Introduction To Lichens -  Lasw
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Introduction To Lichens - Lasw

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    Introduction To Lichens -  Lasw Introduction To Lichens - Lasw Presentation Transcript

    • INTRODUCTION TO LICHENS
    • What is a lichen? Lichens are fungi that associate with algae. Most are ascomycetes, a few are basidiomycetes. ascomycetes basidiomycetes
    • Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved many separate times
    • Are lichens a ‘natural’ group? they have evolved in basidiomycetes as well
    • all lichens contain algae or cyanobacteria
      • upper cortex
      • algal layer
      • medulla
      • lower cortex
    • photobionts
    • photobionts - Trentepohlia
    • photobionts - cyanolichens sometimes look grey, or the dull blue-grey cyanobacteria seen when thallus is broken
    • photobionts - cyanolichens some cyanolichens swell when moist (but most do not)
    • photobionts - cephalodia
    • lichen growth forms
      • crustose
      • foliose
      • fruticose
    • crustose lichens - cracked
    • crustose lichens - smooth
    • crustose lichens - leprose
    • crustose lichens - endolithic
    • squamulose lichens
    • squamulose lichens
    • foliose lichens
    • fruticose lichens
    • fruticose lichens
    • fruticose lichens – can be flattened
    • fruticose lichens – can be flattened
    • crustose with lobes: placodioid
    • filamentous shape is determined by photobiont
    • foliose lichens - rhizines
    • foliose lichens - cilia
    • pseudocyphellae
    • vegetative reproduction the lichen needs to disperse the fungus and the alga together
    • vegetative reproduction soredia isidia (in a soralium)
    • vegetative reproduction soralia
    • vegetative reproduction - soralia
    • vegetative reproduction - soralia
    • vegetative reproduction – soralia position is useful in species identification
    • vegetative reproduction – isidia
    • vegetative reproduction – phyllidia
    • vegetative reproduction – pseudoisidia
    • vegetative reproduction isidioid soredia/isidiomorphs – soredia which stay in place and become corticate
    • vegetative reproduction blastidia schizidia
    • vegetative reproduction - blastidia often very similar to soredia
    • sexual reproduction apothecium perithecium
    • sexual reproduction - apothecia
    • sexual reproduction - apothecia
    • sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin thalline margin (lecideine) (lecanorine)
    • sexual reproduction – apothecia no thalline margin
    • sexual reproduction – apothecia convex; margin absent or almost
    • sexual reproduction – apothecia elongated apothecium (lirella)
    • sexual reproduction – apothecia Stalked, with a dry spore-mass
    • sexual reproduction – perithecia
    • sexual reproduction – perithecia perithecia sunk in pits in limestone
    • asexual spores called conidia usually in pycnidia
    • asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia
    • asexual spores apothecia together with pycnidia, immersed in surface of limestone
    • basidiolichens
    • basidiolichens
    • When is it not a lichen?
    • When is it not a lichen, but it is a ‘lichen’?