Issues in world order
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Issues in world order Issues in world order Presentation Transcript

  • Contemporary Issues in World Order
    • 1. The principle of “responsibility to protect”
    • 2.regional and global situations that threaten
    • peace and security
    • 3.the success of global cooperation in achieving
    • world order
    • 4. rules regarding the conduct of hostilities
    • `
  • 1.“Responsibility to Protect”
    • new international security and human rights norm (R2P)
    • This norm derived from the need to have ‘humanitarian intervention’ in the conflicts of Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo
    • This issue challenges the concept of state sovereignty
    • Legal Responses
      • onus is placed on nation states and international organisations
      • also includes the ‘responsibility to warn’ for nation states
      • designed to prevent mass atrocity crimes
  • Obama and Libya
    • Non-Legal Responses
      • NGO’s are at the forefront of this principle (ICG). They have been involved in:
        • strengthening the acceptance of R2P
        • building NGO skills to apply pressure to governments
        • dealing with country specific situations
      • The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (ICRTOP) was raised by NGO’s
    • Conclusion
      • Two contradictory aspects of the UN charter are developed
        • the non-interference principle in relation to state sovereignty
        • obligation of UN members to act against human rights violations
    • Priorities for R2P
      • correct labelling of R2P conflicts
      • prevention not military action
      • The UNSC needs to develop specific guidelines when force is used (Libya 2011)
      • More power given to IGO’s
  • 2. Regional and global situations that threaten peace and security: The Nuclear Threat
    • Nuclear Weapons is the greatest threat to peace and security globally
    • There has been a reduction of nuclear weapons. However, the detonation of only a few hundred would cause massive ecological and humanitarian disasters
  •  
    • Legal Responses
      • Bilateral Treaties have been established to disarm nation states
        • 1983-USA and USSR talks
        • 1991 - They sign START 1 which reduces their arsenals of warheads
        • 2002 - SORT Treaty signed - criticism was made because many nuclear arms were simply stored
  • USA-Russia Relations
    • Multilateral treaties
      • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 - reducing countries that possessed nuclear weaponry
      • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by 1996. 182 signatories and 153 ratifications. The United States has not ratified the treaty
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Review Conference 2010
  •  
    • UNSC and Nuclear Disarmament
      • Tug of war between the Cold War years
      • UNSC has strived to work on a case by case basis with countries of interest
  • Case 1: Iraq
    • Resolution 687 in 1991 - destruction of all chemical, ballistic and biological weapons by Saddam Hussein
    • Comply to rigorous UNSC weapons inspections
    • Still today there have been no weapons of mass destruction (WMD) have been found in Iraq
  • Case 2: North Korea
    • In the early nineties, North Korea began developing nuclear weapons that were known to the worlds powers
    • Agreements were made with the USA but in 2003 N. Korea withdrew from the NPT
    • 2006 it detonated a nuclear bomb (as a test apparently), followed by UNSC pressure, which still remains today
  • Obama’s warning to Iran
  • UN sanctions placed on North Korea 2009
    • UNSC Resolution 1887 - Maintenance of international peace and security: Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament
        • all 15 members of the UNSC voted yes
        • Strong support for NPT
        • Pressure was applied to non signatories such as India, Pakistan and Israel
    • Non-Legal Responses
      • International Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission
        • Begun in 2003 - President Hans Blix
      • The International Commission on Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament
      • The NPT Review
      • Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)
  • 3.The success in achieving world order: East Timor
    • In comparison to previous interventions, East Timor is considered a success
    • Issues involved
      • Indonesia’s Illegal occupation in 1975
      • Mass atrocity crimes during their occupation of 25 years
      • Violence occurred during the 1999 crisis
    • Indonesian Invasion
      • Portugese left East Timor so Indonesia decided to invade
      • The United Nations never accepted this act of aggression by Indonesia
      • Australia never openly disagreed with Indonesia’s actions but during the 1990s, growing concerns developed, including the mass atrocity crimes in Dili in 1991
    • Legal Responses
      • UNSC and Resolution 1246 -Ballot to Decide on Special Autonomy for East Timor
      • UN established the United Nations mission in East Timor (UNAMET)
      • Robust action was taken by the UN but the enforcement agencies were still weak in their intervention
    • The forces were limited by the right that Indonesia still had to agree to the actions (State Sovereignty was still held)
    • In 1999, a UNAMET observed ballot was taken. 78.5% of East Timorese voted for Independence
    • Violence eventuated, the TNI – Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian army) invaded and destroyed 70% of infrastructure and killed between 1000 and 2000 people
    • UNSC Resolution 1264
      • Established INTERFET - (International Force for East Timor) peacekeeping force under Australian command
      • Humanitarian assistance was given and eventually violence stopped, giving success to the resolution
    • UN Transitional Administration in East Timor
      • replaced INTERFET
      • To lead East Timor to statehood and help to build the foundation for democracy.
