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Issues in World Order


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  • 1. World orderPart 3 option 2 Contemporary Issues in World Order Term 1/2 2012Monday, 18 June 2012 1
  • 2. Main Syllabus Points Hint: These issues should be integrated to support your argument in essaysMonday, 18 June 2012 2
  • 3. 1.“Responsibility to Protect” new international security and human rights norm (R2P) - world summit 2005 This norm derived from the need to have ‘humanitarian intervention’ in the conflicts of Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo This issue challenges the concept of state sovereigntyMonday, 18 June 2012 3
  • 4. Monday, 18 June 2012 r2p 4
  • 5. Legal Responses onus is placed on nation states and international organisations also includes the ‘responsibility to warn’ for nation states designed to prevent mass atrocity crimesMonday, 18 June 2012 5
  • 6. Obama,r2p and LibyaMonday, 18 June 2012 6
  • 7. Non-legal Responses NGO’s are at the forefront of this principle (ICG). They have been involved in: strengthening the acceptance of R2P building NGO skills to apply pressure to governments dealing with country specific situations The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (ICRTOP) was raised by NGO’sMonday, 18 June 2012 7
  • 8. Two contradictory aspects of the UN charter are developed the non-interference principle in relation to state sovereignty obligation of UN members to act against human rights violations Hint: R2p is a norm not a law. Therefore jus cogens is developedMonday, 18 June 2012 8
  • 9. Priorities of R2P correct labelling of R2P conflicts prevention not military action The UNSC needs to develop specific guidelines when force is used (Libya 2011) More power given to IGO’sMonday, 18 June 2012 9
  • 10. Monday, 18 June 2012 R2P Issues 10
  • 11. 2. Regional and global situations that threaten peace and security: The Nuclear Threat Nuclear Weapons are the greatest threat to peace and security globally There has been a reduction of nuclear weapons. However, the detonation of only a few hundred would cause massive ecological and humanitarian disastersMonday, 18 June 2012 11
  • 12. Overview of nuclear weaponsMonday, 18 June 2012 12
  • 13. Monday, 18 June 2012 13
  • 14. History of nuclear weaponsMonday, 18 June 2012 14
  • 15. Monday, 18 June 2012 15
  • 16. Legal Responses Bilateral Treaties have been established to disarm nation states USA and USSR(Russia) 1983-begin talks 1991 - Start 1 - which reduces their arsenals of warheads 2002 - SORT Treaty signed - criticism was made because many nuclear arms were simply storedMonday, 18 June 2012 16
  • 17. What are these cartoons showing?Monday, 18 June 2012 17
  • 18. Monday, 18 June 2012 USA-Russia Relations 18
  • 19. Multilateral treaties The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968 - reducing countries that possessed nuclear weaponry Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by 1996. 182 signatories and 153 ratifications. The United States has not ratified the treaty Hint: these are excellent treaties to integrate into the international documents and instruments sectionMonday, 18 June 2012 19
  • 20. NPT Review Conference 2010Monday, 18 June 2012 20
  • 21. Tug of war between the Cold War years UNSC has strived to work on a case by case basis with countries of interestMonday, 18 June 2012 21
  • 22. Resolution 687 in 1991 - destruction of all chemical, ballistic and biological weapons by Saddam Hussein Comply to rigorous UNSC weapons inspections Still today, weapons of mass destruction (WMD) have not been found in IraqMonday, 18 June 2012 22
  • 23. IRAQ - hans blixMonday, 18 June 2012 23
  • 24. In the early nineties, North Korea began developing nuclear weapons that were known to the worlds powers Agreements were made with the USA but in 2003 N. Korea withdrew from the NPT 2006 it detonated a nuclear bomb (as a test apparently), followed by UNSC pressure, which still remains todayMonday, 18 June 2012 24
  • 25. UN sanctions placed on North Korea 2009Monday, 18 June 2012 25
  • 26. UNSC Resolution 1887 - Maintenance of international peace and security: Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament all 15 members of the UNSC voted yes Strong support for NPT Pressure was applied to non signatories such as India, Pakistan and IsraelMonday, 18 June 2012 26
  • 27. Non-legal Responses International Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission Begun in 2003 - President Hans Blix The International Commission on Nuclear Non Proliferation and DisarmamentMonday, 18 June 2012 27
