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GETXOLINGUAE 2013 ANA LLINARES
 

GETXOLINGUAE 2013 ANA LLINARES

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    GETXOLINGUAE 2013 ANA LLINARES GETXOLINGUAE 2013 ANA LLINARES Presentation Transcript

    • The Roles of Interaction in CLILAna Llinares GarcíaUniversidad Autónoma de MadridGetxolinguae 2013Reflections on Language15 May 2013
    • What do we mean by interaction in CLIL?The way in which oral discourse isorganised in the CLIL/bilingual classroom toenhance successful content and languageintegrated learning.
    • Why focus on interaction in CLIL?The ways languages are actuallyused in classroom interaction andactivities.“ how teachers and students use their languagesin teaching and learning activities so that wehave a better understanding of what goes on inbilingual education classrooms in different worldlocations.” (Leung 2005: 250)Two keylanguage-focusareas in CLILresearchLeung (2005)Llinares, Morton &Whittaker (2012)The demands and affordances oflanguage learning in the context ofcurriculum subject learning.
    • Roles of language in CLIL: a snapshotLlinares, Morton & Whittaker (2012) The Roles of Language in CLIL. Cambridge: CUP
    • Which features of interaction are relevant topromote learning in CLIL?(Mortimer & Scott, 2003; Llinares, Morton & Whittaker, 2012) What content is being communicated and what for? (focus) How is content communicated? (approach) What interaction patterns are used to communicate content?(action) Learner participation The role of the teacher The type of activity
    • CONTENTWhat is being talked about (genetic variation; factors of development in differentcountries; Romanesque churches)PURPOSEWhat is being done with the content (engage students’ interest in a new topic; go overhomework; apply knowledge in new context etc.)INTERACTION PATTERNSRecurring patterns of talk (e.g. IRF - teacher initiates, student responds, teacher followsup)SPECIFIC ACTIONS(ask different types of questions; get students to elaborate; recast or correct; evaluatestudents’ contributions; ‘amplify’ for whole class etc.)NEGOTIATION OF MEANINGHow the content is being talked about (+/- interactive; only one version of the ‘truth’accepted or many ideas encouraged)Adapted from Mortimer & Scott, 2003for the COMENIUS project “CLIL across Contexts”
    • CONTENTWhat is being talked about (genetic variation; factors of development in differentcountries; Romanesque churches)PURPOSE (What for?)What is being done with the content (engage students’ interest in a new topic; go overhomework; apply knowledge in new context etc.)INTERACTION PATTERNSRecurring patterns of talk (e.g. IRF - teacher initiates, student responds, teacherfollows up)SPECIFIC ACTIONS(ask different types of questions; get students to elaborate; recast or correct; evaluatestudents’ contributions; ‘amplify’ for whole class etc.)NEGOTIATION OF MEANINGHow the content is being talked about (+/- interactive; only one version of the ‘truth’accepted or many ideas encouraged)Adapted from Mortimer & Scott, 2003for the COMENIUS project “CLIL across Contexts”
    • I. PURPOSE: Planning linguistic objectives inrelation to the content (focus)1. What kind of content am I going to focus on? Is iteveryday content or is it academic?BICS CALP (Cummins 1979)2. What is my main objective?• Collect the students’ ideas about the topic?• Check whether the students have learnt a certainconcept?• Apply knowledge to a new situation?2. What kind of language do students need to have accessto that content?
    • I. The instructional and regulative registers(Christie 2002)Instructional RegisterContent knowledge and skills beingfocused on and how(vertical or horizontal knowledge)Regulative RegisterManaging and organizing theclassroom as a social spaceT: OK listen to me. What are wegoing to do now? Something different.Now we are going to change the teams.We are going to change and everyonewho’s got the same colours are goingto sit together, right? Right? So forexample you have to stand up, right?And change your places…T: Why can’t you use the same landwithout leaving it to rest?S: Because you plant different thingsT: Good. By planting differentthings which need different substancesfrom the earth. Do you know inSpanish? …La tierra esta en…?S: ba-?T: en?S: BarbechoT: Barbecho good
    • I. Students’ participation in the instructional and regulative registers(Christie 2002)S1: Boys, look I think the ins – saywe do three…but can we do oneS2: Okay claro (Sp. of course)S1: Because three is very…a lotS2: We make one but not three orfourS1: Okay A . Do you like myopinion? My idea? C ((the teacher))gave us a box…Please A speak inEnglish!S2: But D, look! We only do one…only one!Instructional Register Regulative Register(group work)T:Tell me the name of the differentparts of the ground plan. …Thesechapels here. What are the names ofthat?S:Apses.T:Apses, that’s right. And this one?So we enter here. So what’s thename of this central part?S:Nave.T:You are doing very well. M, do youremember the name of these twocorridors at the sides? What was thename of this?S:Aisles ((pronounced /aizles/))T:Aisle ((prononced /ail/)).That’sright, the aisles here. Good.
