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A backgrounder presentation as a broad introduction to the professional fields of translation and interpretation and related issues.

A backgrounder presentation as a broad introduction to the professional fields of translation and interpretation and related issues.

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TMCC 2008 Translator Conference Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Translators & Interpreters Conference
  • 2. Language services in context
      • Álvaro Degives-Más
      • Speaking different languages. Serving one community.
  • 3. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
  • 4. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
      • Language on the move
  • 5. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
      • Language on the move
      • Teaching and learning language
  • 6. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
      • Language on the move
      • Teaching and learning language
      • Interpretation v interpreters
  • 7. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
      • Language on the move
      • Teaching and learning language
      • Interpretation v interpreters
      • Translation v translators
  • 8. Language services in context
      • Presentation overview:
      • Language in context
      • Language on the move
      • Teaching and learning language
      • Interpretation v interpreters
      • Translation v translators
      • Conclusions, Q&A
  • 9. Introduction
      • I: Language in context
  • 10. Language in context
    • Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement
  • 11. Language in context
    • Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement
    • It's what makes us homo sapiens sapiens
  • 12. Language in context
    • Language is a unique vehicle for ideas, cooperation and advancement
    • It's what makes us homo sapiens sapiens:
    • Highly intelligent beings, living in a highly advanced society.
  • 13. Language in context
    • Languages aren't piles of words and rules
  • 14. Language in context
    • Languages aren't piles of words and rules
    • They're cultural universes
  • 15. Language in context
    • Languages aren't piles of words and rules
    • They're cultural universes
    • Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map...
  • 16. Language in context
    • Languages aren't piles of words and rules
    • They're cultural universes
    • Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map...
    • Carry and transmit all information – both known and believed known
  • 17. Language in context
    • Languages aren't piles of words and rules
    • They're cultural universes
    • Vehicle, archive, identity, perspective, system, wrapper, map...
    • Carry and transmit all information – both known and believed known
    • Impacts even perception!
  • 18. Language in context
    • Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages
  • 19. Language in context
    • Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages
    • English language is also in ongoing flux
  • 20. Language in context
    • Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages
    • English language is also in ongoing flux
    • English is not uniform; evolving, reflects regional, cultural differences
  • 21. Language in context
    • Contemporary languages are surprisingly young, especially Western languages
    • English language is also in ongoing flux
    • English is not uniform; evolving, reflects regional, cultural differences
    • An interesting illustration: Amy Walker, 21 different accents in 1 ½ minutes!
  • 22. Language in context
  • 23. Language in context
    • Accents < dialects < languages
  • 24. Language in context
    • Accents < dialects < languages
    • Over 7,300 “living” languages today
  • 25. Language in context
  • 26. Language in context
  • 27. Language in context
    • Accents < dialects < languages
    • Over 7,300 “living” languages today
    • There's no “difficult” language
  • 28. Language in context
    • Accents < dialects < languages
    • Over 7,300 “living” languages today
    • There's no “difficult” language
    • Linguistic variety = cultural diversity
  • 29. Language in context
    • Accents < dialects < languages
    • Over 7,300 “living” languages today
    • There's no “difficult” language
    • Linguistic variety = cultural diversity
    • Even so, English is the 1 st global lingua franca
  • 30. Language in context
  • 31. Interpreting in context
  • 32. Interpreting in context
  • 33. Interpreting in context
  • 34. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
  • 35. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
    • Both vehicle and ingredient in culture
  • 36. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
    • Both vehicle and ingredient in culture
    • Tokens and agents of transformation
  • 37. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
    • Both vehicle and ingredient in culture
    • Tokens and agents of transformation
    • Powerful words: lexical, social impact
  • 38. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
    • Both vehicle and ingredient in culture
    • Tokens and agents of transformation
    • Powerful words: lexical, social impact
    • Linguistic competence (mastery) involves and implies cultural competency
  • 39. Language in context
    • Language doesn't exist unto itself
    • Both vehicle and ingredient in culture
    • Tokens and agents of transformation
    • Powerful words: lexical, social impact
    • Linguistic competence (mastery) involves and implies cultural competency
    • Relevance of cultural competency: “Language on the Move”
  • 40. Society, migration, dynamics
      • II: Language on the move
  • 41. Language on the move
    • Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language!
