John Muir Memorial Co Park                    Marquette, Co. Wisconsin


                                                 ...
Table of Contents


PART I

    INTRODUCTION                       1-3
    LITERATURE REVIEW                  4-6
    JOHN...
Introduction

This study proposes to investigate how an E-Way may inform the design of the John Muir Memo-
rial County Par...
County Park Masterplan

As the central core of an E-Way, John Muir Memorial County Park will require a new park master-
pl...
Recreation in areas of Ecological Restoration

The John Muir Memorial County Park is located in Marquette County and is it...
Literature Review
The E-way system was developed by Phil Lewis, emeritus professor of Landscape Architecture at
the Univer...
However, it is apparent Lewis has separated the needs of humans from the needs of other species. The guide-
lines that Lew...
1
Within these regional specific corridors E-ways can create recreational and educational opportunities that con-
nect peop...
John Muir

                          “Oh, that glorious Wisconsin wilderness!”
                          John Muir Memoria...
The landscape Muir found and adored at Fountain Lake             Sketch of Fountain Lake By John Muir
Farm inspired him wi...
Marquette County, WI




J h M i M
John Muir Memorial County Park is located in the Town of Buffalo in Marquette County. I...
Marquette County offers countless opportunites for exploration, tourism, and recreation. It’s old
farmsteads and quaint li...
Fox -Wisconsin Heritage Parkway
Marquette County lies within the Fox River Region of the Fox - Wisconsin
Heritage Parkway....
Regional Analysis


   Natural & Cultural Features                                                         Civil Features
...
Regional Analysis



                 Trails                                                        Landcover


The Ice Ag...
Regional Analysis

                                                          Closest Nature Centers
                      ...
Regional Recommendations

Environmental Education & Recreation Center

It is my recommendation that John Muir Memorial Par...
Regional Recommendations

John Muir EWAY

It is my recommendation that Marquette County create an E-way from John Muir Mem...
Masterplan Inventory & Analysis

                                                        O
                               ...
Siteplan Inventory & Analysis

                                     Ice Age Trailhead

                     No Trails to
U...
Existing Conditions at Muir Park




     Acres of lawn             Picturesque views




Outdated infrastructure         ...
Design Goals

This proposed Master Plan kicks off 2010 - The Year of John Muir in Marquette County.


Vision for the futur...
The Park Masterplan of the John Muir Memorial Park will focus on combing ecological restoration
with recreation while prov...
Through my experience in landscape architecture and intern at Dane County Parks I have developed an under-
standing of the...
Design Ethics

In order to design John Muir Memorial County Park one must ask what would Muir do? As the father
of our nat...
The design of the park in order to maintain its appeal and beauty as a natural place must utilize
sustainable practices to...
John Muir Heritage Center Design

The project program for John Muir Memorial Park is an environmental education and herita...
Precedent Studies

Several precedent projects influenced the design of John Muir Memorial Park. These projects are
closely ...
the landscape be restored to? As landscapes are ever evolving, not static like a building, several
factors must go into de...
Critical Perspective

The detailed research and development of ideas and goals for this project over the course of
the sem...
Expected Result

The expected results for the John Muir Memorial Park project are to identify how the incorporation
of eco...
I hope this project will serve as an example as to the benefits of combining recreation and restora-
tion so that the publi...
Masterplan



                                                                                              Old
          ...
Masterplan Rationale

The Masterplan was developed to create a natural park like setting that feels untouched and as it di...
Siteplan
                                                Ice Age Trail Trailhead
                                         ...
Siteplan Rationale

The Masterplan was developed as an Environmental Education and Heritage Center. This design will trans...
Environmental Education & Heritage Center

A 12,000 square foot Heritage Center built into the hillside will accomodate se...
ADA Accessible Trail
                                         The implementation of numerous trails, and a large ADA
     ...
Amphitheater
A large amphitheater will provide vistors with seating for classes, demonstrations, pre-
formances, and views...
Planting Plan

The Planting Plan for John Muir Memorial Co. Park utilizes all native species. A palette of decidious fruit...
Grading Plan

The Grading Plan for John Muir Memorial Co. Park is quite complex. The most prominent changes are the Herita...
Pre-Construction Drainage Calculations

                                                                                  ...
Post-Construction Drainage Calculations

                                                                                 ...
Grading Calculations


                                       Grading Calculations

Cut Depth (ft)   Cubic Yards          ...
Plant List


        KEY              BOTANICAL NAME                        COMMON NAME                    QTY          SI...
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
2010 UW-Madison Capstone
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John Muir Co. Park in Marquette, Co. Wisconsin

