Issues in world order


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Issues in world order

  1. 1. Contemporary Issues in World Order <ul><li>1. The principle of “responsibility to protect” </li></ul><ul><li>2.regional and global situations that threaten </li></ul><ul><li>peace and security </li></ul><ul><li>3.the success of global cooperation in achieving </li></ul><ul><li>world order </li></ul><ul><li>4. rules regarding the conduct of hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>` </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1.“Responsibility to Protect” <ul><li>new international security and human rights norm (R2P) </li></ul><ul><li>This norm derived from the need to have ‘humanitarian intervention’ in the conflicts of Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>This issue challenges the concept of state sovereignty </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>onus is placed on nation states and international organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also includes the ‘responsibility to warn’ for nation states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to prevent mass atrocity crimes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Obama and Libya
  5. 5. <ul><li>Non-Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NGO’s are at the forefront of this principle (ICG). They have been involved in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strengthening the acceptance of R2P </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>building NGO skills to apply pressure to governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dealing with country specific situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (ICRTOP) was raised by NGO’s </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two contradictory aspects of the UN charter are developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the non-interference principle in relation to state sovereignty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>obligation of UN members to act against human rights violations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Priorities for R2P </li></ul><ul><ul><li>correct labelling of R2P conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevention not military action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The UNSC needs to develop specific guidelines when force is used (Libya 2011) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More power given to IGO’s </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Regional and global situations that threaten peace and security: The Nuclear Threat <ul><li>Nuclear Weapons is the greatest threat to peace and security globally </li></ul><ul><li>There has been a reduction of nuclear weapons. However, the detonation of only a few hundred would cause massive ecological and humanitarian disasters </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral Treaties have been established to disarm nation states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1983-USA and USSR talks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1991 - They sign START 1 which reduces their arsenals of warheads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2002 - SORT Treaty signed - criticism was made because many nuclear arms were simply stored </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. USA-Russia Relations
  11. 12. <ul><li>Multilateral treaties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 - reducing countries that possessed nuclear weaponry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by 1996. 182 signatories and 153 ratifications. The United States has not ratified the treaty </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Review Conference 2010
  13. 15. <ul><li>UNSC and Nuclear Disarmament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tug of war between the Cold War years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSC has strived to work on a case by case basis with countries of interest </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Case 1: Iraq <ul><li>Resolution 687 in 1991 - destruction of all chemical, ballistic and biological weapons by Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>Comply to rigorous UNSC weapons inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Still today there have been no weapons of mass destruction (WMD) have been found in Iraq </li></ul>
  15. 17. Case 2: North Korea <ul><li>In the early nineties, North Korea began developing nuclear weapons that were known to the worlds powers </li></ul><ul><li>Agreements were made with the USA but in 2003 N. Korea withdrew from the NPT </li></ul><ul><li>2006 it detonated a nuclear bomb (as a test apparently), followed by UNSC pressure, which still remains today </li></ul>
  16. 18. Obama’s warning to Iran
  17. 19. UN sanctions placed on North Korea 2009
  18. 20. <ul><li>UNSC Resolution 1887 - Maintenance of international peace and security: Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all 15 members of the UNSC voted yes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong support for NPT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure was applied to non signatories such as India, Pakistan and Israel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Non-Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begun in 2003 - President Hans Blix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The International Commission on Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NPT Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. 3.The success in achieving world order: East Timor <ul><li>In comparison to previous interventions, East Timor is considered a success </li></ul><ul><li>Issues involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia’s Illegal occupation in 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass atrocity crimes during their occupation of 25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence occurred during the 1999 crisis </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Indonesian Invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugese left East Timor so Indonesia decided to invade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United Nations never accepted this act of aggression by Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia never openly disagreed with Indonesia’s actions but during the 1990s, growing concerns developed, including the mass atrocity crimes in Dili in 1991 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSC and Resolution 1246 -Ballot to Decide on Special Autonomy for East Timor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN established the United Nations mission in East Timor (UNAMET) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust action was taken by the UN but the enforcement agencies were still weak in their intervention </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>The forces were limited by the right that Indonesia still had to agree to the actions (State Sovereignty was still held) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, a UNAMET observed ballot was taken. 