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  • 1. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYENTREPRENEURIALMOTIVATION ANDCOMPETENCIES
  • 2. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Learning OutcomesBy the end of the session, studentsshould be able to:• Explain and demonstrate the key entrepreneurial motivation and• Explain and demonstrate competencies of successful entrepreneurs
  • 3. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Motivation• What make people responsive to opportunity?• What drive them to entrepreneurship?• Answering these question entail the examination of entrepreneurial motivation• Motivation is defined as a drive that cause a person to take some goal oriented action.
  • 4. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Motivation• Motivational theories are based on the idea that behavior is essentially purposeful and directed towards the attainment of certain goal.• Thus entrepreneurial motivation is viewed as the willingness of an entrepreneur to sustain his or her entrepreneurial behavior.
  • 5. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial MotivationMotivation theorists have pointed out thatat least three general categories of socialmotives as important determinant ofhuman behavior:•The need for achievement (n Ach)•The need for Power (n Pow)•The need for affiliation (n Aff)
  • 6. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial MotivationThe need for achievement (n Ach)• Achievement motive - drive to do well, strive for excellence and overcome challenges and obstacles in the pursuit of goal.The need for Power (n Pow)• Power motive - drive to control, influence and to have impact on others and change the situations.The need for affiliation (n Aff)• Affiliation motive - drive to establish, maintain or renew affective relationship with others.
  • 7. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Motivation• All three motives may exist together in a person• But one usually more dominant than the other motives for most of the individual’s actions.
  • 8. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYHigh need for achievement (high n Ach) • High need for achievement (high n Ach) has been identified as the critical motive that influence for most of venture creation and entrepreneurship. • Individual with high need for achievement found in most good business founder. • Need for achievement also known as urge to improve.
  • 9. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY High need for power (high n Pow)• Individual with High need for power (high n Pow) normally seek position of leadership.• They potentially to be good managers, executive or supervisors.
  • 10. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY High need for affiliation (n Aff)• High need for affiliation (n Aff) has mostly been associated with individual whose desire in life is to establish, maintain or renew affective relationship with others.• They potentially to be good social workers• As an entrepreneur the need for affiliation to certain extent may contribute to the drive for maintaining effective business networking.
  • 11. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursDrive to achieve• Internally driven self starter with strong desire to:• To compete with others• To excel with self imposed standard• To pursue and attain challenging goal
  • 12. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursCalculated risk taking• High achiever tend to take moderated or calculated risk – Examining the situation and determine how to increase the chance of winning a business situation – They make their effort to get the odds in their favor – They do not take unnecessary risks
  • 13. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursInternal locus of control• They belief that success or failure is determined by their own effort.• They belief in themselves• They do not belief that success or failure of their ventures were determined by fate or luck• This behavior is consistent with self confidence and desire to take personal responsibility
  • 14. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursTolerance for failure• High achievers take failure as a learning experience.• Do not easily become disappointed, distress or discouraged by any setback or difficulties faced in the mist of business competition.• Many successful entrepreneurs belief that they learn more from their earlier failure than from their earlier success.
  • 15. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursSeeking Feedback• They have strong desire to actively seek and used feed back to know how well they are doing and how to improve their performance.• Most successful entrepreneurs are quick learners
  • 16. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCYCommon characteristics associated withachievement oriented entrepreneursIntegrity and reliability• Integrity and reliability help to build and sustain trust and confidence• This helps to endure the relationship between entrepreneurs, partners, customers, suppliers and stakeholders.
  • 17. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Competence motivationBesides the three social motives, asuccessful entrepreneur should also havethe competence motivation• Competence motivation Is a drive to do high quality work.
  • 18. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Competence motivation• Competence motivated entrepreneur – seek mastery in job or tasks that they are undertaking, – develop problem solving skill and – strive to be innovative• In general they tend to perform good work because the inner satisfaction they feel and esteem they gain from others due to their competence.
