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Towards “Deep” Personalisation of E-Government Services

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Abstract: …

Abstract:
Next Generation Electronic Public Service Infrastructure are expected to provide highly personalized, context-aware services to citizens and businesses; exploit feedback and comments about public services on social web for continuous service improvement and enable the participation of citizens in the re-design of existing services or design of new value-added services of interest.

In the area of service personalization there are at least two major active streams of research. The first stream of work which is carried out by the Computing and Informatics community attempts to transfer ideas on personalization and recommender systems from domains such as e-commerce and e-learning to the public sector domain. These efforts have delivered some results on self-adaptive government websites, personalized citizen searches and dialogues, and co-design of e-government services. The second stream of work involving personalization of public services is carried out within the Public Administration (PA) practice and research community. The goal of the PA community in the Personalisation Agenda is to tailor public services to individual beneficiary needs as much as possible. This is done through a number of related approaches including connected government, participatory public service development, and provision of people–centred services. Interestingly, there is yet to be any significant interactions among these two closely related research communities.

In this talk, I shall argue that developing a viable personalization program for e-government services is contingent on its careful alignment and co-evolution with supporting PA personalization efforts. This viable personalization program, which I call “Deep Personalization” entails delivering personalised e-government services over Flexible and Adaptive Public Services. Consequently, I will further argue that while the development of effective citizen models and acquisition of functional and behavioural data from citizens are critical for delivering personalized citizen e-services, the fundamental challenge is in ensuring that the underlying public service is sufficiently flexible and adaptive.

