Growth and development of children (2)

307
-1

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
307
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Growth and development of children (2)

  1. 1. “An increase in physical size of the whole body due to increase no of cells/ or its size. It can be measured in Kg, pounds, meters, inches, ….. etc
  2. 2. • Development refers to a progressive increase in skill and capacity of function. • It is a qualitative change.
  3. 3. • Increase in child’s competence and adaptability. • The level of maturation depends on child’s heredity.
  4. 4. G & D proceed in regular related directions : - Cephalo-caudal ( from head down to toes ). - Proximo-distal (from center of the body to the peripheral.)
  5. 5. Pre-natal factors:-Pre-natal factors:- 1- Maternal factors:- - Nutritional deficiencies - Diabetic mother - Exposure to radiation - Infection with German measles - Smoking - Use of drugs
  6. 6. 2-Factors related to fetus Fetal Mal-position . Placental causes:- Size . site of Attachment.
  7. 7. Post-Natal Environment I - External environment: - socio-economic status. - child’s nutrition - climate and season - child’s ordinal position in the family - Numberof siblings in the family - Family structure (single parent orextended family … )
  8. 8. • Child’s intelligence • Hormonal influences • Emotions Internal environmentInternal environment
  9. 9. Types of growth: - - Physical growth Height Weight Head circumference Chest circumference. - Physiological growth (vital signs …)
  10. 10. Types of development:- Gross motor. Fine motor & vision. Hearing & speech. Social behavior.
  11. 11. • Prenatal - Embryonic (conception- 8 w) - Fetal stage (8-40 or 42 w) • Infancy - Neonate - Birth to end of 1 month - Infancy - 1 month to end of 1 year • Early Childhood - Toddler - 1-3 years - Preschool - 3-6 years • Middle Childhood - School age - 6 to 12 years • Late Childhood - Adolescent - 13 years to approximately 18 years
  12. 12. Weight :- then there is annual increase 5 Ibs / year till puberty. age Weight gain (approx.) At Birth (full term). 3.2 kg +/_ 300g 1st week Loose 10% body wt. Upto 3 months 200g/week wt. gain. One year 3 times × birth weight. 2 years 4 times × birth weight
  13. 13. . Age Cm Birth ( full term) 50 cm At 1 year 75 cm 2—12 yrs. Age in Years × 7 + 77
  14. 14. Age Head circumferance (Cm) Birth 35 3 months 41 6 months 44 9 months 46 1 year 47 2 years 49 3 years 50 5 years 51
  15. 15. It is 30.5 to 33cm . After 1 year chest size exceeds the head circumference.
  16. 16. Starts by 5–6 months of age & Completed by 12 months . (20 teeth). It is called "Milky teeth" or "Deciduous teeth" or "Temporary teeth".
  17. 17. •Gross motor.Gross motor. •Fine motor& vision.Fine motor& vision. •Hearing & speech.Hearing & speech. •Social behavior.Social behavior.
  18. 18. • At 2 months • Hold head erects in mid-position. • Turn from side back. • At 3 months, the infant can • Hold head erects and steady. • Open or close hand loosely. • Hold object put in hand • Age :- 2 months.
  19. 19. • Sit with adequate support. • Roll over from front to back. • Hold head erect and steady while in sitting position. • Bring hands together in midline and plays with fingers. • Grasp objects with both hands.
  20. 20. • Sit alone briefly. • Turn completely over ( abdomen to abdomen ). • Lift chest & upper abdomen when prone. • Hold own bottle.
  21. 21. • Sit alone. • Hold cup. • Imitate simple acts of others.
  22. 22. •Drink from cup with assistance. •Eat finger food that can be held in one hand.
  23. 23. • Rise to sitting position alone. • Crawl . • Hold one bottle with good hand-mouth coordination
  24. 24. • Creep well (use hands and legs). • Walk with help. • Bring the hands together. At 11 months:-At 11 months:- • Walk holding on furniture. • Stand erect with minimal support
  25. 25. • Stand-alone . • Site down from standing position alone. • Walk in few steps with help or alone . • Pick up small bits of food & transfers them to his mouth
  26. 26. Age Ambulation 9 months Crawl 10 months Creep 1 year Stand independently 13 months Walk& toddle quickly 15 months Can run.