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2010 UW-Madison Capstone

  1. 1. John Muir Memorial Co Park Marquette, Co. Wisconsin A park revitalization project. A DESIGN TO PRESERVE A LANDSCAPE. A VISION TO PRESERVE A LEGACY. A Senior Capstone Project Prespared under the mentorship of Dr. Susan Thering & MR. Shawn T. kelly ALEX DESMIDT UW-Madison Landscape Architecture Senior Capstone Project Spring 2010
  2. 2. Table of Contents PART I INTRODUCTION 1-3 LITERATURE REVIEW 4-6 JOHN MUIR 7-8 MARQUETTE COUNTY 9-10 FOX-WISCONSIN HERITAGE PARKWAY 11 REGIONAL ANALYSIS 12-14 REGIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS 15-16 MASTERPLAN INVENTORY & ANALYSIS 17 SITEPLAN INVENTORY & ANALYSIS 18 EXISTING PARK CONDITIONS 19 DESIGN GOALS 20-22 DESIGN ETHICS 23-24 JOHN MUIR HERITAGE CENTER DESIGN 25 PRECEDENT STUDY 26-27 CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE 28 EXPECTED RESULTS 29-30 PART II MASTERPLAN DESIGN 31-32 SITEPLAN DESIGN 33-39 DRAINAGE CALCULATIONS 40-41 GRADING CALCULATIONS 42 PLANT LIST 43 CONCLUSION 44 REFERENCES 45 APPENDIX 46-49
  3. 3. Introduction This study proposes to investigate how an E-Way may inform the design of the John Muir Memo- rial County Park Masterplan. This investigation will be given context and focus by the concerns and goals of the John Muir Legacy Group, which will involve providing recreation within areas of eco- logical restoration. The John Muir Memorial County Park will be the site for this study. E-ways The term E-way was first created by Phil Lewis, a landscape architect, as a method for designing an environmental system offering opportunities for education, ecology, esthetics, and exercise. An E- way is a means of connecting people with the land and history around them, by providing access to public open spaces, such as, recreational lands, historical and cultural features, and sensitive natu- ral areas. The value of E-ways in preserving our natural and cultural resources is gaining momentum as urban sprawl encroaches upon these places. This system of landscape connection through envi- ronmental corridors has become a key approach in regional design and planning. The ultimate goal of this study will be to identify how an E-Way that supports tourism and environ- mental education through recreation will influence the design of John Muir Memorial Park. Identi- fication of an E-way encompassing the park will guide urban development and future park acqui- sitions to ensure the preservation of significant natural and cultural features for the pleasure of future generations. The cultural and natural features surrounding John Muir Memorial County Park combined with extensive public lands and development of the Ice Age Trail offer a prime location for such an E-way. This study will show that John Muir Memorial County Park has the potential to become a center of a recreational E-way that serve as a teaching tool for environmental education and ecological restoration while promoting tourism within Marquette County. 1
  4. 4. County Park Masterplan As the central core of an E-Way, John Muir Memorial County Park will require a new park master- plan. This plan will guide the future development and management of the entire property, which is currently separated into a park, a State Natural Area, a National Historic Landmark, and segment of the Ice Age Trail. Given the multiple entities within the park, an organizing theme is required to in- corporate recreation with ecological restoration in a manner that is beneficial to the landscape and visitors. Traditionally, the idea of recreation has meant the degradation of the land and resources as a park is loved to death by its users. The creation of a masterplan that incorporates the needs of restoration efforts with the wants of recreational users is the key to a successful design for a park lacking a sense of place. The development of a new masterplan will make this site an ideal nucleus of an E-way. Its rich diversity of natural vegetative communities, historic glaciation, Ice Age Trail loop, and connection to John Muir (1838-1914), the pioneering promoter of natural preservation, already exhibit every- thing that an E-way stands for. The site incorporates exercise and outdoor recreation along the two mile Ice Age Trail loop. The WDNR’s ecological restoration efforts of the diverse natural vegetation communities provide the ecological aspect, while the beautiful views of the 30 acre Ennis Lake combined with the intense fall colors of the tamaracks, dogwoods, and oaks offer an esthetic that is unrivaled in the state. The historical connection to John Muir opens the door to environmental education, relating to preservation, conservation, flora, and fauna. These amenities need to be organized cohesively so that restoration efforts and recreational opportunities work as an intercon- nected system, each one enhancing the other. The park encompasses 160 acres historically known as Fountain Lake Farm, settled by the Muir family in 1849 after they immigrated from Scotland (Stanley 2). As the boyhood home of John Muir, the nation’s premier advocate for preservation of natural places, the park offers a unique connec- tion to him. It is here that Muir developed his appreciation for the natural beauty of the world, and traced the formation of his conservation philosophy (Stanley xiv). Muir’s preservation efforts origi- nated at Fountain Lake in 1964 when he attempted to preserve a portion of the farm for its natu- ral beauty alone by buying it from his brother. This attempt was unsuccessful and the place went unpreserved until 1972 when the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources designated it a State Natural Area for its exemplary diversity of upland and wetland communities. The vegetation sur- rounding the 30-acre Ennis Lake, a spring-fed kettle lake, is diverse and includes a rich fen, sedge meadow, open bog, northern wet forest dominated by tamarack, southern dry forest, oak opening, and wet-mesic prairie. A new park masterplan will utilize ecological restoration along with sustain- able recreational planning in order to accommodate high volumes of visitors without degrading these sensitive natural areas. 2
  5. 5. Recreation in areas of Ecological Restoration The John Muir Memorial County Park is located in Marquette County and is its only county park. The county has, in the eyes of some, mismanaged this jewel causing added stress upon a sensitive re- source. This mismanagement has resulted in the formation of the John Muir Legacy Group (JMLG), an organization of park neighbors, county residents, and WDNR employees deeply concerned about the future of the park. The goal of the JMLG is to develop a long term management plan for John Muir Park with a focus “to create a place in which people can appreciate John Muir’s glorious Wis- consin wilderness (as he saw it); to inspire visitors to reflect on the natural beauty of the landscape and all its flora and fauna.” The priorities of the JMLG will be met through ecological restoration of native vegetation communities combined with recreation within the park. The unique and diverse flora of this area will be restored to the time of Muir’s occupancy here. This will be done through the use of Muir’s works describing the landscape and the vegetation along with naturalists from the WDNR. Plant communities go through successional phases as factors around them change, such as the settlement of towns reducing the regular occurrence of fire. These natural changes need to be ana- lyzed in order to determine when and how rapidly these changes progressed. Next, the undesired species have to be identified and management strategies need to be developed for eradicating them. Concurrently, the development of facilities, such as trails, need to be planned so that they can offer access to public as well as restoration management crews. These trails can offer fire- breaks and transition zones to slow the progress of invasive species, while providing recreational opportunities. The recreational opportunities if planned accordingly can work in favor of restora- tion rather than hinder it. As an intern with Dane County Parks I have learned a great deal in the development of County Parks. Through the development and planning of trails I have worked with naturalists on the layout of trails through prairies in order to maintain firebreaks while providing recreational oppor- tunities. This is a give and take process to meet the needs of the public while meeting the needs of the ecosystem within the park. If done correctly, the rewards are worth the extra effort as restora- tion crews, maintenance crews, and the public impact the site as little as possible. 3
