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Responses to World Order

Responses to World Order






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    Responses to World Order Responses to World Order Presentation Transcript

    • World order Part 2 option 2 - Responses of world order Term 1/2 2012Monday, 18 June 2012 1
    • Main syllabus pointsMonday, 18 June 2012 2
    • The Nation state and state sovereignty Treaties are the primary source of law Countries can agree or reject treaties that maintain peace and security. This can either promote or deny world order Hint: This section is critical to any argument in world order essaysMonday, 18 June 2012 3
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 4
    • However, the UNSC can intervene if there is a ‘threat to peace’ The UNSC can deliver a humanitarian intervention. It can be difficult to get the ‘Permanent Five’ to agree (China and the Darfur region)Monday, 18 June 2012 5
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 6
    • Theme: the effectiveness of legal and non-legal responses in promoting and maintaining world order The Permanent Five are often unwilling to carry out the intervention (military force) Asking other nations to supply military force is often denied (supporting USA in Iraq, national armies used to guard civilians) Peacekeeping forces can be used but only after internal fighting has stoppedMonday, 18 June 2012 7
    • Case Space: Syrian Uprising Attempt to overthrow the government of bashar al-assad China and russia used veto power to a unsc resolution draftMonday, 18 June 2012 8
    • Syria uprisingMonday, 18 June 2012 9
    • Unsc veto powerMonday, 18 June 2012 10
    • Arab league suspends syriaMonday, 18 June 2012 11
    • War criminal?Monday, 18 June 2012 12
    • Role of the UN The UN Charter: We the peoples of the United Nations determined - to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treatiesMonday, 18 June 2012 13
    • Hint: These are excellent articles to support your writing in a world order essaysMonday, 18 June 2012 14
    • Structure of the un 193 members, 5 major organs The UN also has other agencies in Vienna, The Hague and Geneva Remember your notes from human rightsMonday, 18 June 2012 15
    • Un 2011 reviewMonday, 18 June 2012 16
    • UNSC 9 members need to agree for UN action, including all 5 permanent members The UNSC has the power to issue sanctions, arms embargoes and collective military actionMonday, 18 June 2012 17
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 18
    • EFFECTIVE?????Monday, 18 June 2012 19
    • A geographical formula is used to make up the 10 non- permanent members. There must be: 3 African 2 Asian 1 Eastern European 2 Western European 2 Latin AmericanMonday, 18 June 2012 20
    • What do these mean?Monday, 18 June 2012 21
    • Peacekeeping forces Peacekeeping force was used in the UN to withstand blatant acts of aggression. This was seen as an improvement on the League of Nations Peacekeeping gave the legal right to the UNSC to use ‘peace enforcement’. It is controlled by the UNSCMonday, 18 June 2012 22
    • Peace keepingMonday, 18 June 2012 23
    • The Un has not standing military force, so it makes adhoc coalitions for every task Problems can arise from this systemMonday, 18 June 2012 24
    • "He told me the UN was a pull Rwanda system, not a push system like I had been used to with NATO, conflict because the UN had absolutely no pool of resources to draw on. You had to make a request for everything you needed, and then you had to wait while that request was analysed...For instance, soldiers everywhere have to eat and drink. In a push system, food and water for the number of soldiers deployed is automatically supplied. In a pull system, you have to ask for Roméo those rations, and no common Dallaire sense seems to ever apply."Monday, 18 June 2012 25
    • Rule of law and peacekeepingMonday, 18 June 2012 26
    • International Instruments Treaties and customary law are the main sources of international law Treaties are legally binding and are freely entered into. There are two types Bilateral and multilateral Declarations are not legally binding and therefore only show principle support from a nation state Hint: Using this terminology in a world order essay is very importantMonday, 18 June 2012 27
    • Jus Cogens A legal norm or a ‘peremptory norm’ Treaties do not have to be signed in order to be considered binding It is accepted as a norm today that slavery, piracy and torture are prohibited under international lawMonday, 18 June 2012 28
    • Courts and Tribunals International Court of Justice (ICJ) Est. 1946 - organ of the UN 15 judges elected by the UN cases involve disputes between statesMonday, 18 June 2012 29
    • ICJ Ruling MacedoniaMonday, 18 June 2012 30
    • The ICJ hears two types of cases: Contentious issues between states - the court produces binding rulings to states that have agreed to be bound by the rulings of the court Advisory Opinions - the court provides reasoned, but non binding rulingsMonday, 18 June 2012 31
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 32
    • International Criminal Court (ICC) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Treaty signed 1998 by 121 nation states The ICC est. in the Hague, 2002 Given jurisdiction over acts of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity Virtual tour of the courtMonday, 18 June 2012 33