  • 42. Language on the move
    • Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language
    • People can migrate for many different reasons
  • 43. Language on the move
    • Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language
    • People can migrate for many different reasons
    • Different motivations: different cultural and socio economic backgrounds
  • 44. Language on the move
    • Migration has been, is, and always will be a creative force - also for language
    • People can migrate for many different reasons
    • Different motivations: different cultural and socio economic backgrounds
    • Migrant population isn't necessarily representative
  • 45. Language on the move
    • Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels...
  • 46. Language on the move
    • Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels...
    • ...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation
  • 47. Language on the move
    • Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels...
    • ...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation
    • For many first-generation immigrants, native language is an anchor - not just “identity token”
  • 48. Language on the move
    • Culture shock: every migrant knows what that is, how it feels...
    • ...sometimes subtle differences, other times requires radical adaptation
    • For many first-generation immigrants, native language is an anchor - not just “identity token”
    • New language, major challenge: multiple jobs, raising children, survival skills...
  • 49. Language on the move
    • ...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary”
  • 50. Language on the move
    • ...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary”
    • Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds”
  • 51. Language on the move
    • ...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary”
    • Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds”
    • Much attention for teaching English to children
  • 52. Language on the move
    • ...while native language often withers, beyond a basic “home turf vocabulary”
    • Potential for cultural isolation: “a stranger in both worlds”
    • Much attention for teaching English to children
    • Opportunity for bonding the native language/culture with the new home: fomenting ambassadors
  • 53. Language on the move
    • Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy
  • 54. Language on the move
    • Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy
    • Transcultural versus cross-generational
  • 55. Language on the move
    • Literacy issues, a triple burden: learning a new culture, new language, and literacy
    • Transcultural versus cross-generational
    • Teaching English, or empowering the American Dream?
  • 56. Teaching English or American?
      • III: Empowering parents & teachers
  • 57. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens
  • 58. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens
    • Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children
  • 59. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens
    • Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children
    • Disconnects between educators and parents can create long-term problems
  • 60. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Children of 1 st generation immigrants not necessarily “hybrid”; often “dual” citizens
    • Immigration clusters: stronger tendency toward “cultural duality” among children
    • Disconnects between educators and parents can create long-term problems
    • Cultural competence is vital in education: connect to forge effective partnerships
  • 61. Empowering parents & teachers
      • Language education for children of immigrants is not “just” about teaching a language, but conveying the cultural universe that comes with it.
  • 62. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape”
  • 63. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape”
    • Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation
  • 64. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape”
    • Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation
    • Here the “community interpreter” really shines as culturally competent facilitator
  • 65. Empowering parents & teachers
    • Parents and educators, partners to close the gap through which kids can “escape”
    • Leverage to bond with the community, in both directions of the relation
    • Here the “community interpreter” really shines as culturally competent facilitator
    • High stakes: professional development
  • 66. Empowering parents & teachers
    • No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC)
  • 67. Empowering parents & teachers
    • No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC)
    • Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol...
  • 68. Empowering parents & teachers
    • No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC)
    • Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol...
    • ...and highly specialized terminology
  • 69. Empowering parents & teachers
    • No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC)
    • Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol...
    • ...and highly specialized terminology
    • No code of conduct and ethics, specific to community interpreters (yet)
  • 70. Empowering parents & teachers
    • No formal accreditation system in place: training on ad-hoc basis (TMCC)
    • Liabilities, confidentiality, protocol...
    • ...and highly specialized terminology
    • No code of conduct and ethics, specific to community interpreters (yet)
    • An example of an accreditation system: certification of court interpreters
  • 71. Makings of a court interpreter
      • IV: Interpreting in context
  • 72. Interpreting in context
      • NEWSFLASH!