  6. 6. Literature Review The E-way system was developed by Phil Lewis, emeritus professor of Landscape Architecture at the University of Wisconsin, as part of his Regional Design Process. As Lewis defines it, an E-Way is an ecological, educational, environmental, aesthetic, exercise way: a corridor with a trail or pathway accommodating pedestrians, bicyclists, cross-country skiers, and other non-motorized use (Lewis 240). The function of an E-Way is to create environmental continuity of natural and cultural resources of a region or community along recreational routes to promote education and a sense of place. An E-Way is specific to a region or community. It is a system that brings many environmen- tal aspects of the community clearly into focus by unifying prominent educational, ecological, and environmental characteristics across a recreational medium such as a trail or bike path. An E-way is a more specific type of environmental corridor. In general, environmental corridors encompass linear landscape features containing concentrations of natural and cultural resource amenities. Phil Lewis defines environmental corridors as “spatial patterns of occurrence of any or all of the combined features of water, wetlands, and steep topography of 12.5% or greater found in an urban or urbanizing environment” (Lewis 239). Corridors have evolved over time and are being used in many facets today. They are used as conservation tools creating habitat connectivity for animals (Gustafsson 182). In this capacity they offer an expanded ecosystem to a variety of species in order to ensure the survival of wildlife as humans develop more land. However, more recently environmental corridors are used as a means to guide urban growth and development to ensure the survival of all species. The guiding principles for this growth are centered around the preserva- tion of especially high value natural, scenic, historic, scientific, and recreational features strung together like jewels on a necklace ( The Regional Design Process, developed by Phil Lewis, utilizes these value patterns as form determinants to guide new and sustainable development (Lewis 21). The identification and protection of critical natural and cultural resources is the key to success- fully developing urban and rural landscapes into a cohesive entity, and therefore an integral part of sustainability. Sustainable development as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development is that which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Steiner 11). By identifying these resource areas and protecting them, urban development can be designed to accentuate the regional character of the landscape rather than encroaching upon it. (Lewis 21) The book Tomorrow By Design by Phil Lewis is the guiding light on E-way design and planning. He has created the rule for small to large scale connections of land for the purpose of guiding our urban development in a way that protects our cultural and natural resources. This system ensures we have places to recreate and educate ourselves and children about the landscape around us. The techniques Lewis has developed for defining environmental corridors are solid. He has identified that water, wetlands, steep topography, and timber/woodlands combine into linear corridor pat- terns, and within these corridors 85-90% of both biological and aesthetic diversity is found (Lewis 78). These resources combined with aquifer recharge areas, class A farmland, and regionally spe- cific major vegetation types identifies the area where development is prohibited. This makes the data collection process and regional analysis much simpler. All developments can then be carefully planned outside these areas of constraint and integrated sustainably around the cultural and natu- ral resources. 4
  7. 7. However, it is apparent Lewis has separated the needs of humans from the needs of other species. The guide- lines that Lewis as developed with such detail are concerned only with the welfare of the people. The identifica- tion and the design of E-ways and environmental corridors are fundamentally important to the survival of the wildlife, as well as us. As we grow in population and expand our cities outward the habitat of other species is diminishing. As he stated, “these resources are not only the basis of our life-support system and our economic well-being but are also the basis for quality of life, sense of place, diversity, and options of choice” (Lewis 21). This mentions nothing of the circle of life and Muir’s idea that everything is hitched to everything else. The fo- cus of E-ways must therefore not pertain only to human enjoyment, but building and preserving critical habitat for the species we share the land with, since our survival is ultimately dependent upon theirs. An article that identifies the correlation between environmental corridors and species success is Corridors as a Conservation Tool by Lena Gustafsson and Lennart Hannson. This article identifies that often our nature re- serves and conservation areas are too small and too separated to provide adequate habitat for certain species. The amount of interconnectedness of these patches of land is key to the success of species dispersal and biodi- versity. This article stresses the need of environmental corridors as places for nature conservation rather than recreation. The authors of this article have cited studies that have shown habitat connections increase species survival, but do not provide standards for specific species requirements. Where the authors lack in providing suggestions for designing in this fashion they succeed in expressing the importance of large scale connections of bigger parcels instead of small scattered tracts of land. The article makes it apparent that when identifying and designing corridors and E-ways we must look at more than the cultural and natural resources, we must look at species habitat. The argument made here is that species need expansive lands to thrive, but the amount cannot be quantified. Thus, we must preserve as much land as possible in connected expanses to ensure the longevity of species around us. Environmental Corridors appear at widely different scales, from narrow strips along small pathways to passages that extend along continents (Gustafsson 186). John Muir Park lies within the 280 mile Fox-Wisconsin Heritage Parkway that extends from Green Bay to Prairie du Chien, following the route taken by Father Jacques Mar- quette and explorer Louis Joliet to discover the Mississippi River in 1673. The concept for this Parkway was developed in 1991, “with the purpose of highlighting and enhancing the unique heritage of the state of Wiscon- sin by exemplifying and promoting the cultural, historical, and recreational resources of the rivers” (FWHP iii). The parkway is seeking designation as a National Heritage Parkway to ensure the future preservation of the rich cultural and natural history of the Fox and Wisconsin riverway. This form of corridor has broad ideals to pre- serve historically and culturally significant features. However, at a more regionally specific scale the vision of this parkway is lost. Thus, it is necessary within such an expansive connection of resources that smaller environmental corridors are developed that focus on regional and community specific concerns. These smaller more manageable expanses of land and resources can guide the development of communities and ensure the preservation of regionally specific cultural and natural resources so that the combined efforts contribute to the greater preservation of the whole system. In the case of John Muir Park, a 20 mile environmental corridor from Montello to Portage would pre- serve the extensive effigy mounds along the Fox River. This would also identify opportunities for more county parks within Marquette County, which would reduce the amount of users impacting John Muir Park’s sensitive resources. 5
  8. 8. 1 Within these regional specific corridors E-ways can create recreational and educational opportunities that con- nect people to the region they live in, as well as provide expansive connected habitats that increase animal biodiversity. A proposed E-way connecting John Muir Memorial Park with Endeavor Wisconsin would promote recreation and cultural education through heritage tourism, a growing type or tourism defined by the National Trust for Historic Preservation as, “traveling to experience the places, artifacts and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present”. The development of such E-ways as this would pro- vide local recreational opportunities, promote local cultural and natural education, ensure wildlife habitat is protected, and boost the economy of villages and small towns as heritage tourism grows throughout the country. The need for these large and small scale environmental corridors working together as a system is the key to the preservation and conservation of our sensitive resources and success of all species that share the land. 6
  9. 9. John Muir “Oh, that glorious Wisconsin wilderness!” John Muir Memorial County Park is located adjacent to the boyhood home of John Muir, the father of our National Parks. In 1849, at the age of 11, Muir and his family immigrated from Scotland and settled here at, what was known then as, Fountain Lake Farm. During the course of his childhood, Muir developed a deep connection with the landscape found here. Although the Muir home is no longer standing JOHN MUIR and the property is currently a Foster son of Wisconsin private residence, the National Park Born in Scotland Service designated the site a National April 21, 1838 Historic Place in 1990. Sketch of Muir Home By John Muir 7
  10. 10. The landscape Muir found and adored at Fountain Lake Sketch of Fountain Lake By John Muir Farm inspired him with the idea of preserving natural areas simply for their beauty. Muir attempted to pre- serve this land several times, “I want to keep it un- trampled for the sake of its ferns and flowers”, but his borther in law refused and the property was sold to the Ennis Brothers in 1867. Although he was unsuccussful in his attempts, the notion of land preservation had been planted in his heart. This place has been called “the cradle of our national parks”, as it planted the seed of preserving land for its natural beauty alone. Muirs love of nature germinated here at Fountain Lake Farm and later blossomed into his contribution to the formation of the national park system. “Some of the happiest days of my life were in that old slantwalled garret and among the smooth creeks that trickled among the sedges of the Fountain Lake Meadow.” - JM 8
  11. 11. Marquette County, WI J h M i M John Muir Memorial County Park is located in the Town of Buffalo in Marquette County. It is the only i lC P ki l di h T fB County Park within the county. Marquette County is named after Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) a French missionary that accompanied Louis Joliet on the expedition to discover the Mississippi River. Marquette Co. is in the Central Sand Hills region of Wisconsin and was sculpted by the Green Bay Lobe durinng the last glaciation period. The rural landscape consists of old farmsteads, cornfields, oak hardwoods, and fen and marsh lowlands. It is a premier rural setting that offers countless opportunities for recreation and heritage tourism. Marquette county offers quiet and relaxing setting that is a stark contrast from the kitschy tourist town found to the West in Wisconsin Dells. 9