    • Case space: libya civil war Armed conflict between loyal gaddafi forces and those wanting to oust the government UNSC resolution 1970 - freezing gaddafi’s finances and strict sanctions UNSC resolution 1973 - no-fly zone over libyaMonday, 18 June 2012 34
    • Unsc resolution 1973Monday, 18 June 2012 35
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 Nato and libya 36
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 Nato and libya 37
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 Motives in libya? 38
    • What is this cartoon showing?Monday, 18 June 2012 39
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 40
    • Case space List of icc indicted criminalsMonday, 18 June 2012 41
    • Thomas Lubanga verdictMonday, 18 June 2012 42
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 Icc video 43
    • Other International Tribunals International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTW) The European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, FranceMonday, 18 June 2012 44
    • Intergovernmental Organisations (IGO’s) These regional/strategic organisation have been established for mutual benefits (Trade, regional cooperation etc) examples include the African Union (AU), the Commonwealth, ASEAN, the Arab League and APEC Hint: It is important to understand the links with the United nations and Igo’sMonday, 18 June 2012 45
    • European Union (EU) Has been successful at making war impossible over the European continent Its a Supranation (decisions made by majority vote) It improves issues of peace and security by tackling organised crime, improving human rights and agreeing not to attack each other Hint: Due to recent economic impacts, the eu has declined in value in some member statesMonday, 18 June 2012 46
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 47
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 European union 48
    • Northern Atlantic treaty Organisation (NATO) Est. 1949 due to the USSR Eastern Bloc of Europe Military forces have helped end conflict in Kosovo and Bosnia Supported the EU with transport assistance in Darfur and continues to have forces in Afghanistan Hint: Nato is a military organisationMonday, 18 June 2012 49
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 50
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 History of nato 51
    • Group of 77 Loose coalition of developing countries in the UN general assembly 77 founding members which have expanded to 132 Hint: This IGO was developed due to imbalance of developing country issues in the general assemblyMonday, 18 June 2012 52
    • Group of 77Monday, 18 June 2012 53
    • Non-government organisations (NGO’s) NGO’s provide the balance to issues involved with improving peace and security around the world Close to 25000 NGO’s around the world NGO’s apply pressure to the UN and IGO’s, large influence on the UN Charter and champion the continued struggles involving humanitarian issues Hint: the un will use statistics gathered by ngo’sMonday, 18 June 2012 54
    • International Crisis Group (ICG) Founded in 1995 due to ineffective measures taken on Somalia, Rwanda and Bosnia provides behind the scenes assistance to peace negotiations Highly active in troublesome areas of the world Hint: Most world order essays will ask you to include non-legal responsesMonday, 18 June 2012 55
    • International crisis groupMonday, 18 June 2012 56
    • Icg views on middle eastMonday, 18 June 2012 57
    • Australia’s federal government Under Section 51 of the Constitution only the federal government can make decisions on external affairs (World Order issues) all signed treaties and agreements have to be established by the federal government Australia is largely seen to be involved in positive and peaceful global affairsMonday, 18 June 2012 58
    • Australia and peacekeeping Australia has been involved in 54 peacekeeping forces, largely in the Asia- Pacific region Australia’s involvement in east timor was highly successful Hint: the best example for australian involvement in international conflict is east timorMonday, 18 June 2012 59
    • Case Space: East Timor Military Intervention by Indonesia 1975-99 This conflict shows different international responses due to the motives of the permanent fiveMonday, 18 June 2012 60
    • East timor issuesMonday, 18 June 2012 61
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 Media responses 62
    • The media A free and unbiased media is the essential ingredient for rule of law in the global sphere The media is effective in raising awareness for world issues but at times can be criticised for only providing entertainment and not the full facts to the issue Hint: Rwanda is a great example of the media’s influenceMonday, 18 June 2012 63
    • political negotiation, persuasion and the use of force Political negotiation simplest and most frequently used This can be done away from treaties and agreements (closed doors) If this stage fails, nations will move towards persuasionMonday, 18 June 2012 64
    • Persuasion Applying political pressure can change the behaviour of a nation who is not willing to comply Persuasion can be considered as soft powerMonday, 18 June 2012 65
    • Monday, 18 June 2012 China and wto 66
    • Use of force Last resort action - many issues surround the legality with regards to the use of force Use of force can be used in self defence or UNSC authorisationMonday, 18 June 2012 67