FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
                          IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
                        COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATI...
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
        COMPUTER SCIENCE
               EDUCATION

   HIGHER EDUCATION
   ...
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
       IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
               COMPUTER SCIENCE
                      EDUCATION

  ...
What is important is what the students
   learn, not how much the lecturer covers
                                       D...
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
     statements of what the students should
                know, understand or be able
              t...
HIGHER EDUCATION


LEARNING OUTCOMES
          The Dublin Descriptors
        • knowledge and understanding
• applying kno...
ENGINEERING EDUCATION

EUR-ACE: OUTCOMES OF ACCREDITED
ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES
             • knowledge and understa...
TWO VISIONS OF LEARNING

                            2.
                    1.
Vision of CONTENT           Vision of CONTE...
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
               IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
             COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION

                  ...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
1
                           CONTEXTUAL LEARNING

                    action learning              question posing

      ...
1
                  CONTEXTUAL LEARNING



 ARTICULATE THIS MULTITUDE OF DISTINCT
CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND PRACTICES INTO A
...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
2
    THEORIES SUPPORTING CONTEXTUAL LEARNING


•  PHILOSOPHICAL PRAGMATISM        (Dewey, Pepper)
                       ...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
3
                                          LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

                       MODEL FOR CONTEXT ENGINEERING...
3
                       LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

                 LOCUS OF CONTROL


teacher
control
          moderatio...
3
                              LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN

     COLLABORATION: SUSTAINABILITY, CYCLES, RYTHMS

Principles o...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
4
                                  CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT



LEARNING OUTCOMES should be formulated so that they can be as...
4
                   CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT

               Collection of the assignments produced by a student, in a
   LE...
4
                                    CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT



CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is also called AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
b...
4
                                CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT

 RUBRICS are versatile
contextual assessment
     and grading too...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
5
                        CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS


       Learning Management Systems. Software platforms that
LMS
       or...
5
                                       CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS

PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE




pioneering example of a (si...
5
             CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS

PROTOTYPES
5
                             CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
          SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES
      OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATF...
5
                                     CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
                 SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES
             OF CON...
1. Contextual learning
2. Theories supporting contextual learning
              3. Learning contexts design
              ...
6
                                                      CONCLUSIONS


•  Higher Education is moving from CONTENTS TO CONTE...
FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT
                          IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED
                        COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATI...
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Technology Supported Computer Science Education

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Presentation at the Computer Science Education E-learning Conference 2006, Coimbra, Portugal

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Technology Supported Computer Science Education