  • 19. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES (PECs)   The term "ENTREPRENEURIAL  COMPETENCIES" refers to the key characteristics that should be possessed  by successful entrepreneurs in order to  perform entrepreneurial functions  effectively 
  • 20. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)1. Initiative The entrepreneur should be able to take actions that go  beyond his job requirements and to act faster. He is always  ahead of others and able to become a leader in the field of  business. Examples Does things before being asked or compelled by the situation. Acts to extend the business into new areas, products or services
  • 21. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)2. Sees and acts on opportunities    An entrepreneur always looks for and takes action on        opportunities. Examples Sees and acts on new business opportunities Seizes unusual opportunities to obtain financing, equipment, land, work space or assistance
  • 22. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)3. Persistence An entrepreneur is able to make repeated efforts or to  take different actions to overcome an obstacle that get  in the way of reaching goals.Examples Takes repeated or different actions to overcome an obstacle Takes action in the face of a significant obstacle
  • 23. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)4. Information Seeking An entrepreneur is able to take action on how to seek  information to help achieve business objectives or clarify  business problems.Examples Does personal research on how to provide a product or service Consults experts or experienced persons to get relevant information Seeks information or asks questions to clarify a clients or a suppliers need Personally undertakes market research, analysis or investigation Uses contacts or information networks to obtain useful information
  • 24. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)5. Concern for High Quality of Work An entrepreneur acts to do things that meet certain  standards of excellence which gives him greater  satisfaction.Examples States a desire to produce or sell a top or better quality product or service Compares own work or own companys work favorably to that of others
  • 25. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)6. Commitment to Work Contract  An entrepreneur places the highest priority on getting a  job completed.Examples Makes personal sacrifice or expends extraordinary effort to complete a job Accepts full responsibility for problems in completing a job for customers Pitches in with workers or works in their place to get the job done Expresses a concern for satisfying the customer
  • 26. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)7. Efficiency Orientation A successful entrepreneur always finds ways to do things  faster or with fewer resources or at a lower cost.Examples Looks for or finds ways to do things faster or at less cost Uses information or business tools to improve efficiency Expresses concern about costs vs. benefits of some improvement, change, or course of action
  • 27. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies  McClelland and McBer (1985)8. Systematic Planning An entrepreneur develops and uses logical, step-by- step plans to reach goals. Examples Plans by breaking a large task down into sub-tasks Develops plans that anticipate obstacles Evaluate alternatives Takes a logical and systematic approach to activities
  • 28. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies McClelland and McBer (1985)9. Problem Solving Successful entrepreneur identifies new and potentially unique ideas to achieve his goals.Example Switches to an alternative strategy to reach a goal Generates new ideas or innovative solutions
  • 29. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies McClelland and McBer (1985)10.Self-Confidence A successful entrepreneur has a strong belief in self and own abilities.Examples Expresses confidence in own ability to complete a task or meet a challenge Sticks with own judgment in the face of opposition or early lack of success
  • 30. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies McClelland and McBer (1985)11.Assertiveness An entrepreneur confronts problems and issues with others directly.Examples Confronts problems with others directly Tells others what they have to do Reprimands or disciplines those failing to perform as expected
  • 31. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies McClelland and McBer (1985)12.Persuasion An entrepreneur can successfully persuade or influence others for mobilizing resources, obtaining inputs, organizing productions and selling his products or services.Examples Convinces someone to buy a product or service Convinces someone to provide financing Convinces someone to do something else that he would like that person to do Asserts own competence, reliability, or other personal or company qualities Asserts strong confidence in own companys products or services
  • 32. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY Entrepreneurial Competencies McClelland and McBer (1985)13.Use of Influence Strategies An entrepreneur is able to make use of influential people to reach his business goals.Examples Acts to develop business contracts Uses influential people as agents to accomplish own objectives Selectively limits the information given to others Uses a strategy to influence or persuade others
  • 33. ENT/ETR300 – FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIPENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION & COMPETENCY END OF MODULE 2