CONVERSATION ANALYSIS-PREFERENCE STRUCTURE

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ppt on Conversation Analysis. Text taken from YULE (Pragmatics). Preference and Non-preference structures. Video: Jurgen Handke 2012. in “The Virtual Linguistic Campus” from www.linguisticsonline.com
Turn Taking in Conversation

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CONVERSATION ANALYSIS-PREFERENCE STRUCTURE

  1. 1. Page 1 CONVERSATION, PREFERENCE STRUCTURE DISCOURSE AND CULTURE. LINGUISTICS. TEACHER: VALERIA GRAZIANO. GROUP MEMBERS: Nadya Tolaba. Agustina Giacinty. Adela Pérez del Viso.
  2. 2. Page 2 Interaction and Conversation Interaction and Conversation. Metaphors: a dance; traffic crossing an interaction. Best Metaphor: MARKET ECONOMY. A SCARCE COMMODITY: the FLOOR. The right to speak.
  3. 3. Page 3 Turn, Turn-taking, TRP Turn: to have control of the right to speak. To hold the floor. When control is not fixed in advance: anyone can try to get control: TURN-TAKING. Turn-taking depends on every local management system (convention) TRP: Transition Relevance Place: possible-change-of-turn point.
  4. 4. Page 4 How Conversation is viewed Speakers are viewed as taking turns at holding the floor. They accomplish change of turn smoothly: aware of the local management system for taking turns. Speakers may cooperate and share the floor equally. Speakers could be in competition, fighting to keep the floor. Patterns: according to social groups.
  5. 5. Page 5 VIDEO. Jurgen Handke 2012. “The Virtual Linguistic Campus” www.linguisticsonline.com Turn Taking in Conversation.
  6. 6. Page 6 VIDEO. JURGEN HANDKE.
  7. 7. Page 7 PAUSES and OVERLAPS • Pauses: silence between turns. • Pauses can be: simple hesitations or Silences. • Overlaps: both speakers trying to speak at the same time. • With pauses and Overlaps: NO FLOW, no SMOOTH RHYTHM to their transitions, SENSE of DISTANCE, ABSENCE OF FAMILIARITY or ease.
  8. 8. Page 8 PAUSES, OVERLAPS, BACKCHANNELS • Pauses: silence between turns. • Pauses can be: simple hesitations or Silences. • Overlaps: both speakers trying to speak at the same time. • With pauses and Overlaps: NO FLOW, no SMOOTH RHYTHM to their transitions, SENSE of DISTANCE, ABSENCE OF FAMILIARITY or ease.
  9. 9. Page 9 Silences • One “silence” could be NOT attributable to one speaker (Ex. P.73). • If the silence is attributed to the second speaker and becomes significant: ATTRIBUTABLE SILENCE. In that case Speaker A turns over the floor to Speaker B and S.B. does not talk. That silence is communicating something.
  10. 10. Page 10 OVERLAP • The normal expectation: one speaker at a time. • Overlap: a problem for the local management system. • Typically: when both speakers attempt to initiate talk. • May be due to: a) unfamiliar conversation b) expression of solidarity or closeness. • It solves: 1 speaker draws attention to be allowed to finish.
  11. 11. Page 11 TRP • Transition Relevance Place. • Normally Speaker B will wait for a possible TRP before jumping in. • Dominant people will avoid providing TRPs. • Avoid TRPs: avoid an open pause at the end of a syntactic unit. The speaker PROTECTS HIS TURN. • Extended turn: S A. indicates at first there is a larger structure to your turn. (Ex. P.75). Discussions/ Storytelling.
  12. 12. Page 12 BACKCHANNELS • Ways of indicating we are listening. • Head nods, smiles, other facial expressions, gestures. • Backchannels: one way of signalling we are listening. (uh,uh; mm) • They indicate the listener is following and not objecting to what the speaker says. • Normal expectation: backchannel. No backchannel is significant.
  13. 13. Page 13 • Even within a community of speakers: sufficient variation to cause potential misunderstanding. • The expectation to lead a conversation very active and at a speed rate (or not): CONVERSATIONAL STYLE. • High involvement style. • High considerateness style. (non interrupting, not impossing style) CONVERSATIONAL STYLE.
  14. 14. Page 14 • AUTOMATIC PATTERNS in the structure of conversations. • They consist of a FIRST PART and a SECOND PART. (by different speakers) • S. A creates the expectation of the 2nd utterance in S.B.(of the same pair) • Greetings and Goodbyes/ Question/answer sequences/ Ex: P.77 ADJACENCY PAIRS
  15. 15. Page 15 • Insertion sequence: one adjacency pair within another. (Ex p.78). • The delay in answering or accepting: the S.B is not uttering the expected response: represents distance between what is expected. Delay is MEANINGFUL. ADJACENCY PAIRS
  16. 16. Page 16 • Yule, G, Pragmatics, Oxford U.P. Hong Kong, 1996. Units 8 to 10. • www.linguisticsonline.com The Virtual Linguistics Classroom. SOURCES.

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