  12. 12. Marquette County offers countless opportunites for exploration, tourism, and recreation. It’s old farmsteads and quaint little towns provide a glimpse back in history. Portage and Montello, the county’s two largest towns are rich with heritage and historical significance, and provide many opprotunities for tourists, such as historic downtowns, Wisconsin’s largest tree, and granite water falls. The wildlife refuges within the county are some of the best in the state, and not only provide great habitat for wildlife, but also offer a great brid watching opportunites. The Ice Age Trail has multiple sections of trail throughout the county and will one day be a continu- ous trail that runs completely through the county from north to south. Although, Marquette County boasts such great ammenties it is lacking in parks and open space. It’s only major park, is John Muir Memorial County Park, which currently offers little more than some nice views and a walk around the lake. The need for more county parks and more recreational opportunites is urgent. 10
  13. 13. Fox -Wisconsin Heritage Parkway Marquette County lies within the Fox River Region of the Fox - Wisconsin Heritage Parkway. The Parkway is seeking NPS designation as a National kway Heritage Area. The natural, historical, and cultural resources found l, histo orical, along the parkway make it an ideal candidate. t ideal The boundaries of the Fox-Wisconsin Heritage Parkway derive from the Fox and Lower Wisconsin Rivers. These rivers span 280 miles across the State of Wisconsin,from the bay of Green Bay to Prairie du Chien, at the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers. Effigy Mounds Natural Areas The rivers are geographically divided into the Lower Fox,Upper Fox, and Lower Wisconsin. Fifteen counties comprise the total area which consists of 1,444 square miles. FWHP The Parkway follows the route taken by Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet to discover the Mississippi River. They en- countered and were guided by the Native Americans that lived along the Fox River, like the Ho-Chunk (or Winnebago). Effigy Mounds like these are found along the entire Park- way. However, many have been destroyed by develop- ment and many of those that do remain are on private property. Preservation of these fragile resources is the key to recreation and heritage tourism in this area. The history of the region could be lost forever if more parks are not created and its resources are left unpreserved. 11
  14. 14. Regional Analysis Natural & Cultural Features Civil Features This 20 mile stretch is one of the most cultural- Portage and Montello are midsized cities con- ly & historically rich regions within the Parkway. nected state and nation-wide by bus, train, The landscape is dotted with Effigy Mounds, but and plane. These cities bring people and money most are under private ownership. There are to the region. An Environmental Corridor will several natural areas, but only one county park. direct growth of the cities and protect natural cultural sites. Historic Place` Boat Landing Train Station Airplane Effigy Mound Natural/Cultural Hospital School State & Federal Lands Limited Access SNA Bus Station Full Access SNA 12
  15. 15. Regional Analysis Trails Landcover The Ice Age Trail brings recreational users The extensive wetlands throughout the region to the area. Several on-road bike loops run combined with the prime agricultural land throughout the region allowing recreational make this region a key area for preservation. users to enjoy the rural beauty of the land- By preserving the rural landscape and its re- scape. Limited trails extend outward from the sources this region will be a center for Heri- cities. tage Tourism and recreation. John Muir Loop Scenic Tour Wetlands Prime Ag Land Buffalo Lake Loop Oxford Loop Forest Briggsville Loop Proposed Ice Age Trail 13
  16. 16. Regional Analysis Closest Nature Centers - 20+ miles away - Not within Marquette County - Not providing revenue for the Marquette County - Not integrated into the community through recreational opportunities 20 Mile Radius r e iv R x o F Montello W is co ns in _ ^ John Muir Park Leopold Center Wisconsin jj kk Dells Upham Woods Nature Center Riv er Portage McKenzie Env. Ed. Center j k Poynette 0 3 6 Ü 12 Miles 14
  17. 17. Regional Recommendations Environmental Education & Recreation Center It is my recommendation that John Muir Memorial Park become an Environmatal education and recreation center. Aldo Leopold, seminal ecologist, had also envisioned the Muir farm as an “edu- cational institution”. As a boy Muir developed a love of nature here and learned countless lessons about ecosystems, botany, and the environment. A center that provided children and adults with this same opportunity would instill a greater appreciation for the land and the environment within our socitety. An education and recreation center would also bring funding to marquette county which would be beneficial for park enhancement projects and also the acquisition of new park land. An Educational & Recreational Center located at John Muir Co. Park would promote: - Importance of experiencing and protecting Marquette Co. History & natural landscapes - Inspiration for environmentalists and conservationists everywhere - A love of nature in children and adults - Recreation & Heritage Tourism - County park expansion in marquette county 15
  18. 18. Regional Recommendations John Muir EWAY It is my recommendation that Marquette County create an E-way from John Muir Memorial Park to the town of Endeavor. This E-way would create a recreational corridor while protecting the land surrounding the park and all ecologically important sites along the river. The Eway would incorpo- rate biking, hiking, and a water trail that tourists will use to explore the beautiful countyside. This Eway would bring revenue into the town of endeavor from interstate travelers and make John Muir Park and the Education Center more well known to the public. It will serve as a gateway to Mar- quette county and the rest of the Heritage Parkway. Effigy Mounds 12 Mile Bike Trail Natural Areas 8 Mile Water Trail Eway from Endeavor, WI to John Muir Co. Park 16
  19. 19. Masterplan Inventory & Analysis O Opportunities: Muir’s Old - Ice Age Trail connection WDNR State Natural Area Homestead - Topography (Private ) - County Park & Homestead site have potential for development - Heritage Tourism potential Marquette Co. Park Ice Age Trail Loop Constraints: - Conflicting ideas between invested parties - Bounded on all sides - SNA & NHL limit development - Erosive sandy soils - Oak Wilt - Trail location K Key Elements: - Ice Age Trail - State Natural Area - National Historic Landmark - Sensitive vegetation communities - 30 acre spring-fed lake - Glacial history Existing Vegetaion Communities 17
  20. 20. Siteplan Inventory & Analysis Ice Age Trailhead No Trails to Uninviting Ice Age Trail Entrance Small Parking No Seating Lot Runoff flows Restrooms Expansive into lake lawn Boat requires Ramp mowing & Pier Old Baseball Good Views Field From Hill topp Ice Age Trailhead John Muir Memorial Co.Park 18
  21. 21. Existing Conditions at Muir Park Acres of lawn Picturesque views Outdated infrastructure Varied Topography Vandalism Lake Access 19
  22. 22. Design Goals This proposed Master Plan kicks off 2010 - The Year of John Muir in Marquette County. Vision for the future of John Muir Co. Park: “Create a place where people can come to appreciate the Wisconsin wilderness of John Muir’s boyhood; and to inspire one to reflect on the natural beauty of the land- scape, so as “to be not on the world but in it”. - John Muir Legacy Group Design Goals: - Create a meaningful place - Create continuity within the park - Enhance park entrances - Restore native vegetation communities - Protect existing senstive vegetation communities - Have park “Dedicated” to ensure its protection - Establish the park as a premier natural landscape in WI - Increase park visitors without degrading the land - Increase revenue for restoration and maintenance - Create a place to enjoy nature - Create a place Muir would be proud of 20
  23. 23. The Park Masterplan of the John Muir Memorial Park will focus on combing ecological restoration with recreation while providing a public space that encourages environmental education and his- torical awareness of the landscape. Due to the number of invested parties at the park, (Marquette County, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Ice Age Trail, the Sierra Club, and others) the John Muir Legacy Group has been formed to develop a guiding focus for the park in the form of a long term management plan. The John Muir Legacy Group aims to return the natural flora and fauna back to its state during John Muir’s time here. The park’s historical significance as the birth place for Muir’s idea of large scale natural preservation combined with the network of public open space, natural and cultural features, and rural setting give the site potential to become a center for environmental education and ecological restoration. The focus of my client group is to preserve the natural qualities of the park. There is concern that the Ice Age Trail does not belong and its presence will increase the volume of park visitors and degrade the sensitive environment as the park is loved to death by its patrons. Numerous occasions of vandalism and interference with the WDNR restoration efforts have raised concerns that further promotion of this place could stress the park and its resources to its breaking point. The need for a management plan is required more than ever as separate entities within the park determine what is best for their own needs. However, within the John Muir Legacy Group there is a difference in vision for the park, as some view it as a place to be preserved and untouched while others see op- portunities for recreation and education. As Marquette County celebrates the year of John Muir, in 2010, the timing is perfect to develop a long term vision for the park as its history is celebrated. My goal for the park is to create a park masterplan that addresses the concerns of the JMLG while promoting the legacy of John Muir. In order to accomplish this I aim to keep the space as natural as possible while accentuating the value of the park as a recreational and educational facility. The park has developed over the years into two separate entities. The first part is a State Natural Area overseen by the WDNR whose concerned with the restoration of natural vegetation communities. The other section of the park is a park setting overseen by Marquette County and has no real pur- pose other than a parking lot for the Ice Age Trail and SNA. A third part of the park has been lost completely to private ownership, and was the original site of the Muir homestead. This section is designated a National Historic Site. I aim to unify these pieces into a complete park by establish a connective theme throughout the park which encourages exercise and education. By establish- ing this connection and giving the park a holistic purpose it will become the nucleus of the E-way within the region. 21