    • I. Instructional registerColloquial/horizontal (BICS) or Academic/vertical (CALP) discourse? Non academic language encourages students’ participationand negotiation of meaning.The transition into CALP needs to be sequential. Forexample, in history, at lower secondary, language can focus onchronological narrations. At upper secondary, language can bemore abstract, containing explanations and argumentation.The challenge in CLIL is the sequenced movement into moreacademic abstract language (CALP) maintainingcommunicative situations that encourage everyday language(BICS).
    • I. Regulative register Wider range of language functions (exchange of goods andservices). More possibilities if there are hands-on and group workactivities. The use of L2 in regulative register may be a challenge(needs to be carefully and patiently nurtured).
    • CONTENTWhat is being talked about (genetic variation; factors of development in differentcountries; Romanesque churches)PURPOSEWhat is being done with the content (engage students’ interest in a new topic; go overhomework; apply knowledge in new context etc.)INTERACTION PATTERNSRecurring patterns of talk (e.g. IRF - teacher initiates, student responds, teacherfollows up)SPECIFIC ACTIONS(ask different types of questions; get students to elaborate; recast or correct; evaluatestudents’ contributions; ‘amplify’ for whole class etc.)NEGOTIATION OF MEANING (How?)How the content is being talked about (+/- interactive; only one version of the ‘truth’accepted or many ideas encouraged)Adapted from Mortimer & Scott, 2003for the COMENIUS project “CLIL across Contexts”
    • II. How is content communicated (Approach)INTERACTIVE NON-INTERACTIVEDIALOGIC Teacher and studentsconsider a range of ideasTeacher reviews differentpoints of viewAUTHORITATIVE Teacher presents a specificpoint of view(the ‘official’ scientificstory)Teacher leads aquestion/answerroutine to establishone point of viewMortimer & Scott, 2003
    • Interactive/DialogicT: What do you think a mutant is? Haveyou ever seen a mutant anywhere?S: In filmsT: In films? Can you give me an example ofa mutant? What is a mutant?S: In plantsT: In plants? Do you have any mutantplants at home? A mutant. It sounds likesomething that happens in films.S: A DobermanT: But actually it doesn’t, it happens innature.S: The DobermanT: The Doberman. Is that a mutant? Adoberman? It looks weird, yes, but it’snot a mutant, actually.S: It’s a mixture.T: It’s a mixture, yes. Of what?S: Of races of dogs. Of dogs races.T: Different breeds you say. Razas (Sp.Breeds.) Yeah, they’ve been mixingdifferent dogs throughout time.Non-interactive/AuthoritativeT: So, listen, this is the way it is. I’ll writesomething on the board for you, okay?Okay, proteins are over. Have you studied at all?SS: (yes)T: Okay, listen, you all know this? You knowthis, don’t you? Okay, now okay, acompound A, that’s going to turn into acompound B, okay? Chemical reaction, catalysedby an enzyme one, right? Enzyme one, okay?Enzymes are proteins, are they not? Yes. So,there must be one gene, gene one, thatcodes for this enzyme one. Do you agree?SS: Yes.T: Yes. Now, okay, now. Compound B turnsinto compound C. This chemical reactionmust be catalysed by enzyme two, which inturn would be coded for by gene two. Do youagree? Yeah? Well, that’s the way it is.
