Introduction To Lichens - Lasw

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO LICHENS
  • 2. What is a lichen? Lichens are fungi that associate with algae. Most are ascomycetes, a few are basidiomycetes. ascomycetes basidiomycetes
  • 3. Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved many separate times
  • 4. Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved in basidiomycetes as well
  • 5. all lichens contain algae or cyanobacteria
    • upper cortex
    • algal layer
    • medulla
    • lower cortex
  • 6. photobionts
  • 7. photobionts - Trentepohlia
  • 8. photobionts - cyanolichens sometimes look grey, or the dull blue-grey cyanobacteria seen when thallus is broken
  • 9. photobionts - cyanolichens some cyanolichens swell when moist (but most do not)
  • 10. photobionts - cephalodia
  • 11. lichen growth forms
    • crustose
    • foliose
    • fruticose
  • 12. crustose lichens - cracked
  • 13. crustose lichens - smooth
  • 14. crustose lichens - leprose
  • 15. crustose lichens - endolithic
  • 16. squamulose lichens
  • 17. squamulose lichens
  • 18. foliose lichens
  • 19. fruticose lichens
  • 20. fruticose lichens
  • 21. fruticose lichens – can be flattened
  • 22. fruticose lichens – can be flattened
  • 23. crustose with lobes: placodioid
  • 24. filamentous shape is determined by photobiont
  • 25. foliose lichens - rhizines
  • 26. foliose lichens - cilia
  • 27. pseudocyphellae
  • 28. vegetative reproduction the lichen needs to disperse the fungus and the alga together
  • 29. vegetative reproduction soredia isidia (in a soralium)
  • 30. vegetative reproduction soralia
  • 31. vegetative reproduction - soralia
  • 32. vegetative reproduction - soralia
  • 33. vegetative reproduction – soralia position is useful in species identification
  • 34. vegetative reproduction – isidia
  • 35. vegetative reproduction – phyllidia
  • 36. vegetative reproduction – pseudoisidia
  • 37. vegetative reproduction isidioid soredia/isidiomorphs – soredia which stay in place and become corticate
  • 38. vegetative reproduction blastidia schizidia
  • 39. vegetative reproduction - blastidia often very similar to soredia
  • 40. sexual reproduction apothecium perithecium
  • 41. sexual reproduction - apothecia
  • 42. sexual reproduction - apothecia
  • 43. sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin thalline margin (lecideine) (lecanorine)
  • 44. sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin
  • 45. sexual reproduction – apothecia convex; margin absent or almost
  • 46. sexual reproduction – apothecia elongated apothecium (lirella)
  • 47. sexual reproduction – apothecia Stalked, with a dry spore-mass
  • 48. sexual reproduction – perithecia
  • 49. sexual reproduction – perithecia perithecia sunk in pits in limestone
  • 50. asexual spores called conidia usually in pycnidia
  • 51. asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia
  • 52. asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia, immersed in surface of limestone
  • 53. basidiolichens
  • 54. basidiolichens
  • 55. When is it not a lichen?
  • 56. When is it not a lichen, but it is a ‘lichen’?