  1. 1. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  2. 2. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION changing vision about learning changing methods Bologna Process LEARNING OUTCOMES
  3. 3. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION ENGINEERING EDUCATION changing vision about learning for the profession changing vision about accreditation LEARNING OUTCOMES
  4. 4. What is important is what the students learn, not how much the lecturer covers Donald Bligh, 1972 Traditional methods were based on what the lecturer covered: on the content the lecturer delivered What is important is what the students learn To learn is not just only to acquire knowledge and understanding, but also to build skills, values and attitudes. These cannot be learned by telling-and-testing
  5. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES: statements of what the students should know, understand or be able to do as a result of the course They are expressed as competences: dynamic combinations of knowledge, understanding, skills, values, and attitudes
  6. 6. HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING OUTCOMES The Dublin Descriptors • knowledge and understanding • applying knowledge and understanding • making judgements • communications skills • learning skills
  7. 7. ENGINEERING EDUCATION EUR-ACE: OUTCOMES OF ACCREDITED ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES • knowledge and understanding • engineering analysis • engineering design • investigation • engineering practice • transferable skills
  8. 8. TWO VISIONS OF LEARNING 2. 1. Vision of CONTENT Vision of CONTEXT mechanistic constructivist “transfer” or “delivery” “construction” of knowledge of content by the learners (individually or in groups) in stimulating contexts
  9. 9. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  10. 10. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  11. 11. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  12. 12. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING action learning question posing computer supported cooperative learning directed dialogues learning by doing problem solving simulations debates learning by reflection CONTEXTUAL LEARNING learning by teaching situated learning story telling socratic dialogues projects case studies panel discussions incidental learning learning from mistakes role playing small group discussions story listening project based learning
  13. 13. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING ARTICULATE THIS MULTITUDE OF DISTINCT CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND PRACTICES INTO A SINGLE, COHERENT AND OPERATIONAL WORLDVIEW: CONTEXTUAL LEARNING LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN
  14. 14. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  15. 15. 2 THEORIES SUPPORTING CONTEXTUAL LEARNING •  PHILOSOPHICAL PRAGMATISM (Dewey, Pepper) (Piaget, Vygotsky) •  CONSTRUCTIVISM, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (Freire, Mezirow) •  CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORIES OF LEARNING •  THEORIES OF THE COMMUNTIES OF PRACTICE (Lave, Wenger) •  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING (Forman, Cole) •  ACTIVITY THEORY (Engeström, Chaiklin & Lave, Nardi) (Latour, Callon, Law) •  ACTOR NETWORK THEORY •  PATTERN THEORY (Alexander)
  16. 16. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  17. 17. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN MODEL FOR CONTEXT ENGINEERING •  level descriptors diagnostic consolidation •  learning outcomes innovation model of •  assessment strategy context •  subject descriptors •  teaching strategy evaluation creation model of •  content mediator generalization adaptation Roque & Figueiredo (2005) Context Engineering for Learning: A Socio-Technical Approach, in Figueiredo, A.D. and Afonso, A.P. (eds.) Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: the Role of Context, Idea Book Inc., 2006
  18. 18. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN LOCUS OF CONTROL teacher control moderation helpdesk self-organiztion of learner or of learning community CONTROL
  19. 19. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN COLLABORATION: SUSTAINABILITY, CYCLES, RYTHMS Principles of sustainability e.g. value proposition Cycles of collaboration: Rhythms regular events, special events, dates, limits, debates, visibility.
  20. 20. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  21. 21. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT LEARNING OUTCOMES should be formulated so that they can be assessed and grading criteria established and stated. ASSESSMENT should drive curriculum planning – not vice-versa. ASSESSMENT must be able to answer questions such as: •  What knowledge and understanding have been acquired? •  What skills and values have been developed or enhanced? •  What attitudes have been changed?
  22. 22. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT Collection of the assignments produced by a student, in a LEARNING given course, to demonstrate success in satisfying the PORTFOLIO learning objectives. It must include the personal reflections of the student about her own progress. Activity that has a clear purpose, a beginning and and end, PROJECT and is aimed at producing a visible result. Extended written text enabling learners to display their command of learning objectives while cultivating higher ESSAY order thinking skills (scientific or technical papers, user manuals, research essays, short essays, brochures). PRESENTATION Public demonstration, before an audience, of the knowledge and competencies gained the learner (slide presentations, poster presentations, focused debates).
  23. 23. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is also called AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT because it engages the learners in tasks and procedures where knowledge and competencies are exercised in real-world, complex, situations – not in artificial and de-contextualized tasks. LEARNING PORTFOLIOS are often used, with good results, in connection with LEARNING CONTRACTS [Knowles]. One of the most valuable mechanisms in CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is BLIND PEER-ASSESSMENT
  24. 24. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT RUBRICS are versatile contextual assessment and grading tools simplified example quot; They can be used to assess and grade as little as individual skills, and as much as full projects and programs They can be used by: - teachers - peers - self © California State University, Long Beach
  25. 25. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  26. 26. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS Learning Management Systems. Software platforms that LMS organize and provide access to online learning services for students, teachers, and administrators. They usually include access control, provision of learning content, communication tools, and organization of user groups. Learning Content Management Systems. Software platforms for LCMS the management of contents (“learning objects”) by authors, instructors, and learners. Learning CONTEXT Management Systems. Software platforms LXMS for the organization and management of learning contexts (namely social networking and collaboration within communities).
  27. 27. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE pioneering example of a (sill quite crude) contextual learning platform. manages sequences of activities, rather than isolated activities.
  28. 28. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PROTOTYPES
  29. 29. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS management of easy management of blind peer-assessment for all kinds of assignments. blind peer-assessment rubric generation and generation of rubrics and easy rubric grading mechanisms for all kinds of assignments. management portfolio management easy management, instructor feedback, peer cross- annotation, and grading of learning portfolios
  30. 30. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS (continued) networking and contextual access to, and management of, shared information repositories characterized by organic and social filtering unpredictable growth (http://del.icio.us) systems to track the relationships of collaboration and sociographic and affection between the members of teams and communities sociometric analysis systems so as to permit early corrective action. mechanisms for minimalist mechanisms offering to each participant in a collective learning process some visibility about the progress of the social visibility others (ex.: social trasnlucence). mechanisms for mechanisms facilitating the discovery of useful information whose existence we ignore by searching information whose serendipity generation existence we know (serendipity engines).
  31. 31. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  32. 32. 6 CONCLUSIONS •  Higher Education is moving from CONTENTS TO CONTEXTS •  A solid body of theory exists to support this change •  The various existing forms of CONTEXTUAL LEARNING can be put together into organic, coherent, and operational frameworks •  LEARNING CONTEXTS can be designed, so that CONTENT makes sense within CONTEXT •  Gigantic challenges exist in improving CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT •  We are witnessing the pre-history of CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
  33. 33. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION THE END Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
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