GRAMMAR I. ADVERBS
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  • 1. ADVERBS: PART OF SPEECH  Grammar studies:Part of speech: Adverbs, Adjectives, Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, (her, him, herself) Conjunctions, (or, whereas) Prepositions and Determiners. (articles, demonstrative adjectives, quantifiers)  Grammar also studies: grammatical structures and word formation. (grammatical structures: passive voice, verb tenses, etc). W.Formation: Suffixes and Prefixes.
  • 2. Definition of Adverb: Part of Speech that describes verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or sentences. --one word (e.g. “carefully”) -- or a phrase (in the morning).
  • 3. FORMATION OF ADVERBS:  Here we refer mainly to One-word adverbs.  Adjectives + -ly.  Adjectives ending in –l: we add –ly. (e.g.: carefully). Adjectives ending in –le: we drop the –e and add -y: e.g.: gently. Adjectives ending in ic: they take –ally: dramatically. With exceptions:Publicly.
  • 4. ADVERBS VS. ADJECTIVES  Some words seem to be adverbs but they are adjectives: cowardly, elderly, friendly, lively, lonely, likely.  Some adverbs are used without –ly in everyday speech: Slow. Quick. Loud. Cheap.  Some adverbs are different whereas with or without –ly: Deep/Deeply. Hard/ Hardly. Pretty/ Prettily. High/highly. Near/nearly
  • 5. ADVERBS VS. ADJECTIVES  Some words are both adverbs and adjectives:  Right- Wrong.  Hourly- Dayly- Monthly- Weekly.  Fast- Deep Early- Late.
  • 6. CLASSES OF ADVERBS:  MANNER  TIME AND FREQUENCY.  DEGREE  PLACE AND DIRECTION  FOCUS ADVERBS  COMMENT AND VIEWPOINT ADVERBS
  • 7. ADVERBS OF MANNER: They express how the action is performed. Ex:  Angrily, Emphatically.  By bus, by train.  Some are expressions or more-than-one-word adverbials: Ex:  In a quiet, threatening voice, …  In amazement 
  • 8. ADVERBS OF TIME AND FREQUENCY  Adverbs of Time: Tomorrow – Yesterday Adverbs of Frequency: They state how often something happens. (once a day, regularly).  They can be:  Adverbs of Time – definite time-:  Tomorrow- Yesterday.  Adverbs of Time: indefinite time: some day. One day.
  • 9. ADVERBS OF DEGREE  They describe how the action is done: whether it is done totally or partially. E.g.:  Almost; fully; completely.  Hardly;  Rather; quite; nearly. Scarcely  Expressions: “quite hardly”. “Almost completely”.
  • 10. ADVERBS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION They are mainly prepositional phrases and adverbials. E.g.:  Under the table.  Next to the bookshelf.  Towards the station.  Or: “there”. “here”.
  • 11. FOCUS ADVERBS They draw attention to the most important part of what we are talking about.  E.g.: especially, mainly, particularly, specifically.  There north. will be snow today, particularly in the
  • 12. COMMENT ADVERBS  Comment adverbs are used to make a comment on what we or others are saying.  Ex:--how likely we think s.t. is: Apparently, Certainly, Undoubtedly, Obviously, Presumably, Clearly.  --Indicate our attitude to what was said:  Sadly, Frankly, Seriously, Luckily.  --Indicate a judgement of s.o.´s action: bravely, stupidly, wisely, correctly, wrongly, generously.
  • 13. VIEWPOINT ADVERBS   V.P. make clear what viewpoint we are speaking from They identify what features of something are being talked about. E.g.Financially, it was a disaster for his family. And many expressions:  Politically speaking.  From a political point of view.  As far as politics are concerned  In terms of politics  In political terms.
  • 14. POSITION OF ADVERBS:  There are three main positions for adverbs which modify a verb:  END  FRONT and  MID Position.
  • 15. END POSITION: The adverb is placed after the verb, either immediately after the verb, or later in the clause:  They played quietly all day.  He sat in the corner, quietly.
  • 16. FRONT AND MID POSITION:  FRONT POSITION: The adverb is placed before the subject. Ex: Sometimes I feel like going home.  MID POSITION:Between the subject and verb.  Ex: He is always playing football there.  **Or immediately after verb “to be” or the auxiliary verb. Ex: He usually plays better than me.
  • 17. END POSITION:  The adverb goes after the VERB + THE OBJECT.  Ex: We considered the problem briefly.  If the object is a long expression, the adverb goes before the object:  Ex: We considered briefly the long-term solution to the problem.
  • 18.  If there is a verb followed by an ing-form, we avoid putting the adverb in the middle, so it goes after the ing form.  Ex: He began running quickly.  End position is usual for many adverbials of place, definite frequency and definite time:  Ex:   They live upstairs. She goes there weekly. She will go there in May.
  • 19. FRONT POSITION:  Most types of adverb commonly go in front position in a clause. In particular:  --Connecting adverbs: to make clear the logical relation to the previous sentence.  “As a result”.  Similarly The same happened with…  Afterwards, …
  • 20. … CONNECTING ADVERBS/ FRONT POSITION:  --Time and place adverbs: Add more information about a previous reference to a time or place or show a contrast: Tomorrow,… Nearby.  --Comment and Viewpoint Adverbs.  “Sincerely, we can say that …”
  • 21. MID POSITION:  --Degree adverbs:  We almost missed the train.  I greatly admire your work.  --Adverbs which indicate the order of events:  I first met her in 1997.  But in order to list actions we put them in front position.
  • 22. MID POSITION ADVERBS:  Adverbs of frequency when it is only 1 word:  I often get there late.  I regularly take a bus to get there.  --But adverbial closes of indefinite frequency (As a rule, On many occasions, from time to time) are used in front or end position
  • 23. MANY ADVERBS ALTOGETHER  Usually if there are adverbs of manner, place and time, the order is: Manner- place-time. Ex: We usually go the park once a week.  In case of verbs of movement or direction, the order is: Place- Manner- time.  We will arrive at the station by bus, tomorrow.
  • 24. THANK YOU, TEACHER…