  24. 24. Through my experience in landscape architecture and intern at Dane County Parks I have developed an under- standing of the value of a masterplan in the visioning process of a park. The development of a masterplan in combination with a management plan that the JMLG is seeking will give the park a sense of place and ensure that the separate entities within the park work together to create a unified place. A park masterplan will give the John Muir Memorial Park a sense of place using ecological restoration to transform the landscape back to the time of Muir and thus strengthen the connection visitors have to John Muir and his legacy through recreation. My specific landscape architecture approach in designing the John Muir Memorial Park will focus on recreation within areas of ecological restoration. The ecological restoration of the landscape back to Muir’s boyhood will promote the sites recreational and educational opportunities as its historical significance is returned to the writ- ings of Muir’s time. Visitors will become more connected to Muir and his words when they feel they are expe- riencing the landscape he knew. His ideals and appreciation for the land will develop in the minds and hearts of visitors that experience this place after reading his words. The restoration of the landscape and its natural veg- etation communities will preserve the qualities of the place that Muir loved so much, but was unable to preserve himself. One of the most widely cited definitions of restoration was issued in a report from the U.S. National Research Council: ... restoration is defined as the return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to disturbance. In restoration, ecological damage to the resource is repaired. Both the structure and the functions of the ecosystem are recreated. The goal of ecological restoration is to emulate a natural, functioning, self-regulat- ing system that is integrated with the ecological landscape in which it occurs. Therefore, in order for restoration to be successful the system must not only look natural, but functions as a natural ecosystem. Often, natural re- source restoration requires one of the following processes: reconstruction of antecedent physical hydrologic and morphologic conditions; chemical cleanup or adjustment of the environment; and/or biological manipulation, including re-vegetation and the reintroduction of absent or currently nonviable native species (Higgs 340). My focus for the Ecological Restoration of John Muir Memorial Park will be biological manipulation, through the reestablishment of natural vegetation communities that existed during Muir’s time. This will be done with the help of Muir’s writings of the place, as his detailed descriptions combined with tracing the evolution of the landscape back to his boyhood. However, it will not be a complete restoration as that would require the removal of the Ice Age Trail and all other human-made structures. Rather my ecological ambitions as a designer of this park are to integrate the natural communities with the man-made elements in order to connect education, ecol- ogy, esthetics, and exercise within an environmental system. The integration of restoration and recreation is critical to the success of the design for this park. As part of park has been designated a National Historic Site I will treat the site as the National Park Service would a cultural landscape. A cultural landscape is defined as a geographic area, including both natural and cultural resources, associated with a historic event, activity, or person (NPS). There are four categories of cultural landscapes defined by the NPS, but John Muir Park falls within the definition of a historic site because of its connection with Muir. At these areas, existing features and conditions are defined and interpreted primarily in terms of what happened there at particular times in the past. Therefore, I will be using the NPS-28: Cultural Resource Man- agement Guidelines to ensure the protection of the landscape and significance of its history. These guidelines direct the layout of trails, the architectural style of buildings, and the integration of signage and education with recreational opportunities. As, the trail development throughout the sensitive vegetation communities will have the greatest impact on the landscape I will also be following the guidelines of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail Handbook for Trail Design, Construction, and Maintenance as this provides standards for trails that are user friendly, but have a low environmental impact. By adhering to these strict guidelines developed by the National Park Service the network of restoration and recreation within the park will be a success. 22
  25. 25. Design Ethics In order to design John Muir Memorial County Park one must ask what would Muir do? As the father of our national parks he strongly believed in the preservation and conservation of natural places. He was an environmentalist and outdoor enthusiast at heart. So a successful design of a park dedi- cated to the memory of all that he has done for the protection of natural places would first and foremost protect the place he loved. Many would argue that Muir would like to see this park be- come a preserve and only admired from a far. However, his life as tramp and dedication to preserv- ing places for the public to enjoy suggests otherwise. His career was spent wandering the wilds of this country learning, observing, and living. Thus, the only way to create a memorial that is repre- sentative of everything he believed in would be to open it to the public so that they can learn and connect with the land as he did. As the site grows in popularity certain considerations must be made to ensure the longevity of this place and all the flora and fauna it has to offer. To do this the design needs to create a sense of freedom for users within the park while incorporating designed restrictions that are not seen as built barriers. By working with the land and vegetation the design will limit user activities to spe- cific areas while not calling areas as “off-limits”. By creating a sense of freedom within the park visitors will experience the land as John Muir did when he had no limits and thought of the country as his backyard, walking where he pleased. By restoring the landscape and the vegetation communities on site to the time of Muir’s boyhood the site will have a deeper connection to him and his writings. By reestablishing these communi- ties users can relate to his writings and create a relationship with the park as he did when he lived here. Connecting people emotionally to the land generates a respect for the natural world around them and encourages ideals about the land that they can take with them after they leave. This site must serve as a learning tool for environmental education and the need for preservation and con- servation of all our natural resources. As a central point for a regional E-way the park must incorporate the E’s Phil Lewis established as the basis for E-way design. In order to be successful the park needs to promote exercise through outdoor recreation. There also needs to be a strong educational component within the park that expresses the historical significance of the environmental history of this place as well as the history of John Muir and what he did for our nation’s natural places. The ecology needs to become part of the story of the park so people understand how the glacial processes formed the landscape they see and how the vegetation communities established themselves over time. The successful imple- mentation of these elements will tie the park together. 23
  26. 26. The design of the park in order to maintain its appeal and beauty as a natural place must utilize sustainable practices to ensure the quality of the resources and create a sense of place. All struc- tures and facilities will be made of local, or onsite material when possible, to connect the buildings with the land and the region. The use of solar lighting and porous pavement will add another di- mension to the environmental education of visitors and teach them about alternative energy sourc- es and stormwater harvesting and runoff. Trails and nodes along the trail will utilize natural materi- als and blend within the surrounding landscape. This consistency throughout the park will make it a center for sustainable restoration and recreation. The historical significance of this place in the realm of preservation and conservation of natural ar- eas is amazing. The landscape here influenced a man who influenced a national movement that has preserved millions of acres for the public’s enjoyment. With this in mind, it is easy to forget that it is the landscape within this park that is its most important attribute. Without it John Muir may have never enjoyed the outdoors like he did. Thus, it is the landscape and the restoration of veg- etation communities that must take precedents over all else. A thriving ecosystem which supports a diverse list of native species is more beneficial to the environment and the educational experience the landscape offers than the recreational opportunities the same land can provide. However, it is my goal to design a park that incorporates these two different ideals in a way that enhance each other and provide people of all abilities the opportunity to experience a landscape through the eyes of John Muir. 24
