior   3.  Preparation:  Intention    Making  the  decision  to  adopt  the  behavior   4.  Action:  Practice    Committing  to  the  behavior  change  in  a  consistent  and  sustainable  way   5.  Maintenance:  Advocacy    Encouraging  others  to  adopt  the  behavior    with  intention  and  practice    
    • •  To  achieve  lasting  behavioral  change,  people  must  be   encouraged  to  move  through  each  successive  phase  in   order  to  reach  a  point  where  new  behaviors  can  be   maintained.   •  To  ensure  a  successful    campaign  to  raise  awareness,  it  is   necessary  therefore  to  know  which  phase  the  majority  of   the  target  population  is  in,  and  develop  an  appropriate   message  and  communication  strategy.    
    • 1.  Knowledge:  Knowing  there  is  a  problem     2.  Desire:  Imagining  a  different  future     3.  Skills:  Knowing  what  to  do  to  achieve  that  future     4.  Optimism:  Confidence  or  belief  in  success     5.  Facilitation:  Resources  and  support  infrastructure   6.  Stimulation:  A  compelling  stimulus  that  promotes  action     7.  Reinforcement:  Regular  communications  that  reinforce     original  message    
    • 7.   REINFORCEMENT   1.  KNOWLEDGE     THAT  WAS  A   I  KNOW     SUCCESS   I  SHOULD   6.  STIMULATION   2.  DESIRE     I  AM  JOINING  IN   I  WANT  TO   5.   3.  SKILLS   FACILITATION   I  CAN   IT  IS  EASY   4.  OPTIMISM   IT  IS  WORTH   IT  
    •   Robinson  goes  on  to  identify  each  step  as  an  obstacle   that  has  to  be  overcome  using  appropriate   communication  and  education  strategies.     He  visualizes  each  step  or  obstacle  as  a  door  that   must  be  opened  in  the  context  of  raising  awareness   in  order  to  achieve  lasting  social  change.    
    •        An  awareness-­‐raising  campaign  will  typically   communicate  either:      1.  One  central  message,  OR      2.  Closely  related  subsidiary  messages  that  are   linked  by  a  common  theme  
    •  There  are  four  key  components  of  an   effective  awareness  raising  campaign:     1.  Message     2.  Audience     3.  Strategy     4.  Timing    
    • 1.  Personal  communication  with  community  members  through  public   meetings,  presentations,  workshops  and  informal  social  events   2.  Structured  education  and  training  programs  in  schools,  colleges,   universities,  adult  learning  centers  and  libraries   3.  Printed  materials:  Brochures,  billboards,  cartoons,  comics,   pamphlets,  posters   4.  Audiovisual  resources:    Pre-­‐recorded  cassettes,  videos,  CDs  and   DVDs   5.  Websites,  email  discussion  lists  and  Web  Logs  (blogs)    
    • 6.  Mass  media  interviews  and  articles  in  newspapers,  magazines,  and   electronic  publications  accessible  via  the  Internet     7.  Mass  media  interviews/  news  items  on  radio  and  television   8.  Celebrity  spokespeople   9.  Performances  of  specially  composed  stories,  songs,  plays  and   poems   10.  Strategic  partnerships  and  alliances  with  other  organizations:  local   libraries,  schools  and  civic  society   11.  Public  Relations  (PR)     12.  Political  advocacy  and  lobbying      
    •  An  effective  awareness-­‐raising  campaign   strategy  will  employ  a  variety  of  different   communication  approaches  and  techniques   to  ensure  that  the  central  message  is  received   and  understood  by  a  diverse  audience.  
    •  Consider  five  challenging  issues  that  require  a              Public  Awareness  Campaign  in  your  community:    1.    2.    3.      4.      5.  
    • •  In  groups  of  three,  have  participants   analyze  the  communication  process.   •  One  person  should  serve  as  the  speaker   •  One  person  should  serve  as  the  listener   •  One  person  should  serve  as  the  observer  
    • •  As  the  speaker  and  the  listener  communicate,  the  observer  should   note  the  qualities  of  their  communication,  then  provide  feedback  to   both  participants.   •  Observers  should  consider  the  following  questions:   1.  Was  the  message  clear?   2.  Was  the  speaker  effective   3.  What  kind  of  communication  style  did  he/she  use?   4.  Did  the  listener  use  active  listening  skills?   5.  Were  there  characteristics  of  effective  communication