    • The opportunities of interactive/dialogicteaching for the development of BICSTCH: Well, OK. Let’s check the answers of theexercise on page five.ST: Pilar?TCH: On page five.ST: Pilar, can I .. ?TCH: What material, sorry?ST: Pilar, can I ..?TCH: Yes.ST: On Sunday I go to aTCH: I went to…?ST: I go to aTCH: I wentST: I went to a ... How do you say exposición?TCH: Exposition, exhibition.ST: Exhibition and I find and I found a .. a ...person that that that is making with two, ...with two ... dos palosTCH: with two sticks.ST: with two sticks.TCH: She was making what?ST: She was making ..TCH: Or he was making, that person was making...ST: She was making the glass with a protect glass, ismake glass with with the fire and ..TCH: So, ..ST: two sticks,TCH: So, water, ..ST: and ..TCH: Melts. OK, with heat and that ..ST: she makes a special box to make the neckTCH: Necklace? And where, where, where was that,here in Tres Cantos?St: In Madrid.TCH: In Madrid. ((Now addressing all the students)).Maybe we can talk to X and go and see it because thatexperience is interesting.
    • Dialogic teaching in CLIL Students participate in interaction with longer turns andmore complex language. They learn communication strategies (when to intervene,how to express ideas more clearly, etc…) to have access toacademic content and be recognized as legitimatemembers of a community of practice (the CLIL classroom). They learn different perspectives on a topic (to negotiatethrough the foreign language, to show agreement anddisagreement, etc…). There is linguistic redundancy as not only different ideasare discussed but also the same ideas expressed in differentways.
    • CONTENTWhat is being talked about (genetic variation; factors of development in differentcountries; Romanesque churches)PURPOSEWhat is being done with the content (engage students’ interest in a new topic; go overhomework; apply knowledge in new context etc.)INTERACTION PATTERNSRecurring patterns of talk (e.g. IRF - teacher initiates, student responds, teacherfollows up)SPECIFIC ACTIONS(ask different types of questions; get students to elaborate; recast or correct; evaluatestudents’ contributions; ‘amplify’ for whole class etc.)NEGOTIATION OF MEANINGHow the content is being talked about (+/- interactive; only one version of the ‘truth’accepted or many ideas encouraged)Adapted from Mortimer & Scott, 2003for the COMENIUS project “CLIL across Contexts”
    • III. Interaction patterns (Action)1. The IRF pattern (Initiation-Response-Feedback)2. CLIL teacher talk: types of questions, typesof feedback3. Activity type and students’ activeparticipation
    • 1. The IRF patternT: Where is water used?(INITIATION)S1: In the houses (RESPONSE)T: Very good, X. In the houses(FEEDBACK)Limitations?-It does not encourage studentsto initiate turns and do other-repair (van Lier, 1988).-It doesn’t offer enough spacefor students to participate withlonger turns and express theirown ideas (Nikula, 2007).However, IRF is neither good nor bad per se.It depends on the activity,types of questionsand roles of participants.
    • 2. Teachers’ feedbackT Where did first civilizations appear?S1 That… eh… Egypt, along the Nile.T OK. Yes. Along the Nile …Why alongrivers? Think about that. OK? So,develop that idea.S2 Eh … that they placed in the banksof the river because they were theonly fertile lands.T: Okay now... Let’s see.Milk. Does milk come fromplants or animals?S1: Animals.T: From animals. That’sright. From the cow or thegoats. So cut up thepictures, cut up the picturesfrom the milk. Em, have youcut up the picture..?S1: YesUsing questions forreason and metacognitivequestions(Dalton-Puffer, 2007)T What’s the matter with the saw?S1 because the battery’s finishedT Oh, you need to get new batteriesS1 I can take this oneUsing interactionalfeedback(Llinares, 2005)
    • 2. Display and Referential questions(Long and Sato, 1986)Referential QuestionsT: Who’s this swimmer…veryfamous?S1: Phelps. Michael PhelpsT: Michael Phelps. So do you think thatthe children that Phelps might havethey’re gonna be from the verybeginning that strong?S1: NoS2: I have two friends that they arebrothers and they are the samestrongT: Well I have two daughters and oneof my daughters is very strong andthe other one is very thin. And theyhave been brought up in the sameway.Display QuestionsT: Okay now... Let’s see. Milk. Doesmilk come from plants or animals?S1: Animals.T: From animals. That’s right. Fromthe cow or the goats. So cut up thepictures, cut up the pictures from themilk. Em, have you cut up the picture..?S1: YesT: Good! Let’s see, S. You’ve got alot of things that come from plants now.Let’s find something else. Some otherfood that comes from animals. Yes,where does the bread come from: plantsor animals? You remember what it’s madefrom? It’s made from wheat.S2: Plants.