  27. 27. John Muir Heritage Center Design The project program for John Muir Memorial Park is an environmental education and heritage cen- ter within an E-way system that provides recreation and learning experiences to the public. The park will offer a host of outdoor recreational activities for enjoying natural beauty, such as, hiking, bird watching, fishing, canoeing, and cross country skiing. The main program element of the site will be an educational center where kids and adults can learn about the landscape and John Muir’s connection to it. The park will promote the natural and cultural resources of the area as well as the historical significance of the place to John Muir’s life. The majority of the design efforts will fall upon the first ten acres of the park, as this is the gate- way to the entire park and Ice Age Trail. All amenities in this section of the park will be relocated or redesigned with more thought given to their placement in order to create a harmonious space that is user friendly. Informational signs and memorials will become focal points located in key areas that relate to the information they provide. A more prominent entrance to the park will be designed to establish the importance of the park and encourage cars driving past to investigate. The parking lot and road will be expanded and redesigned to accommodate more visitors as well as utilize porous paving to promote infiltration. Alternatives to sand and salt applications for deic- ing the road down to the lake will be investigated, as the current practices are having ill effects on the lake. Solar lighting will be utilized to enhance security after hours. The underutilized expansive lawn area with overgrown baseball backstop will be redesigned as it is the first thing visitors see before entering the park. This space is ideal for community gardens, a larger picnic shelter, and or visitor center for promoting local tourist attractions and the history of the region. A new pier will be implemented to provide room for both fishermen and those just enjoying the view. Within the natural area of the park a few things will be proposed. The National Historic Site, cur- rently under private ownership will be connected back to the park under ownership, or through strategic lookout points so that visits can see where the Muir homestead was in relation to the rest of the park. The Ice Age Trail will be relocated in certain areas to prevent soil erosion and increase universal accessibility. The trail corridor will be maintained and rid of poison Ivy and poison su- mac. Benches will be added and/or relocated to take advantage of natural views and shade. Nodes will be added along the trail to accommodate educational groups and picnickers. Educational and informational signs will be strategically placed along the trail to promote environmental education and better understanding of the geological processes that formed the landscape. Features such as benches, nodes, and signs will be kept with the trail corridor in order to restrict the degradation of the soil and plant life. The incorporation of these recreational amenities to the restoration of the landscape will create a unique experience for people of all ages. 25
  28. 28. Precedent Studies Several precedent projects influenced the design of John Muir Memorial Park. These projects are closely related in size, function, and/or design and provide knowledge of what works and what does not work in certain situation. These projects all share common traits with the park and their successes and shortcomings have made the design of John Muir Memorial Park even better. The first precedent project is Bohn Lake State Ice Age Trail Area, located in the Central Sand Hills Region of Wisconsin. Since it is in the same ecological landscape as Muir Park and both have seg- ments of the Ice Age Trail comparisons of recreational effects on sensitive resources can be com- pared. The future management goals of the Bohn SNA is to provide maximum outdoor recreation potential and the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural, or cultural qualities of the areas through which trails may pass. The Bohn Lake SNA guidelines for the trail corridor for the Ice Age National Scenic Trail states that a path be cleared up to seven feet wide and ten feet in height. This is a large corridor for a trail tread of only 36” in width. The clearing of such a large strip through the landscape accommodates large numbers of users, but also provides opportunities for excessive erosion of soil. A smaller manicured trail corridor would pro- vide grass buffers along the tread and minimize runoff and erosion. The natural surface of the trail increases infiltration, reduces the impact on the surrounding environment, and adds to the natural- ized feel of the entire park. This large trail corridor would not work with the landscape and natu- ralized theme at John Muir Park. A smaller more rustic trail that blends into its surroundings rather that cutting through them is a more appropriate design. The Landscape Restoration at Faristed, the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, is another precedent study investigated for John Muir Park. While it is not a park masterplan, it does compare to the John Muir Memorial Park as both are National Historic National Historic Sites of important figures in the design and preservation of natural landscapes. In 1883 Olmsted acquired this site for his home and office, and the landscape surrounding the home represents his domestic landscape Ideals. This restoration project illustrates that “although historic landscapes are composed of many types of materials and features, it is the vegetation that distinguishes them from other cultural re- sources” (Meier 29). This is true of designed landscapes as well as natural landscapes. At Muir Park the vegetative communities are the driving force behind the beauty of Muir Park and they are the reason the Muir family settled there. The restoration efforts at the Olmsted National Historic Site focused primarily on improving the health and condition of the existing plant material. The sites 1.74 acres in comparison to the 160+ acres John Muir park make this an easier task. However, the Olmsted restoration project raises some interesting questions that need to be raised during histori- cal as well as ecological restorations. The first question to be asked is what time period should 26
  29. 29. the landscape be restored to? As landscapes are ever evolving, not static like a building, several factors must go into deciding the best time period to restore a landscape. In the case of the Ol- msted site the landscape was restored to a date of 1930 since this was the height of the Olmsted Brothers firm, all existing structures were present, and there was sufficient documentation to make an accurate restoration possible. The documentation or history of sites has great deal to do with the accuracy of which the restoration can most closely resemble the desired outcome. Although the two site scales are immensely different and one is a natural landscape while the other has been designed, the strategies used at the Olmsted Site provide questions that will guide the restoration efforts at Muir Park. The final precedent study that will guide the design of John Muir Park is The Muir Woods restora- tion, on the University of Wisconsin campus. The restoration effort is one component of the 2006 Lakeshore Nature Preserve Master Plan the University of Wisconsin has developed. The plan envi- sions a variety of cultural and ecological projects that will enhance educational opportunities, improve visitor experiences, and protect resources. This is an excellent example for the basis of a Park Masterplan of John Muir Memorial Park, its focus reflects the importance of environmental education and protecting natural and cultural resources while providing a unique experience for the public. The Muir Woods restoration project provides examples of vegetation restoration tech- niques that are applicable to the Muir Park site. First and foremost, the restoration of the plant communities has been setup to monitor how the ecological restoration activities affect the plant communities over time. By identifying and taking inventory of herbaceous and woody species present students can monitor the health of the plant communities and determine if the ecological restoration is successful. The removal of all invasive species is another aspect of the management plan. However, the plan does not indicate methods of removal of eradication. Are herbicides being used? If so what types? This is important information as the actions taking at this point affect the surrounding vegetation, as herbicides are not selective killers. The next step identified was the replanting of the understory with native plants. By estab- lishing an understory the invasive species are less likely to return quickly. Although, the plan identi- fies which plants will be used for the understory, wild geranium, elm leaf goldenrod, Penn sedge, and button brush plants, it does not identify, other than being native, why these specific plants were used. Do these species compete with garlic mustard, honeysuckle, and buckthorn and thus keep them out? Or are these plants part of a large restoration effort to encourage certain types of insects of butterflies and discourage others? The restoration effort also mapped trails and determined routes that were least likely to promote erosion and or damage of the fragile soil and vegetation. Trails have been rerouted, retired, or sta- bilized throughout the site. The plan does not identify if views and slopes were taken into account in determine trail layout, this could be a big oversight in providing universal access to visitors. This sites goals and needs are closely related to those at John Muir Park. 27
