Grammar 4th SemesterPassive and CausativeAde Sudirman, S.Pd
To Be in the appropriate form + past participle• The passive is not used in the present perfect continuous, the pasperfect continuous of the future continuous for reasons of style.PassiveActive PassiveInfinitive To do To be donePerfect Infinitive To have done To have been doneParticiple and Gerund Doing Being donePerfect participle /GerundHaving done Having been done
• We use the passive from when the receiver ofthe action is more important than theperformer of the action or when the performerof the action is not someone specific. The use ofthe passive avoids sentences with a vaguesubject like ‘Someone’ or ‘Some people’:• The local cinema was closed down threeyears ago;• The 10.30 flight to Greece has been delayed.• Use
Use (cont…)• The use of the passive is a way of avoiding placingresponsibility for a particular action on anyspecific person or organization :• I am sorry that your letter was mislaind(the speaker may prefer not to say I am sorry that Imislaid your letter)• The passive is often used to avoid a change ofsubject in a sentence:• I went by train and was met at the station by my aunt.
• We can use by + the performer of the action after a verb in thepassive if we want to say who or what did it.This placesemphasis on the performer of the action.We often use by + agent after the passive form of these verb:• We were stopped by the police on our way home.• The passive is the often used with verbs of saying and believingin these constructions:• It is expected that many more people will die fromstarvation in these decade.• The passive is often used in notices, news report anddescriptions of processes:• English spoken here.• Use (cont….)
Grammar 4th semester
Use• We Use the causative have or the causative get when weare not concerned about the person doing the action.The subject of the verb have or get causes the action totake place:• We have the windows cleaned once a month• We occasionally use the causative have or get with by +agent:• We had the house decorated by a local firm ofdecorators.Form :Have/get + object + participle
Contrast: have and getThe causative have and the causative get are very similarand often interchangeable. However, the causative get ismore concerned with the arranging that is required in orderfor something to be done:I had the car serviced this morning.(I caused this to happen but may or may not have takenthe car to the garage myself.I got the car serviced this morning.(this almost the same but there is an assumptionhere that I took the car to the garage.Contrast: have and get