    • 2. Academic function of questionsQuestions for facts, reasons, metacognitive questions, etc…(Dalton-Puffer, 2007)T: So now we are successful because there is theEuropean union. Do you think the European Union ispositive …?S1 Yes.T Why?S1 Because the European Union is very good foreverything. For example, now or travelling we haveto do less things and …about…mmm.. buyingproducts because it is much better and the money,you have the same coin and is very easy…Metacognitivequestion
    • 3. The role of the activity: ‘Show and Tell’S1 Eh… this… this… this Saturday I was in Madrid. I go … Iwas to Madrid. On Saturday I went to the Thyssen.T Oh! Good.S1 And I saw the portrait of Henry the eighth.T Uh! That famous one. Yes.S1 Yes. And it’s like that ((Meaning very small)).T Yes A.? We expect portraits, don’t we? To always bevery big.S (several): Yes.Personal involvement,more dialogicLonger turns and self-repair
    • 3. The role of the activity: Group workS2 Now floods ... floods.S1 When the water, eh-.S4 It’s a lot of rainfall. A lot of precipitation.S3 When there are lot of water in the…S1 When the river precipitates.S2 No because it’s rainfall.S3 When there are a lot of … when there are a lot ofprecipitations and the river … ((tosses her handsabout))S2 Precipitation no, because it’s rainfall.S4 A precipitation is when the water… Students’ cognitive andlinguistic engagementMetalinguistic discussionon floods
    • 3. The role of the activity: Group workS1: OK. We can help a lot if a naturaldisaster ever occurs.S2: We have money, food, water … We cansend to the people that. And, forexample, paper.S3: No, things that they need.S1: What do you do first, the food or thepaper for cleaning your bottom?S3: Paper, but food the first.• The students initiate their ownturns• They ask different types ofquestions (even rhetorical)• They correct and help theirclassmates (teacher role)• Opportunities for “languagethrough learning” (Coyle, 2010).They rely on linguistic resources asnew ideas come upHowever, the studentsoften use the L1S3: How did you make fire?S1:Eh the teacher put something like ah waseh similar to the - it was called esparto. Idon’t know how to tell in English. And theyput something in-inside the esparto and thenthey blow- no first they made eh some -S2: sparks
    • 3. The role of the activity: Project work
    • 3. The role of the activity: Project workS1 One question. You said that you have to come to the… greenarea or to the skate park?S2 You have to come to the skateboarding park. It’s obvious!S1 Yes, but you want that the people eh.. the foreign peoplecame to C to see our vegetation? In C vegetation!?S2 And you like to be twenty metres square.. you like to.. tobuild a.. skate park in twenty metres eh.. of square that is..that in this green area keep all the animals and vegetation.S1 eh.. eh I think I think is a very expensive project because Lsaid is five thousand euros. I think is really really expensiveto.. do a skateboarding park of this priceS2 Eh.. what do you mean with that? That is very expensive?Clarification requestRhetorical questionMetacognitivequestion
    • CONCLUSIONS: What to communicate andwhat for? (I) Be aware of the difference between regulative andinstructional registers. Create situations in which students participate in theregulative register. From BICS to CALP (from everyday language to moreacademic language).
    • CONCLUSIONS: How to communicate? (II) Authoritative/non-interactive communication might be adequatefor factual content learning but is poor for other non-factualapproaches to content learning and for language development. Dialogic/interactive communication gives the students theopportunity of expressing their views on a topic. In order to be able to participate, they need:linguistic resources to talk about academic contentlinguistic resources to talk about personal experiencesInteractional resources to control turnsIn CLIL, these resources must be acquired in the classroom.
    • CONCLUSIONS: What interactional patterns? (III)IRF can limit students’ participation… or enhance it if– teachers use a wide variety of question types elicitingreasons, opinions,… and not only facts.– teachers invite students to elaborate on their responsesIt is necessary to create different types of activitieswhere students perform different interactive roles:ask questions, do other-repairs, etc…A wider variety of resources in the L2 Different ways of learning content
    • • Thank you• Gracias• Eskerrikasko