An affix is abound morpheme which can
only occur if attached to word or a stem.
Affixes may be derivational or inflectional
It is an affix which precedes the root, stem or base to
which it is bound, such as English derivational affixes
re- and un- . The example of prefixes are as follows:
re, un, dis, pre, post, a, aero, anti, auto, mis, tele.
Rebound, unhappy, disloyal, pretest, post-war, amoral,
anticlimax, autobiography, misplace, telephone.
A. 2. Infixes
An infix is affix which occupies a position in
which it interrupts another single morpheme.
As English does not have any affixes, it is better
to look at Indonesian, Sundanese and Javanese.
Kilau = k-em-ilau;
Pasar = p-al-asar;
Galak = g-u-alak.
A. 3. Suffix
A suffix is a bound morpheme which
follows the root in the form containing it.
-er, -ess, -or, -ee, -ese, - ic, - cide.
Keeper, goddess, corruptor, escapee, Chinese,
A. 4. Circumfix
A circumfix is an affix which is realized
as a combination of a prefix and a suffix.
Indonesian has a variety of circumfixes,
and English does not.
A compound is a word formed by combining
two or more words together to make a new
meaning (Gatherer, 1986)
A compound can be solid (consisting of one
word), hyphenated (a hyphen between the
words) and open (two words stand alone).
B. 1. Solid Compounds
a. Solid compounds consist of double nouns:
Air+plane = airplane;
Bed+cloth = bedcloth.
b. Solid compounds consist of an adjective and a noun:
Black+list = blacklist.
c. Solid compounds consist of a noun and an adjective:
Road+worthy = roadworthy.
B. 1. Solid Compounds (cont...)
d. Solid Compounds consist of preposition and a noun:
Over+night = overnight.
e. Solid Compounds consist of a verb and a preposition:
Feed+back = feedback.
f. Solid Compounds consist of a noun and a verb:
Brain + wash = brainwash.
g. Solid Compounds consist of a verb and a noun:
Play+mate = playmate.
B. 1. Solid Compounds (cont...)
h. Solid Compounds consist of an adjective and
High+flow = highflow.
i. Solid Compounds consist of an adverb and a
In+put = input.
j. Solid Compounds consist of an adverb and an
Ever+green = evergreen.
B.2. Hyphenated Compounds
Hyphenated compounds consist of double nouns:
Hyphenated compounds consist of adj and N:
Hyphenated compounds consist of prep and N:
Hyphenated compounds consist of V and prep:
Hyphenated compounds consist of N and V:
B.2. Hyphenated Compounds (cont...)
Hyphenated compounds consist of adj and V:
Hyphenated compounds consist of prep and V:
Hyphenated compounds consist of N and prep:
Hyphenated compounds consist of pronoun and N:
B.3. Open Compounds
a. Open compounds consist of double nouns:
b. Open compounds consist of adj and V:
formed by omitting
Clippings are new words
part of a word. The omission is normally at the
end of a word or at the beginning.
C.1. Clippings with the omission at the end of a
Photograph = photo
C.2. Clippings with the omission at the
beginning of a word:
Telephone = phone.
An abrevation can be described as a reduced version of a word,
phrase or sentence. It falls into blend and acronym.
A blend is aword composed of other words combined to form a
Exp: breakfast + lunch = brunch.
An acronym is made up of some or all of the initial letters of an
organization, institution, political party, etc.
Exp: FBI, ILO, B.A.