  • 73. Interpreting in context
  • 74. Interpreting in context
  • 75. Interpreting in context
  • 76. Interpreting in context
    • Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual
  • 77. Interpreting in context
    • Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual
    • Tendency toward a dominant language
  • 78. Interpreting in context
    • Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual
    • Tendency toward a dominant language
    • To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging
  • 79. Interpreting in context
    • Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual
    • Tendency toward a dominant language
    • To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging
    • Little upstream into higher education
  • 80. Interpreting in context
    • Growing up in dual language surrounding doesn't mean being bilingual
    • Tendency toward a dominant language
    • To achieve mastery of a language is very challenging
    • Little upstream into higher education
    • “Native” court interpreters often arrive with fundamentally sound language skills
  • 81. Interpreting in context
    • Two accreditation levels: state, federal
  • 82. Interpreting in context
    • Two accreditation levels: state, federal
    • Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge:
      • Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination.
  • 83. Interpreting in context
    • Two accreditation levels: state, federal
    • Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge:
      • Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination.
      • Behavioral competence (code of conduct, proceeding) measured during workshop
  • 84. Interpreting in context
    • Two accreditation levels: state, federal
    • Examination and accreditation focuses on two basic sets of skills and knowledge:
      • Linguistic competence (in three modes) measured in classical examination.
      • Behavioral competence (code of conduct, proceeding) measured during workshop
    • Fundamental: interpreter is a “glass sheet” - not a party at all
  • 85. Interpreting in context
    • Background check; officer of the court
  • 86. Interpreting in context
    • Background check; officer of the court
    • No cultural competency assessment
  • 87. Interpreting in context
    • Background check; officer of the court
    • No cultural competency assessment
    • “Glass sheet:” added value is intrinsic, not applied
  • 88. Interpreting in context
    • Background check; officer of the court
    • No cultural competency assessment
    • “Glass sheet:” added value is intrinsic, not applied
    • Major contrast / difference with education or community type interpreters!
  • 89. Specialized specializations V: Variations on interpretation
  • 90. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
  • 91. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
      • Education lingo : surprisingly complex
  • 92. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
      • Education lingo: surprisingly complex
      • Cultural competency is a driving issue
  • 93. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
      • Education lingo: surprisingly complex
      • Cultural competency is a driving issue
      • Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals
  • 94. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
      • Education lingo: surprisingly complex
      • Cultural competency is a driving issue
      • Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals
      • Very confidential information, subjects
  • 95. Variations on interpretation
    • Community/education interpretation
      • Education lingo: surprisingly complex
      • Cultural competency is a driving issue
      • Importance of sensitivity for possibly relevant non-verbal signals
      • Very confidential information, subjects
      • But: no formal accreditation, emphasis on ongoing training , professional membership
  • 96. Variations on interpretation
    • Medical interpretation
  • 97. Variations on interpretation
    • Medical interpretation
      • Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence
  • 98. Variations on interpretation
    • Medical interpretation
      • Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence
      • Cultural competency vital: bridging taboos, skillful at knowing how to read a situation
  • 99. Variations on interpretation
    • Medical interpretation
      • Professional complexity (terminology, medical procedures, insight in medical professions...) on top of linguistic competence
      • Cultural competency vital: bridging taboos, skillful at knowing how to read a situation
      • But: no statewide certification process or procedure available in Nevada
  • 100. Variations on interpretation
    • Conference interpretation
  • 101. Variations on interpretation
    • Conference interpretation
      • Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams
  • 102. Variations on interpretation
    • Conference interpretation
      • Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams
      • Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging
  • 103. Variations on interpretation
    • Conference interpretation
      • Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams
      • Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging
      • Environmental conditions (sound system, receivers, booth, console, VRS...)
  • 104. Variations on interpretation
    • Conference interpretation
      • Very intense : high-paced simultaneous interpretation, hence work in teams
      • Terminology varies with topic; finding experts can be very challenging
      • Environmental conditions (sound system, receivers, booth, console, VRS...)