  30. 30. Critical Perspective The detailed research and development of ideas and goals for this project over the course of the semester was both tedious and educational. During the process of visiting the site and learn- ing about its history I found that many people have a passion for this park. Although, differences in opinions of its purpose are present the love of the landscape and history are a common trait. Within the John Muir Legacy Group it was clear that a vision for the future management of the park would be hard to coordinate. Community members felt that the park was over-utilized and the pro- motion of it would bring more visitors and the landscape would suffer. At first I felt the same, but as I delved deeper into Muir’s ideals and what E-ways and heritage tourism are all about it became clear that the only way to preserve this site is to promote it and invite the public to use it. The most challenging aspect for this site was the development of precedents. My goals combined with those of the John Muir Legacy Group are so intrinsic to this particular site that finding proj- ects of the same complexity and vision was difficult. The combination of recreation within areas of ecological restoration turned out to be a subject not widely written about. Identifying projects that combined these two things within close proximity so that they work together was not an easy task. I was able to identify a few precedents that compared in many ways to Muir Park, and these raised questions that I would not have otherwise thought about. Other aspects of the project were easily identified such as the site scales for design. The park boundary had already been established making the masterplan scale easy to identify. There was a visual disconnect of three separate areas within the park I noticed on my first visit. This made it apparent that a cohesive theme was needed to create a park with a sense of place. The park set- ting and the National Historic site were receiving little attention and needed to be tied into the State Natural Area. This provided the idea for recreation within areas of restoration. The sites overall historical significance makes it a natural tourist site which steered my thinking of connect- ing the site to other cultural and natural resources through an E-way system. All in all, I was surprised to find that my research topic and specialized landscape architectural practices, although very different in scale and purpose, came together to steer the direction of my specific type of project. I was skeptical at first if an E-way really could inform the design of a park masterplan. It turns out that it can; and the issues of recreation within areas of restoration apply to design of E-ways and historical sites and cultural landscapes such as John Muir Memorial Park. 28
  31. 31. Expected Result The expected results for the John Muir Memorial Park project are to identify how the incorporation of ecological restoration with recreation can benefit public use and function collectively within an ecosystem. As part of a state-wide heritage parkway, an environmental corridor, and a community specific E-way the park must support a multitude of roles as it is seen as a National Historic Site, State Natural Area, and County park. My hope is that the park can function at these three levels without losing its regional character and being loved to death by the public. The park, through my design and guidance of the John Muir Legacy Group, will become much more than a county park. It will become a educational facility, a recreational opportunity, a heritage tourism site, and a meaningful place for the community of Marquette County to cherish. By incor- porating the precedents studies investigated the design of this park will satisfy the goals of the JMLG as well as my own be creating a place where restoration and recreation coexist and the pub- lic are not a detriment to the landscape. The research I have done on E-ways will be incorporated into the design of this park so that it be- comes part of a larger system connected to the village of Endeavor, the county of Marquette, and the State of Wisconsin. No longer will this park be a place viewed from the window of a car driv- ing past, it will become a place beckoning people to explore. It will serve as a gateway for further exploration of the state through recreation as its connections spread out into the region and state through bike trails and hiking trails. It will be a teaching tool for all adults and children. I hope that through this project my clients will learn that preservation and conservation is more than protecting one place, it is about protecting a network of places. The connection of places and resources guide our development as a growing population and ensures that our culture is not lost in the process. The preservation of significant places such as John Muir Park is a small piece of a larger process. The importance of preserving woodlots and farm fields cannot be overlooked as part of conservation corridors in order to provide habitat for wildlife and maintain a rural context for natural and cultural resources. The need for the public to experience, first-hand, cultural land- scapes like John Muir Park provides them a sense of place and contributes to their quality of life. An increasing popularity of heritage tourism will provide funding for the preservation of places like John Muir Park as people travel and visit these places bringing money into communities and raising awareness for endangered resources. The public’s role is key to the preservation of natural places. 29
  32. 32. I hope this project will serve as an example as to the benefits of combining recreation and restora- tion so that the public becomes aware of environmental issues and the impacts they have on the environment. As a center for environmental education and preservation within a statewide heritage parkway and along the Ice Age National Scenic Trail this site has the potential to reach millions and educate them using John Muir’s ideals of nature. This landscape has already inspired one boy to change the world; my hope is that it will inspire countless more. 30
  33. 33. Masterplan Old Homestead Restored Prairie open to public Typical Points of Interest along trail. Bird Watching Nature School Sensitive Fen Oak Opening Overlooks Sensitive Story Circle Fen Pinic Shelter & Back- Sedge Meadow packing Campsite Fort Building 31
  34. 34. Masterplan Rationale The Masterplan was developed to create a natural park like setting that feels untouched and as it did during Muirs time here. The three seperate areas have been combined into one continues park to allow full public ac- cess. The existing trails still remained, but new trails have been added to act as fire breaks betweeen vegetation communties and allow more visitor access. Muir’s old homestead has been reclaimed from private ownership and is now a Nature School, so children can learn about nature and realize that everything is connected to ev- erything else. The Ice Age Trail encompassing the lake will have several nodes for resting and for classes to be taught. A large group picnic shelter is designed for large workshop classes, rentals for cub scout camping trips, and can be utilized for through-hikers of the Ice Age Trail. Several overlooks have been stragetically placed to allow visitors excellent views and resting points with minimal erosive impacts on the soil. 32
  35. 35. Siteplan Ice Age Trail Trailhead Existing Kiosk Edible Orchard Glacial Geologic Landforms Nat- ural Playground w/ Shelter Amphitheater Berry Patch Open Lawn Wildflower Garden w/ Seating Permeable Parking Lot Fishing Pier & Canoe Launch Heritage Center Grassy Paver Patio Existing Park Layout Council Ring Fire Pit Seating Area Wildlife Viewing Area 33
  36. 36. Siteplan Rationale The Masterplan was developed as an Environmental Education and Heritage Center. This design will transform an otherwise underutilized open field and boat launch into the jewel that Marquette County needs for its only county park. This park is the gateway to the rest of the site and will now act as such by providing an educational basis for the landscape found here as well as historic significance to one of the countries most influential natu- ralists. The entrance has been moved, and the boat launch access removed to minimize car traffic onsite. The previous layout was stressing the vegetation, water quality, and maintence fees. The lack of trails on site has been rectified by providing numerous trails natural material, most of which are ADA accessible. Several shelters have been placed onsite to allow for picnicing, resting, and classes. These can also be rented out to generate revenue for teh park. The Center will also rent canoes, kayaks, and bicycles for use at and around the park. Am edible orchard has been implemented to teach kids about native plant species and attract wildlife. A geologic glacial landform natural playground will teach kids about the Wisconsin landscape while they play. A large am- phitheater will accomodate numerous guests for preformances, demonstrations, and classes. This design will put John Muir Memorial Park on the map as a favorite destination of Wisconsinites, and not just a rest stop. 34
  37. 37. Environmental Education & Heritage Center A 12,000 square foot Heritage Center built into the hillside will accomodate several functions at any given time. The facility can serve as an office for an onsite management specialist, teachers, and guides. The facility will have space to rent out to generate revenue, as well as a Muir muesum and history timeline of the property. A 53 car parking lot will provide ample space for the increased number of visitors expected. The building although not completely Solar will incorporate new green tachnologies and serve as an educational tool for vistiors. 12,000 sq. ft. Heritage Center 52 car parking lot Reclaimed local barn lumber shall be used with modern building technology. 35
  38. 38. ADA Accessible Trail The implementation of numerous trails, and a large ADA accessible trails will provid fun for all ages & abilities. It will also reduce runoff as it is completely permeable. At 8 feet wide it will allow for emergency vehicle access as well as maintence vehicles and snow removal. Several nodes are placed around the trail network to provide ample seating and offer excellent views of the land muir himself once admired. Permeable 8’ - 0” ADA accessible trail 36