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  • 1. Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Towards “Deep” Personalisation of E-Government Services A Co-evolutionary Perspective on Electronic Public Service Personalization Adegboyega Ojo adegboyega.ojo@deri.org
  • 2. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Outline 1. Background 2. EGOV Service Personalization 3. Issues in EGOV Service Personalization 4. Addressing the Issues 5. Looking Ahead
  • 3. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Personalization is Still Hot Relatively, interest in personalization is still rising.
  • 4. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Top Personalization Terms
  • 5. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Personalization as Rhetoric? What was happening?
  • 6. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge What is Public Service? ISA‟s Core Public Service Vocabulary Service is a means of delivering value to a party by facilitating the outcome desired by that party. Services are provided through interactions. Public Services are those services provided by public organizations directly or indirectly by their agents
  • 7. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Outline 1. Background 2. EGOV Service Personalization 3. Issues in EGOV Service Personalization 4. Addressing the Issues 5. Looking Ahead
  • 8. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Personalization in EGOV The need for personalization in EGOV Services has been identified as early as 2003. “What needs to happen is a move from one-to-many (broadcast) service to one-to-one service. This move is not about simple personalization of websites; rather, it is about matching services and the structure of services to make it easier for one individual to do business with the government.” [Accenture 2003 EGOV Leadership Report]. o Personalization is an aspect of inclusive e-government [UN Global EGOV Report 2010] o Personalized and user-driven services should meet and reinforce shared expectations and principles of social justice as well as personal and public value, so they must also be genuinely universal and available to all [UN Global EGOV Report 2010].
  • 9. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Definitions – Examples 1 From Citizen perspective include: o Tailoring certain offerings (such as contents and services, product recommendation, communication and electronic interactions) by providers to customers based on knowledge about them with certain goals in mind [Shambour, et l., 2007]. o Fully personalized e-government portals, for example, should provide citizens with exactly those services they need, increasing citizen satisfaction levels, making communication between governments and citizens more effective and efficient while reducing bureaucracy [Dais et al. 2008].
  • 10. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Definitions – Examples 2 From Government perspective: A personalized EGOV service helps in making communication more effective and efficient, inferring and predicting citizens‟ behaviour and even influencing it, in order to make citizens abide by the law [Pieterson et al. 2007]
  • 11. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Expectations Citizen Perspective Exploiting information related to past contacts with citizens to simplify future contacts. No wrong door and complexity of service implementation should be hidden from citizens/businesses. Reusing of data collected in past encounters to strengthen government- citizen relationship Government Perspective Making the communication between organization and user more efficient and more effective. Predicting the behaviour of users. Influencing users in order to make them demonstrate desired behaviour.
  • 12. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Approaches - Patterns o Personalized cross-organizational services based on life events and business episodes [Dais et al. 2007] o Recommender Systems to reduce information overload based on personal and collaborative filtering approach [Shanbour et al. 2007] o Involving citizens and businesses in the Participatory design of EGOV Services, e.g. through development of EGOV user requirements [Verben et al. 2008] o Custom EGOV Service interaction dialogs [Loutas et al. 2011]
  • 13. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Implementation Frameworks o Semantic and Semantic Web Technologies to achieve desired flexibility in modelling citizen information, with the contents and services of interest o Web Services for flexibility and interoperability of e-services o Workflow technologies for cross-organization process development and integration o Collaborative design tools to support participatory service EGOV service design
  • 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Outline 1. Background 2. EGOV Service Personalization 3. Issues in EGOV Service Personalization 4. Addressing the Issues 5. Looking Ahead
  • 15. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenges Two categories of obstacles to EGOV Service Personalization have been identified over time [Pieterson et al. 2007]: 1) Organizational – internal obstacles that government have to address while implementing EGOV service personalization. They are process based, financial, governance based, legal and technical. 2) User – these include those obstacles user face when engaging with personalised EGOV services. They include access, trust, privacy, control and acceptance.
  • 16. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 1 - Process o How will government provide citizen access to internal business process and possibly back office applications? o How will existing processes be re-designed and made sufficiently flexible to support such collaborative evolution or change, particularly in a cross-organizational context?
  • 17. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 2 - Financial How will government raise the required resources in terms of time and money to implement the variant and possibly new personalised services for citizens?
  • 18. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 3 - Governance How will government re-assign responsibilities to agencies in the collaborative service delivery context? Which organization would be accountable for the outcomes of the personalised services? How would “credit” and “blame” be shared?
  • 19. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 4 - Legal Is there an enabling or supporting legal and legislative for cross-organizational sharing of information and integration of data? How to ensure that the implementation of the personalization initiative would not violate existing data protection and privacy laws?
  • 20. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 5 - Technical What additional standards and interoperability solutions would be required to integrate with the legacy and heterogeneous information systems in government?
  • 21. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 6 - Access How to provide additional channels to reach digitally illiterate population as part of the service inclusion and personalization program?
  • 22. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 7 - Trust How will government gain sufficient trust from citizens to obtain the required information? How will government leverage the Trust-Personalization duality?
  • 23. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 8 - Privacy How will government convince citizens and business over their privacy fears to enable the provision of personalized services? How can government demonstrate concrete benefits of personalization to citizens with minimal data to stimulate the provision of more information?
  • 24. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 9 - Control How will government enable citizen and businesses to have full control over their personal or corporate information required for personalization?
  • 25. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Challenge 10 - Acceptance How will government ensure that citizens will accept to use and continue to use the personalized service? Usefulness, Ease of Use, Attitude towards use, etc.
  • 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Outline 1. Background 2. EGOV Service Personalization 3. Issues in EGOV Service Personalization 4. Addressing the Issues 5. Looking Ahead
  • 27. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Solution – A Framework Source: Accenture EGOV Leadership Report 2007Building Blocks of Effective Customer Service Program
  • 28. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Solution: Implication The model implicitly indicate: o Need for buy-in and support from top management and decision makers in government o Provisioning all required technical, social and legal infrastructure o Reform and re-orientation of the public service
  • 29. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Alignment with Policy 1 Linking with Personalization perspective of politicians is key to successful EGOV Personalisation program Personalization Story-lines [Needham 2011]: o Personalization works, transforming people‟s lives for the better; o Person-centred approaches reflect the way people live their lives, rather than artificial departmental boundaries; o Personalization is applicable to everyone, not just to people with social care needs; o People are experts on their own lives; o Personalization will save money.
  • 30. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Policy Alignment – Examples o „ … we are completing the re-casting of the 1945 welfare state to end entirely the era of “ one size fits all ” services and put in their place modern services which … base the service round the user, a personalised service … ‟ ( Blair 2004 ) o „ … products previously produced for a mass market ‟ are „ now … tuned to personal need ‟ and „ that revolution in business … has found its way into social norms … ; its manifestation in public services is the demand for high standards suited to individual need ‟ David Miliband (2004) .
  • 31. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Alignment with Policy 2 Models of Personalization in Public Sector Reform [Cutler 2007]: 1) Providing people with a customer-friendly interface 2) Giving users more say in navigating their way through services 3) Giving users more direct say over how money is spent 4) Users as co-producers and co-designers of services 5) Self organization, with professionals creating platforms which allow people to devise solutions collaboratively
  • 32. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Ambiguity as Opportunity It is clear from the concept of Personalization in the Public Policy literature is ambiguous. Is this necessarily bad? No quite [Needlam 2011]. „To see ambiguous policy language as a problem to be solved in order to improve implementation chances is to ignore the reality of purposive ambiguity: it temporarily resolves conflicts and accommodates differences, allowing contending parties to legislate and move on to implementory actions‟ (Yanow 1996: 228). The elasticity of personalization ensures that a wide range of divergent interests have been able to sign up to and advance it, without needing to reconcile internal tensions
  • 33. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Outline 1. Background 2. EGOV Service Personalization 3. Issues in EGOV Service Personalization 4. Addressing the Issues 5. Looking Ahead
  • 34. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Personalization Research - CS EGOV Service Personalization
  • 35. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Personalization Research – Policy Public Service Personalization
  • 36. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Integrating Research Strands EGOV Service Personalization Public Service Personalization Deep Personalization? Can the two research communities co-evolve to foster better understanding and create the necessary scholarly foundation for alignment?
  • 37. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge Thank you!

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