  27. 27. Age Activity Neonates Pupil reflex to light Doll's eye reflex Turn eyes to diffuse light 3 months Defensive blinking Regards mother face 6 months Follow dangling balls in all directions 9 months Alert to peripheral vision Follow objects at 10—15 feet. 12 months Looks for hidden & fallen toyes.
  28. 28. .Age speech 1—2 months coos 2—6 months Laugh & sequel 8—9 months Babbles mama & dada 10—12 months Mama & Dada specific 18—20 months 20—30 words 22---24 months Two words sentence 30—36 months Almost understandable speech
  29. 29. • Unable to hold neckUnable to hold neck at 5 months.at 5 months. • Unable to sit alone by ageUnable to sit alone by age 9 months9 months • Unable to transferobjects fromhand to handUnable to transferobjects fromhand to hand by age 1by age 1 yearyear • Abnormal pincergrip orgraspAbnormal pincergrip orgrasp by age 15 monthsby age 15 months • Unable to walkaloneUnable to walkalone by 18 monthsby 18 months • Failure to speak,recognizable wordsFailure to speak,recognizable words by 2 years.by 2 years.
  30. 30. Safety becomes a problem as the toddler becomes more mobile.
  31. 31. Toddler stage :- From 1 to 3 years of age. During this period, growth slows considerably.
  32. 32. Weight:Weight: The toddler's average weight gain is 1.8 to 2.7 kg/year. Formula :- ( over 1 year of age is Age in years X2 + 8 = ….. kg.
  33. 33. • During 1–2 years, the child's height increases by 1cm/month. • The toddler's height increases about 10 to 12.5cm/year.
  34. 34. Age in years X 5 + 80 = ..... cm.
  35. 35. • The head increases 10 cm only from the age of 1 year to adult age. • During toddler years, chest circumference continues to increase in size and exceeds head circumference.
  36. 36. • By 2 years of age,……….16 temporary teeth. • By the age of 2.5 years,… 20 teeth
  37. 37. • 1 year old: transfer objects from hand to hand • 2 year old: can hold a crayon and color vertical strokes • Turn the page of a book • Build a tower of six blocks • 3 year old: copy a circle and a cross – build using small blocks
  38. 38. • Walk alone. • Creep upstairs. • Assume standing position without falling. • Hold a cup with all fingers grasped around it.
  39. 39. • Stranger anxiety – should dissipate by age 2 ½ to 3 years. • Sibling rivalry: aggressive behavior towards new infant: (peak between 1 to 2 yrs) • Thumb sucking • Toilet Training
  40. 40. • The toddler is very social being but still egocentric. • He imitates parents. • Notice sex differences and know own sex. • Gains boldness. ….( “i can do it myself“).
  41. 41. It is the stage where child is 3 to 6 years of age. The growth during this period is relatively slow.
  42. 42. Physical growth:- Weight:Weight: The preschooler gains approximatelyThe preschooler gains approximately 1.8kg/year.1.8kg/year. Height:Height: DDoubles birth length by 4oubles birth length by 4––5 years.5 years.
  43. 43. • 3 year old: - Copy a circle and a cross Build using small blocks • 4 year old: - Use scissors, Color within the borders • 5 year old: - Write some letters. Draw a person with body parts
  44. 44. • Buttoning clothing • Holding a pencil • Building with small blocks • Using scissors • Playing a board game • Have child draw picture of himself
  45. 45. • Fears the darkFears the dark • Tends to be impatient and selfishTends to be impatient and selfish • Expresses aggression through physical andExpresses aggression through physical and verbal behaviors.verbal behaviors. • Shows signs of jealousy of siblings.Shows signs of jealousy of siblings.
  46. 46. • Egocentric • Tolerates short separation • Less dependant on parents • May have dreams & night-mares • Attachment to opposite sex parent • More cooperative in play
  47. 47. • Inability to perform self-care tasks, hand washing simple dressing, daytime toileting • Lack of socialization • Unable to play with other children • Unable to follow directions during exam
  48. 48. • Writing skills improve • Fine motor is refined • Fine motor with more focus • Building: models – logos • Sewing • Musical instrument • Painting • Typing skills • Technology: computers
  49. 49. • School failureSchool failure • Lack of friendsLack of friends • Social isolationSocial isolation • Aggressive behavior:Aggressive behavior: .. fights,.. fights, .. fire setting,.. fire setting, .. animal abuse.. animal abuse
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×