  39. 39. Amphitheater A large amphitheater will provide vistors with seating for classes, demonstrations, pre- formances, and views of the surrounding scenery. Grassy terraces with stone seating areas allow for comfortable seating of all ages. The uppermost row is fully ADA acces- sible and incorporates an engraving that is currently onsite. A brickwall and large oaks will provide a nice backdrop and allow for white noise reduction and amplify speakers voices. B 37
  40. 40. Planting Plan The Planting Plan for John Muir Memorial Co. Park utilizes all native species. A palette of decidious fruit and nut trees mixed with a variety of berries will ensure the presence of wildlife allowing visitors to experience them in a natural setting up close. Several Seed mixes will be used onsite to create seperation of space and feel while also tying the site to the rest of the masterplan and existing vegetation communities. The most prominent mixes used will be a dry prairie mix which will create a cohesive connection to the adjacent State Natural Area. A Woodland mix will be used in conjunction with srhubs and plants to create an understory beneath denser canopiers. The boundaries are planted more densely keeping most of the wildlife in a more natural setting. This also creates a more open central park atmosphere that will be planted with oaks to create an oak savanna setting, which once existed here. 38
  41. 41. Grading Plan The Grading Plan for John Muir Memorial Co. Park is quite complex. The most prominent changes are the Heritage Center, which is built directly into the hillside. This creates a unity of the built with the natural and also allows for existing views around the lake to be unaffected by the sight of a large building. The second major change in grading was the previous small swale along the road to the boat launch has been enhanced and reconfigured to accomodate an amphitheater and create a more dramatic view of the lake. Several swales have been designed to capture stormwater and allow it to infiltrate rather than just run-off site. Two large sub- surface storage basins have been designed to capture the majority of onsite stormwater. One is located beneath the parking lot, and the other is beneath the amphitheater swale. Both basins are two feet deep, to allow for a five foot buffer from the water table. 39
  42. 42. Pre-Construction Drainage Calculations 100 year Storm cfs = CIA/43,560 Storm Duration Sub watershed Area Type Runoff coef. Area (sq. ft.) Total Cubic Feet (3"/hr) ft sq/acre (seconds) A Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 15,150 3.00 0.99 10,800 10,705 Improved Landscape 0.40 8,586 3.00 0.24 10,800 2,555 Improved Grass 0.35 44,000 3.00 1.06 10,800 11,455 Native Plantings 0.35 17,500 3.00 0.42 10,800 4,556 Prairie/GrassPavers 0.28 2,160 3.00 0.04 10,800 450 Porous Pavement 0.20 19,700 107,096 3.00 0.27 10,800 2,931 32,650 B Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 1,700 3.00 0.11 10,800 1,201 Improved Grass 0.35 20,200 3.00 0.49 10,800 5,259 Native Plantings 0.35 2,400 3.00 0.06 10,800 625 Porous Pavement 0.20 2,000 26,300 3.00 0.03 10,800 298 7,382 C Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 1,200 3.00 0.08 10,800 848 Improved Grass 0.35 5,000 3.00 0.12 10,800 1,302 Native Plantings 0.35 3,700 9,900 3.00 0.09 10,800 963 3,113 D Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 500 3.00 0.03 10,800 353 Improved Grass 0.35 2,500 3.00 0.06 10,800 651 Native Plantings 0.35 1,800 4,800 3.00 0.04 10,800 469 1,473 E Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 700 3.00 0.05 10,800 495 Improved Landscape 0.40 1,300 3.00 0.04 10,800 387 Improved Grass 0.35 5,200 3.00 0.13 10,800 1,354 Native Plantings 0.35 5,700 3.00 0.14 10,800 1,484 Porous Pavement 0.20 800 13,700 3.00 0.01 10,800 119 3,838 F Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 3,000 3.00 0.20 10,800 2,120 Improved Grass 0.35 8,400 3.00 0.20 10,800 2,187 Native Plantings 0.35 9,700 3.00 0.23 10,800 2,525 Porous Pavement 0.20 1,500 22,600 3.00 0.02 10,800 223 7,055 G Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 700 3.00 0.05 10,800 495 Improved Grass 0.35 3,700 3.00 0.09 10,800 963 Native Plantings 0.35 2,100 3.00 0.05 10,800 547 Porous Pavement 0.20 600 7,100 3.00 0.01 10,800 89 2,094 H Improved Grass 0.35 5,500 3.00 0.13 10,800 1,432 Native Plantings 0.35 1,300 3.00 0.03 10,800 338 Porous Pavement 0.20 900 7,700 3.00 0.01 10,800 134 1,904 I Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 2,500 3.00 0.16 10,800 1,767 Improved Grass 0.35 33,400 3.00 0.81 10,800 8,695 Native Plantings 0.35 10,900 3.00 0.26 10,800 2,838 Prairie/GrassPavers 0.28 8,600 3.00 0.17 10,800 1,791 Porous Pavement 0.20 4,900 57,800 3.00 0.07 10,800 729 15,819 PERIMETER Improved Grass 0.35 35,600 3.00 0.86 10,800 9,268 Native Plantings 0.35 40,700 3.00 0.98 10,800 10,595 Undisturbed 0.15 30,300 3.00 0.31 10,800 3,381 Porous Pavement 0.20 4,300 110,900 3.00 0.06 10,800 640 23,883 Post Construction Totals 367,896 sq ft 9.19 cfs 99,212 cf 40
  43. 43. Post-Construction Drainage Calculations 100 year Storm cfs = CIA/43,560 Storm Duration Sub watershed Area Type Runoff coef. Area (sq. ft.) Total Cubic Feet (3"/hr) ft sq/acre (seconds) A Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 6,625 3.00 0.43 10,800 4,681 Native Site 0.35 100,471 107,096 3.00 2.42 10,800 26,156 30,837 B Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 2,825 3.00 0.18 10,800 1,996 Native Site 0.35 23,475 26,300 3.00 0.57 10,800 6,111 8,107 C Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 1,800 3.00 0.12 10,800 1,272 Native Site 0.35 8,100 9,900 3.00 0.20 10,800 2,109 3,381 D Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 1,000 3.00 0.07 10,800 707 Native Site 0.35 3,800 4,800 3.00 0.09 10,800 989 1,696 E Native Site 0.35 13,700 13,700 3.00 0.33 10,800 3,567 3,567 F Native Site 0.35 22,600 22,600 3.00 0.54 10,800 5,883 5,883 G Native Site 0.35 7,100 7,100 3.00 0.17 10,800 1,848 1,848 H Native Site 0.35 7,700 7,700 3.00 0.19 10,800 2,005 2,005 I Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 1,400 3.00 0.09 10,800 989 Native Site 0.35 56,400 57,800 3.00 1.36 10,800 14,683 15,672 PERIMETER Bldg/road/Imperm 0.95 7,400 3.00 0.48 10,800 5,229 Native Site 0.35 103,500 110,900 3.00 2.49 10,800 26,944 32,173 Post Construction Totals 367,896 sq ft 9.74 cfs 105,169 cf Cubic Feet / Second (cfs) Cubic Feet (cf) Post Construction Q 9.19 99,212.00 Pre Construction Q 9.74 105,169.00 DELTA Q 0.55 5,957.00 41
  44. 44. Grading Calculations Grading Calculations Cut Depth (ft) Cubic Yards Fill Depth (ft) Cubic Yards 1.00 745.90 1.00 1,724.11 2.00 418.50 2.00 344.38 3.00 316.60 3.00 277.70 4.00 4 00 292.60 292 60 4.00 4 00 300.00 300 00 5.00 134.50 5.00 355.50 6.00 133.30 6.00 166.60 7.00 103.70 7.00 77.70 8.00 207.00 8.00 74.10 9.00 200.00 9.00 50.00 10.00 0 00 222.200 10.00 0 00 11.00 203.70 11.00 12.00 400.00 12.00 13.00 240.70 13.00 14.00 648.20 14.00 Total Cubic Yards Cut 4,266.90 Total Cubic Yards Fill 3,370.09 Cut:Fill = 1.27:1 T t l Cut Below Grade* Total C t B l G d * *Total C t B l *T t l Cut Below Grade G d + Cut Depth (ft) Cubic Yards Basin 1 350*177*2 4,588.90 1.00 2,592.55 Basin 2 200*50*2 740.70 2.00 2,592.55 5,328.70 = Total Cubic Yards Cut 9,595.60 Total Cubic Yards Fill 3,370.09 Cut:Fill = 2.8:1 Pre Construction Totals 367,896 sq ft 9.74 cfs 105,169 cf Post Construction Totals 367,896 sq ft 9.19 cfs 99,212 cf 42
  45. 45. Plant List KEY BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME QTY SIZE ROOTS NOTES TREES AG Amelanchier x grandiflora 'Princess Diana' Princess Diana Serviceberry 8 1.75" C BB Multi stemmed, Plant in spring BA Betula alleghaniensis Yellow Birch 6 2" C BB Plant in spring CA Corylus Americana American Hazelnut 10 1.75" C BB Plant in spring COA Carya Ovata Shagbark Hickory 9 2" C BB Plant in spring CO Celtis Occidentalis Hackberry 13 2" C BB Plant in spring FG Fagus Grandifolia American Beech 4 2" C BB Plant in spring GD Gymnocladius Diocas Kentucky Coffeetree 5 1.75" C BB Plant in spring PA Prunus Americana American Plum 12 1.75" C BB Plant in spring PDM Populus deltoides var. monilifera Cottonwood 7 2" C BB Plant in spring PN Prunus nigra 'Princess Kay' Princess Kay Canada Plum 9 1.75 C BB Plant in spring PT Ptelea trifoliata Hoptree 14 1.75" C BB Plant in spring QA Quercus alba White Oak 17 2" C BB Plant in spring QS Quercus x schuetti Macrocarpa x bicolor 7 2" C BB Plant in spring SEED MIXES SM1 Prairie Moon Nursery Woodland Mix 3 1 acre bag 60 seeds/sq ft SM2 Agrecol Wildflowers Mix 1 1 acre bag 60 seeds/sq ft SM3 Agrecol Dry Prairie Short Height 3 1 acre bag 60 seeds/sq ft SM4 Agrecol Infiltration Swale Mix 3 1 acre bag 60 seeds/sq ft SM5 Prairie Moon Nursery No Mow Mix 180 5 lbs bag 5 lbs/1,000 sq ft SHRUBS & BERRIES AC Amorpha canescens Leadplant 100 1 lb bag Hand disperse throughout Woodland Mix CEA Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea 100 1 lb bag Hand disperse throughout Woodland Mix CS Celastrus scandens American Bittersweet 6 1 Gal Cont To be grown on pergola for support CP Comptonia peregrina Sweet Fern 100 1 lb bag Hand disperse throughout Woodland Mix HK Hypericum kalmianum Kalm's St. John's Wort 100 1 lb bag Spaced < 2' throughout Woodland Mix RG Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac 15 2 Gal Cont Spaced 7' On Center RT Rhus typhina Staghorn Sumac 15 2 Gal Cont Spaced 7' On Center RA Ribes americanum Wild Black Currant 15 1 Gal Cont Spaced 6' On Center RM Ribes Missouriense Missouri Gooseberry 15 1 Gal Cont Spaced 6' On Center RC Rosa carolina Smooth Wild Rose 10 3 Gal Cont Spaced 3' On Center RP Rosa palustris Swamp Rose 10 3 Gal Cont Spaced 3' On Center RW Rosa woodsii Woods' Rose 10 3 Gal Cont Spaced 3' On Center RUA Rubus allegheniensis Highbush Blackberry 20 1 Gal Cont Spaced 6' On Center RI Rubus idaeus Red Raspberry 15 1 Gal Cont Spaced 3' On Center RO Rubus occidnetalis Blackcap Raspberry 15 1 Gal Cont Spaced 3' On Center SC Sambucus canadensis Common Elder 15 3 Gal Cont Spaced 8' On Center SA Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry 10 3 Gal Cont Spaced 6' On Center VA Vaccinium angustifolium Low bush Blueberry 50 2 Gal Cont Spaced 2' On Center VVI Vaccinium vitis idaea Low bush Cranberry 50 2 Gal Cont Spaced 2' On Center 43

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