      • Accreditation other than professional membership is hard to implement
  • 105. Beyond talking... VI: Translation in context
  • 106. Translation in context
    • Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other
  • 107. Translation in context
    • Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other
    • Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages
  • 108. Translation in context
    • Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other
    • Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages
    • Same documents, need to tailor and tweak to address contextual differences
  • 109. Translation in context
    • Often seen as “code switching:” pumping words from one language into the other
    • Different contexts among English speakers and those of other languages
    • Same documents, need to tailor and tweak to address contextual differences
    • Oftentimes, tendency to parallelism leads to wrong solutions (e.g. false cognates)
  • 110. Translation in context
    • Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA
  • 111. Translation in context
    • Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA
    • Examination / certification per language pair (e.g., German  English)
  • 112. Translation in context
    • Linguistic competence can be measured via examination, not certification via membership: ATA
    • Examination / certification per language pair (e.g., German  English)
    • Membership is open, voluntary exams lead to certification: big difference!
  • 113. Translation in context
    • No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries
  • 114. Translation in context
    • No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries
    • Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal)
  • 115. Translation in context
    • No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries
    • Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal)
    • Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.)
  • 116. Translation in context
    • No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries
    • Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal)
    • Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.)
    • Simple accreditation (e.g. via Apostille)
  • 117. Translation in context
    • No equivalent of sworn translator as in many other countries
    • Limited, modified power of notary (affidavit of accuracy, protected seal)
    • Official registry (embassy, Justice Min.)
    • Simple accreditation (e.g. via Apostille)
    • Requires a registry, e.g. kept by the Secretary of State (in Nevada)
  • 118. Toward the conclusion... VII: Looking ahead
  • 119. Looking ahead
  • 120. Looking ahead
  • 121. Looking ahead
  • 122. Looking ahead
    • Over 310 languages spoken in the US:
      • 162 indigenous languages
      • 149 immigrant languages
      • 73 extinct languages
  • 123. Looking ahead
    • Over 310 languages spoken in the US:
      • 162 indigenous languages
      • 149 immigrant languages
      • 73 extinct languages
    • The US is surprisingly multilingual!
  • 124. Looking ahead
    • Over 310 languages spoken in the US:
      • 162 indigenous languages
      • 149 immigrant languages
      • 73 extinct languages
    • The US is surprisingly multilingual
    • In our area, near-extinct: Pomo, Serrano, Tübatulabal, Washo , Wintu, Yurok
  • 125. Looking ahead
    • Over 310 languages spoken in the US:
      • 162 indigenous languages
      • 149 immigrant languages
      • 73 extinct languages
    • The US is surprisingly multilingual
    • In our area, near-extinct: Pomo, Serrano, Tübatulabal, Washo , Wintu, Yurok
    • With each language, a bit of our humanity and heritage disappears...
  • 126. Looking ahead
    • Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence
  • 127. Looking ahead
    • Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence
    • Cultural competency is often overlooked
  • 128. Looking ahead
    • Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence
    • Cultural competency is often overlooked
    • Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool
  • 129. Looking ahead
    • Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence
    • Cultural competency is often overlooked
    • Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool
    • Professional development: ongoing effort
  • 130. Looking ahead
    • Multilingual excellence implies cross-cultural competence
    • Cultural competency is often overlooked
    • Highly effective “hearts and minds” tool
    • Professional development: ongoing effort
    • Ask the professionals: resources in education (UNR/TMCC/WCSD), community (NNIC), professional (NITA/ATA/NAJIT...)
  • 131. Looking ahead Language is not just “words” it's a mindset
  • 132. Your questions Thank you!
  • 133.  
  • 134. The DG Interpreting
  • 135. DG Interpretation in key figures
        • 500 staff interpreters
        • 300 - 400 freelance interpreters per day
        • 2,700 accredited freelance interpreters
        • 50 - 60 meetings per day
        • 10,000 – 11,000 meeting days per year
        • ± 135,000 interpreter days per year
        • 40 major Commission conferences organized per year
        • Total operating cost 2005: €100,000,000 ( $155,000,000 )
        • Cost: €0.21 ( $0.33 ) /European citizen/year
        • After the 2004 enlargement, DG Interpretation needs 15-40 interpreters/day per new language
        • The cost of interpreting is likely to increase by 20-40% , when full capacity is reached in the new Member State languages
  • 136.