1. ADVERBS: PART OF SPEECH
studies:Part of speech: Adverbs,
Adjectives, Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, (her,
him, herself) Conjunctions, (or, whereas)
Prepositions and Determiners. (articles,
demonstrative adjectives, quantifiers)
Grammar also studies: grammatical
structures and word formation. (grammatical
structures: passive voice, verb tenses, etc).
W.Formation: Suffixes and Prefixes.
2. Definition of Adverb:
Part of Speech
that describes verbs, adjectives,
other adverbs or sentences.
--one word (e.g. “carefully”)
-- or a phrase (in the morning).
3. FORMATION OF ADVERBS:
we refer mainly to One-word adverbs.
Adjectives + -ly.
Adjectives ending in –l: we add –ly.
Adjectives ending in –le: we drop the –e and
add -y: e.g.: gently.
Adjectives ending in ic: they take –ally:
dramatically. With exceptions:Publicly.
4. ADVERBS VS. ADJECTIVES
words seem to be adverbs but they
are adjectives: cowardly, elderly, friendly,
lively, lonely, likely.
Some adverbs are used without –ly in
everyday speech: Slow. Quick. Loud. Cheap.
Some adverbs are different whereas with or
without –ly: Deep/Deeply. Hard/ Hardly.
Pretty/ Prettily. High/highly. Near/nearly
5. ADVERBS VS. ADJECTIVES
words are both adverbs and
Hourly- Dayly- Monthly- Weekly.
Fast- Deep Early- Late.
6. CLASSES OF ADVERBS:
PLACE AND DIRECTION
COMMENT AND VIEWPOINT ADVERBS
7. ADVERBS OF MANNER:
They express how the action is
By bus, by train.
Some are expressions or more-than-one-word
In a quiet, threatening voice, …
8. ADVERBS OF TIME AND FREQUENCY
of Time: Tomorrow –
Yesterday Adverbs of Frequency: They state how
often something happens. (once a
They can be:
Adverbs of Time – definite time-:
Adverbs of Time: indefinite time: some
day. One day.
9. ADVERBS OF DEGREE
describe how the action is done:
whether it is done totally or partially.
Almost; fully; completely.
Rather; quite; nearly. Scarcely
Expressions: “quite hardly”. “Almost
10. ADVERBS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION
They are mainly prepositional phrases and
Under the table.
Next to the bookshelf.
Towards the station.
Or: “there”. “here”.
11. FOCUS ADVERBS
They draw attention to the most important part
of what we are talking about.
E.g.: especially, mainly, particularly,
will be snow today, particularly in the
12. COMMENT ADVERBS
adverbs are used to make a
comment on what we or others are saying.
Ex:--how likely we think s.t. is: Apparently,
Certainly, Undoubtedly, Obviously,
--Indicate our attitude to what was said:
Sadly, Frankly, Seriously, Luckily.
--Indicate a judgement of s.o.´s action:
bravely, stupidly, wisely, correctly, wrongly,
13. VIEWPOINT ADVERBS
V.P. make clear what viewpoint we are speaking from
They identify what features of something are being talked
about. E.g.Financially, it was a disaster for his family.
And many expressions:
From a political point of view.
As far as politics are concerned
In terms of politics
In political terms.
14. POSITION OF ADVERBS:
are three main positions for adverbs
which modify a verb:
15. END POSITION:
The adverb is placed after the verb, either
immediately after the verb, or later in the
played quietly all day.
He sat in the corner, quietly.
16. FRONT AND MID POSITION:
POSITION: The adverb is placed
before the subject. Ex: Sometimes I feel like
MID POSITION:Between the subject and
Ex: He is always playing football there.
**Or immediately after verb “to be” or the
auxiliary verb. Ex: He usually plays better
17. END POSITION:
adverb goes after the VERB + THE
Ex: We considered the problem briefly.
the object is a long expression, the
adverb goes before the object:
Ex: We considered briefly the long-term
solution to the problem.
there is a verb followed by an ing-form, we
avoid putting the adverb in the middle, so it
goes after the ing form.
He began running quickly.
position is usual for many adverbials of
place, definite frequency and definite time:
They live upstairs.
She goes there weekly.
She will go there in May.
19. FRONT POSITION:
types of adverb commonly go in front
position in a clause. In particular:
--Connecting adverbs: to make clear the
logical relation to the previous sentence.
“As a result”.
Similarly The same happened with…
20. … CONNECTING ADVERBS/ FRONT
and place adverbs: Add more
information about a previous reference to a
time or place or show a contrast:
and Viewpoint Adverbs.
“Sincerely, we can say that …”
21. MID POSITION:
We almost missed the train.
I greatly admire your work.
which indicate the order of events:
I first met her in 1997.
But in order to list actions we put them in
22. MID POSITION ADVERBS:
of frequency when it is only 1 word:
I often get there late.
I regularly take a bus to get there.
adverbial closes of indefinite frequency
(As a rule, On many occasions, from time to
time) are used in front or end position
23. MANY ADVERBS ALTOGETHER
if there are adverbs of manner, place
and time, the order is: Manner- place-time.
Ex: We usually go the park once a week.
In case of verbs of movement or direction,
the order is: Place- Manner- time.
We will arrive at the station by bus,