Introduction To Lichens - Lasw

5,276 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,276
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
418
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,308
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction To Lichens - Lasw

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO LICHENS
  2. 2. What is a lichen? Lichens are fungi that associate with algae. Most are ascomycetes, a few are basidiomycetes. ascomycetes basidiomycetes
  3. 3. Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved many separate times
  4. 4. Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved in basidiomycetes as well
  5. 5. all lichens contain algae or cyanobacteria <ul><li>upper cortex </li></ul><ul><li>algal layer </li></ul><ul><li>medulla </li></ul><ul><li>lower cortex </li></ul>
  6. 6. photobionts
  7. 7. photobionts - Trentepohlia
  8. 8. photobionts - cyanolichens sometimes look grey, or the dull blue-grey cyanobacteria seen when thallus is broken
  9. 9. photobionts - cyanolichens some cyanolichens swell when moist (but most do not)
  10. 10. photobionts - cephalodia
  11. 11. lichen growth forms <ul><li>crustose </li></ul><ul><li>foliose </li></ul><ul><li>fruticose </li></ul>
  12. 12. crustose lichens - cracked
  13. 13. crustose lichens - smooth
  14. 14. crustose lichens - leprose
  15. 15. crustose lichens - endolithic
  16. 16. squamulose lichens
  17. 17. squamulose lichens
  18. 18. foliose lichens
  19. 19. fruticose lichens
  20. 20. fruticose lichens
  21. 21. fruticose lichens – can be flattened
  22. 22. fruticose lichens – can be flattened
  23. 23. crustose with lobes: placodioid
  24. 24. filamentous shape is determined by photobiont
  25. 25. foliose lichens - rhizines
  26. 26. foliose lichens - cilia
  27. 27. pseudocyphellae
  28. 28. vegetative reproduction the lichen needs to disperse the fungus and the alga together
  29. 29. vegetative reproduction soredia isidia (in a soralium)
  30. 30. vegetative reproduction soralia
  31. 31. vegetative reproduction - soralia
  32. 32. vegetative reproduction - soralia
  33. 33. vegetative reproduction – soralia position is useful in species identification
  34. 34. vegetative reproduction – isidia
  35. 35. vegetative reproduction – phyllidia
  36. 36. vegetative reproduction – pseudoisidia
  37. 37. vegetative reproduction isidioid soredia/isidiomorphs – soredia which stay in place and become corticate
  38. 38. vegetative reproduction blastidia schizidia
  39. 39. vegetative reproduction - blastidia often very similar to soredia
  40. 40. sexual reproduction apothecium perithecium
  41. 41. sexual reproduction - apothecia
  42. 42. sexual reproduction - apothecia
  43. 43. sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin thalline margin (lecideine) (lecanorine)
  44. 44. sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin
  45. 45. sexual reproduction – apothecia convex; margin absent or almost
  46. 46. sexual reproduction – apothecia elongated apothecium (lirella)
  47. 47. sexual reproduction – apothecia Stalked, with a dry spore-mass
  48. 48. sexual reproduction – perithecia
  49. 49. sexual reproduction – perithecia perithecia sunk in pits in limestone
  50. 50. asexual spores called conidia usually in pycnidia
  51. 51. asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia
  52. 52. asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia, immersed in surface of limestone
  53. 53. basidiolichens
  54. 54. basidiolichens
  55. 55. When is it not a lichen?
  56. 56. When is it not a lichen, but it is a ‘lichen’?

×