      • East Timor, now known as Timor-Leste, became an independent country on 20 May 2002
  • Australia and East Timor
    • Success for the UN in East Timor
      • Deemed a success due to the willingness of Australia providing military assistance
      • The final outcomes has been a new independent state, this may have not been possible without UN intervention
  • Kofi Annan - speech on East Timor Independence Day
    • Non-Legal Responses
      • The Media - Live footage was displayed around the world which led to strong opposition against the Indonesian government
      • Diplomatic pressure - pressure was placed through negotiations with the Indonesian government
  • Balibo 5 - Movie Trailer
      • NGO expertise - provides assistance on health, education and basic needs with East Timor during all events
      • Australian Aid - a range of statistics can be sourced from the textbook
  • 4. Rules regarding the conduct of hostilities: International humanitarian law
    • International humanitarian law (IHL) refers to the body of treaties and humanitarian principles that regulate the conduct of armed conflict and seek to limit its effects
    • Treaties include:
      • The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907
      • The four Geneva Conventions 1864, 1949
      • The Geneva Protocol 1977
    • In 1863 the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded was established
    • Before this time period, the treatment of people injured in war was random. There were no international standards for the conduct of war
    Henri Dunant - Founded the ICRC
    • Legal Responses
      • Today, all nation states know the standards of decent conduct in war
      • the Geneva Conventions are the most signed and ratified set of treaties in the world, with 194 signatories.
      • The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) becomes a legal response due to its incorporation in treaties
    • The Four Geneva Conventions 1864, 1949, 1977
      • 1864 - 12 nations agree, establishing a neutrality of war and the use of the red cross flag
      • 1949 - first GC updated and 3 conventions added. Protection of civilians and other non fighting parties
      • 1977 - Two additional protocols were supplemented dealing with torture and inhuman treatment
      • The First Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war
      • The Second Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked personnel at sea during war.
      • The Third Geneva Convention (1949) protects prisoners of war
      • The Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) protects civilians, including those in occupied territory.
      • Article 3 of all Geneva conventions covers situations of intra-state armed conflict
      • prisoners of war
    • The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907
      • 1899 was to prohibit the use of certain types of technology in war, including chemical weapons and hollow point bullets
      • 1907 focused on naval warfare
  • Signatories to the Hague Conventions
    • Courts
      • The ICRC was instrumental in the creation of the International Criminal Court
      • In 1945–46 the Nuremberg Trials put top Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes and set a precedent of holding leaders accountable for their actions
    • In the 1990s, the UN Security Council established ad hoc international tribunals in response to the mass killings
    • 2002 the GC entered into force and the International Criminal Court came into being. The ICC finally gave teeth to the Geneva Conventions
    • Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo
      • Breaches of the GC by the USA
      • USA labelled alleged terrorists as ‘unlawful combatants’ therefore outside the protection of the GC
      • Additionally, the military made it difficult for the Red Cross to visit
      • Finally, Guantanamo prison was established to ignore domestic law within the USA
  •  
    • Iraqi victims being tortured in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were released to the media
    • Other allied countries were dismayed that the USA were using such tactics
    • In 2009 President Obama announced that Guantanamo Bay prison facilities would be closed
    • Non-Legal Responses
      • The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) plays a significant role
        • acts as a neutral party and helps people on all sides in a conflict
        • visits prison camps, internment camps or labour camps of both sides
        • evaluating the conditions of prisoners of war held in detention
  • David Hicks and John Howard Q&A 2010