  • 28. UNSC effective?Monday, 18 June 2012 28
  • 29. 3.The success in achieving world order Many disputes have been resolved through international courts and treaties In comparison to previous interventions, East Timor and Libya are considered successful Hint: this section will be critical to evaluating effectiveness criteriaMonday, 18 June 2012 29
  • 30. Case study: East Timor UNSC Resolution 1246 -Ballot to Decide on Special Autonomy for East Timor UN established the United Nations mission in East Timor (UNAMET)Monday, 18 June 2012 30
  • 31. UNSC Resolution 1264 Established INTERFET - (International Force for East Timor) peacekeeping force under Australian command Humanitarian assistance was given and eventually violence stopped, giving success to the resolutionMonday, 18 June 2012 31
  • 32. Success for the UN in East Timor Deemed a success due to the willingness of Australia providing military assistance The final outcomes - new independent state, this may have not been possible without UN interventionMonday, 18 June 2012 32
  • 33. 4. Rules regarding the conduct of hostilities: International humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL) refers to the body of treaties and humanitarian principles that regulate the conduct of armed conflict and seek to limit its effects Treaties include: The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907 The four Geneva Conventions 1864, 1949 The Geneva Protocol 1977Monday, 18 June 2012 33
  • 34. Hint: This issue is linked to the impact of changing values and ethical standards on world order themeMonday, 18 June 2012 34
  • 35. In 1863 the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded was established the treatment of people injured in war was random. There were no international standards for the conduct of war Henri Dunant - Founded the ICRCMonday, 18 June 2012 35
  • 36. Legal Responses Today, all nation states know the standards of decent conduct in war the Geneva Conventions are the most signed and ratified set of treaties in the world, with 194 signatories. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) becomes a legal response due to its incorporation in treatiesMonday, 18 June 2012 36
  • 37. Monday, 18 June 2012 Abuse of GC 37
  • 38. The First Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war The Second Geneva Convention (1949) protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked personnel at sea during war. The Third Geneva Convention (1949) protects prisoners of war The Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) protects civilians, including those in occupied territoryMonday, 18 June 2012 38
  • 39. Monday, 18 June 2012 George Bush on GC 39
  • 40. The Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907 1899 was to prohibit the use of certain types of technology in war, including chemical weapons and hollow point bullets 1907 focused on naval warfareMonday, 18 June 2012 40
  • 41. International Courts The ICRC was instrumental in the creation of the International Criminal Court 1945–46 the Nuremberg Trials - Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes and set a precedent of holding leaders accountable for their actionsMonday, 18 June 2012 41
  • 42. In the 1990s, the UN Security Council established ad hoc international tribunals in response to the mass killings 2002 the GC entered into force with the International Criminal Court. The ICC finally gave teeth to the Geneva ConventionsMonday, 18 June 2012 42
  • 43. Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Breaches of the GC by the USA USA labelled alleged terrorists as ‘unlawful combatants’ therefore outside the protection of the GC Additionally, the military made it difficult for the Red Cross to visit Finally, Guantanamo prison was established to ignore domestic law within the USAMonday, 18 June 2012 43
  • 44. GuantanamoMonday, 18 June 2012 44
  • 45. Iraqi victims being tortured in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were released to the media Other allied countries were dismayed that the USA were using such tactics In 2009 President Obama announced that Guantanamo Bay prison facilities would be closedMonday, 18 June 2012 45
  • 46. Non-Legal Responses The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) plays a significant role acts as a neutral party and helps people on all sides in a conflict visits prison camps, internment camps or labour camps of both sides evaluating the conditions of prisoners of war held in detentionMonday, 18 June 2012 46
  • 47. David Hicks and John Howard Q&A 2010Monday, 18 June 2012 47