78.5% of East Timorese voted for Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Violence eventuated, the TNI – Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian army) invaded and destroyed 70% of infrastructure and killed between 1000 and 2000 people </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>UNSC Resolution 1264 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established INTERFET - (International Force for East Timor) peacekeeping force under Australian command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian assistance was given and eventually violence stopped, giving success to the resolution </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>UN Transitional Administration in East Timor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>replaced INTERFET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To lead East Timor to statehood and help to build the foundation for democracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Timor, now known as Timor-Leste, became an independent country on 20 May 2002 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Australia and East Timor
  27. 29. <ul><li>Success for the UN in East Timor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deemed a success due to the willingness of Australia providing military assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The final outcomes has been a new independent state, this may have not been possible without UN intervention </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Kofi Annan - speech on East Timor Independence Day
  29. 31. <ul><li>Non-Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Media - Live footage was displayed around the world which led to strong opposition against the Indonesian government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomatic pressure - pressure was placed through negotiations with the Indonesian government </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Balibo 5 - Movie Trailer
  31. 33. <ul><ul><li>NGO expertise - provides assistance on health, education and basic needs with East Timor during all events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Aid - a range of statistics can be sourced from the textbook </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. 4. Rules regarding the conduct of hostilities: International humanitarian law <ul><li>International humanitarian law (IHL) refers to the body of treaties and humanitarian principles that regulate the conduct of armed conflict and seek to limit its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The four Geneva Conventions 1864, 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Geneva Protocol 1977 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>In 1863 the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded was established </li></ul><ul><li>Before this time period, the treatment of people injured in war was random. There were no international standards for the conduct of war </li></ul>Henri Dunant - Founded the ICRC
  34. 36. <ul><li>Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, all nation states know the standards of decent conduct in war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Geneva Conventions are the most signed and ratified set of treaties in the world, with 194 signatories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) becomes a legal response due to its incorporation in treaties </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>The Four Geneva Conventions 1864, 1949, 1977 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1864 - 12 nations agree, establishing a neutrality of war and the use of the red cross flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 - first GC updated and 3 conventions added. Protection of civilians and other non fighting parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1977 - Two additional protocols were supplemented dealing with torture and inhuman treatment </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><ul><li>The First Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked personnel at sea during war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Third Geneva Convention (1949) protects prisoners of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) protects civilians, including those in occupied territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 3 of all Geneva conventions covers situations of intra-state armed conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prisoners of war </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1899 was to prohibit the use of certain types of technology in war, including chemical weapons and hollow point bullets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1907 focused on naval warfare </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Signatories to the Hague Conventions
  39. 41. <ul><li>Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ICRC was instrumental in the creation of the International Criminal Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1945–46 the Nuremberg Trials put top Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes and set a precedent of holding leaders accountable for their actions </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>In the 1990s, the UN Security Council established ad hoc international tribunals in response to the mass killings </li></ul><ul><li>2002 the GC entered into force and the International Criminal Court came into being. The ICC finally gave teeth to the Geneva Conventions </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaches of the GC by the USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA labelled alleged terrorists as ‘unlawful combatants’ therefore outside the protection of the GC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additionally, the military made it difficult for the Red Cross to visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, Guantanamo prison was established to ignore domestic law within the USA </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Iraqi victims being tortured in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were released to the media </li></ul><ul><li>Other allied countries were dismayed that the USA were using such tactics </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009 President Obama announced that Guantanamo Bay prison facilities would be closed </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Non-Legal Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) plays a significant role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acts as a neutral party and helps people on all sides in a conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>visits prison camps, internment camps or labour camps of both sides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluating the conditions of prisoners of war held in detention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 47. David Hicks and John Howard Q&A 2010