Technology Supported Computer Science Education

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Presentation at the Computer Science Education E-learning Conference 2006, Coimbra, Portugal

Presentation at the Computer Science Education E-learning Conference 2006, Coimbra, Portugal

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  • 1. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  • 2. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION changing vision about learning changing methods Bologna Process LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • 3. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION ENGINEERING EDUCATION changing vision about learning for the profession changing vision about accreditation LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • 4. What is important is what the students learn, not how much the lecturer covers Donald Bligh, 1972 Traditional methods were based on what the lecturer covered: on the content the lecturer delivered What is important is what the students learn To learn is not just only to acquire knowledge and understanding, but also to build skills, values and attitudes. These cannot be learned by telling-and-testing
  • 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES: statements of what the students should know, understand or be able to do as a result of the course They are expressed as competences: dynamic combinations of knowledge, understanding, skills, values, and attitudes
  • 6. HIGHER EDUCATION LEARNING OUTCOMES The Dublin Descriptors • knowledge and understanding • applying knowledge and understanding • making judgements • communications skills • learning skills
  • 7. ENGINEERING EDUCATION EUR-ACE: OUTCOMES OF ACCREDITED ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMMES • knowledge and understanding • engineering analysis • engineering design • investigation • engineering practice • transferable skills
  • 8. TWO VISIONS OF LEARNING 2. 1. Vision of CONTENT Vision of CONTEXT mechanistic constructivist “transfer” or “delivery” “construction” of knowledge of content by the learners (individually or in groups) in stimulating contexts
  • 9. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006
  • 10. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 11. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 12. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING action learning question posing computer supported cooperative learning directed dialogues learning by doing problem solving simulations debates learning by reflection CONTEXTUAL LEARNING learning by teaching situated learning story telling socratic dialogues projects case studies panel discussions incidental learning learning from mistakes role playing small group discussions story listening project based learning
  • 13. 1 CONTEXTUAL LEARNING ARTICULATE THIS MULTITUDE OF DISTINCT CONCEPTS, THEORIES AND PRACTICES INTO A SINGLE, COHERENT AND OPERATIONAL WORLDVIEW: CONTEXTUAL LEARNING LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN
  • 14. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 15. 2 THEORIES SUPPORTING CONTEXTUAL LEARNING •  PHILOSOPHICAL PRAGMATISM (Dewey, Pepper) (Piaget, Vygotsky) •  CONSTRUCTIVISM, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (Freire, Mezirow) •  CRITICAL SOCIAL THEORIES OF LEARNING •  THEORIES OF THE COMMUNTIES OF PRACTICE (Lave, Wenger) •  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING (Forman, Cole) •  ACTIVITY THEORY (Engeström, Chaiklin & Lave, Nardi) (Latour, Callon, Law) •  ACTOR NETWORK THEORY •  PATTERN THEORY (Alexander)
  • 16. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 17. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN MODEL FOR CONTEXT ENGINEERING •  level descriptors diagnostic consolidation •  learning outcomes innovation model of •  assessment strategy context •  subject descriptors •  teaching strategy evaluation creation model of •  content mediator generalization adaptation Roque & Figueiredo (2005) Context Engineering for Learning: A Socio-Technical Approach, in Figueiredo, A.D. and Afonso, A.P. (eds.) Managing Learning in Virtual Settings: the Role of Context, Idea Book Inc., 2006
  • 18. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN LOCUS OF CONTROL teacher control moderation helpdesk self-organiztion of learner or of learning community CONTROL
  • 19. 3 LEARNING CONTEXTS DESIGN COLLABORATION: SUSTAINABILITY, CYCLES, RYTHMS Principles of sustainability e.g. value proposition Cycles of collaboration: Rhythms regular events, special events, dates, limits, debates, visibility.
  • 20. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 21. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT LEARNING OUTCOMES should be formulated so that they can be assessed and grading criteria established and stated. ASSESSMENT should drive curriculum planning – not vice-versa. ASSESSMENT must be able to answer questions such as: •  What knowledge and understanding have been acquired? •  What skills and values have been developed or enhanced? •  What attitudes have been changed?
  • 22. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT Collection of the assignments produced by a student, in a LEARNING given course, to demonstrate success in satisfying the PORTFOLIO learning objectives. It must include the personal reflections of the student about her own progress. Activity that has a clear purpose, a beginning and and end, PROJECT and is aimed at producing a visible result. Extended written text enabling learners to display their command of learning objectives while cultivating higher ESSAY order thinking skills (scientific or technical papers, user manuals, research essays, short essays, brochures). PRESENTATION Public demonstration, before an audience, of the knowledge and competencies gained the learner (slide presentations, poster presentations, focused debates).
  • 23. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is also called AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT because it engages the learners in tasks and procedures where knowledge and competencies are exercised in real-world, complex, situations – not in artificial and de-contextualized tasks. LEARNING PORTFOLIOS are often used, with good results, in connection with LEARNING CONTRACTS [Knowles]. One of the most valuable mechanisms in CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT is BLIND PEER-ASSESSMENT
  • 24. 4 CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT RUBRICS are versatile contextual assessment and grading tools simplified example quot; They can be used to assess and grade as little as individual skills, and as much as full projects and programs They can be used by: - teachers - peers - self © California State University, Long Beach
  • 25. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 26. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS Learning Management Systems. Software platforms that LMS organize and provide access to online learning services for students, teachers, and administrators. They usually include access control, provision of learning content, communication tools, and organization of user groups. Learning Content Management Systems. Software platforms for LCMS the management of contents (“learning objects”) by authors, instructors, and learners. Learning CONTEXT Management Systems. Software platforms LXMS for the organization and management of learning contexts (namely social networking and collaboration within communities).
  • 27. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE pioneering example of a (sill quite crude) contextual learning platform. manages sequences of activities, rather than isolated activities.
  • 28. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS PROTOTYPES
  • 29. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS management of easy management of blind peer-assessment for all kinds of assignments. blind peer-assessment rubric generation and generation of rubrics and easy rubric grading mechanisms for all kinds of assignments. management portfolio management easy management, instructor feedback, peer cross- annotation, and grading of learning portfolios
  • 30. 5 CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS SOME DESIRABLE ATTRUBUTES OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING PLATFORMS (continued) networking and contextual access to, and management of, shared information repositories characterized by organic and social filtering unpredictable growth (http://del.icio.us) systems to track the relationships of collaboration and sociographic and affection between the members of teams and communities sociometric analysis systems so as to permit early corrective action. mechanisms for minimalist mechanisms offering to each participant in a collective learning process some visibility about the progress of the social visibility others (ex.: social trasnlucence). mechanisms for mechanisms facilitating the discovery of useful information whose existence we ignore by searching information whose serendipity generation existence we know (serendipity engines).
  • 31. 1. Contextual learning 2. Theories supporting contextual learning 3. Learning contexts design 4. Contextual assessment 5. Contextual platforms 6. Conclusions
  • 32. 6 CONCLUSIONS •  Higher Education is moving from CONTENTS TO CONTEXTS •  A solid body of theory exists to support this change •  The various existing forms of CONTEXTUAL LEARNING can be put together into organic, coherent, and operational frameworks •  LEARNING CONTEXTS can be designed, so that CONTENT makes sense within CONTEXT •  Gigantic challenges exist in improving CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT •  We are witnessing the pre-history of CONTEXTUAL PLATFORMS
  • 33. FROM CONTENT TO CONTEXT IN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION THE END Antonio Dias de Figueiredo Departament of Informatics Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA University of Coimbra September, 7-8, 2006