Verbs, part 1 (AdeS)

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Verbs, part 1 (AdeS)

  1. 1. Simple and Continuous aspects VERBS Grammar 4th Semester Ade Sudirman, S.Pd
  2. 2.  Verbs forms can use either the simple aspect or the continuous aspect;  The infinitive can also be used in the simple or continuous aspect;  The simple aspect indicates one or both of the following:  That an action or series of actions is complete.  That the situation is permanent or is regarded as permanent.  It uses both dynamic and stative verbs.  The continuous aspect indicates one or more the following:  That the action or series of actions are in progress.  That the action is not complete.  That the situation is temporary.  It uses dynamic verbs only. A. SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS ASPECTS
  3. 3. Stative verbs – a state of being and not an activity. Feelings : love, hate; Thinking/believing : think, suppose, expect; Wants and preferences : want, need, prefer; Perceptions and the senses : look, smell; Possession : have, own, belong; Being/seeming : be, seem, appear. Dynamic verbs – activities. Activities: drive, watch, listen. 1. STATIVE & DYNAMIC VERBS
  4. 4.  Some verbs which are normally stative verbs can become dynamic verbs with some change in meaning.  E.g.  I think it‟s a good idea. (expresses opinion);  You‟re very quiet. What are you thinking about? (activity of thinking);  This cake tastes nice. (describing the effect on one of the senses)  Army is tasting the cake to see if it‟s all right. (activity of tasting) 1. STATIVE & DYNAMIC VERBS (CONT…)
  5. 5.  It indicates that the event took place before the time being referred to or that it covered a period of time up to the time being referred to.  It also shows that this event has some relevance to the time being referred to:  John has left.(present perfect)  John left before present time. He is not here now.  John had left when we got there.(past perfect)  John left before we got there. He was not there when we got there.  John will have left when we get there. (future perfect)  John will leave before we get there. He will not be there when we get there B. THE PERFECT ASPECT
  6. 6. The infinitive can also have a perfect aspect: He is sure to be there (infinitive with “to”) He is sure to have been there (perfect infinitive with „to”) Modals can be followed by the infinitive or the perfect infinitive: Pam may tell him the news. (infinitive) Pam may have told him the news. (perfect infinitive) B. THE PERFECT ASPECT (CONT…)
  7. 7.  Simple Present USE:  A regular repeated activity;  Something that is generally true; a statement of fact;  With stative verbs;  Instructions;  In clauses of time and condition, referring to the future;  Introduction a quotation;  In newspaper headlines;  For dramatic narrative;  To give information about a future event. C. THE PRESENT TENSE
  8. 8. Present Continuous USE: Activity in progress at this moment; An activity that is taking place in the present time period and will continue for a limited time; A situation that is in the process of changing; A future intention with a verb of motion. C. THE PRESENT TENSE (CONT. . .)
  9. 9. Simple Past USE: Completed actions; Past habit or regular event; Past situation at the point in time D. THE PAST TENSE Your mother phoned a few minutes ago We went out for a meal every evening on holiday. In 1950, there were fewer than 50 million cars in use around the world.
  10. 10.  Past Continuous USE:  Used in conjunction with the past simple to describe an action or event that started before the event in the past simple and was in progress when the event in the past simple occurred;  To describe an action, event or situation that was in progress at a specified time in the past;  Used with “while” and “when”;  With adverbials beginning with “all”;  To describe the background and set the scene for a narrative n the past. D. THE PAST TENSE (CONT…)
  11. 11.  Contrast Past Continuous versus Simple Past  I was reading a book about astrology last night.  I read a book about astrology last night.  It was raining all day.  It rained all night.  While I was making the dinner, the children were watching television.  While I made the dinner, the children watched television.  I was having a bath at 8 o‟clock.  I had a bath at 8 o‟clock. D. THE PAST TENSE (CONT…)
  12. 12. Source : “Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students” (Grammar Module, UNMA 2013) ASSIGNMENT 4 • 7a, page 28; • 8, page 31; • 9a, page 35; • 10a, page 39.
  13. 13. Thank youTHE END

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