Bigelow King TESOL 2012 Learning Strategies Among Emergent Readers with Limited Formal Schooling


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Part 3
Martha Bigelow focuses on the learning strategies (not) used in reading folktales in a high school newcomer class, and explore how these strategies can inform new and more differentiated pedagogies.

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Bigelow King TESOL 2012 Learning Strategies Among Emergent Readers with Limited Formal Schooling

  1. 1. Acquiring Englishand literacy while Martha Bigelow learning to do & Kendall King school: Resistance University of Minnesota and TESOL 2012accommodation Philadelphia
  2. 2. 2Adolescent EL Emergent Readers ›  An uncommon population in our journals ›  SLA- Tarone, Bigelow & Hansen (2009) ›  School Experiences - Valenzuela (1999) ›  Few studies in classrooms ›  Elementary - Platt & Troudi (1997) ›  Post-secondary - Vásquez (2007) ›  Few studies on strategies - “doing school”
  3. 3. 3Past Research with AdultsParticipants and Study Focus AuthorHmong speakers’ cog. styles – more Hvitfeldt (1986)cooperative achievement, reliance onteacherHmong, Karen, used fewer interactive Degenhardt (2005)learning strategies than Spanish speakersHmong speakers used many effective Reimer (2008)strategies; some ineffective
  4. 4. 4Study questions› How do EL emergent readers ‘do school’? ›  How do they cope with the social and academic demands of high school? ›  Whatstrategies do they use as they learn English and acquire literacy?
  5. 5. 5Research approach & context›  Fourmonths of classroom-focused ethnographic research›  Two newcomer reading classes›  Teacher: Ms. Mavis ›  Valuedstudents’ languages and cultures ›  Focused on developmental reading skills
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  9. 9. 9 Data›  Audio and video ›  59 hours of classroom observations ›  5 hours of interviews ›  44 hours of tutoring sessions›  10 focal students ›  written work ›  elicited assessments in English and dominant language
  10. 10. 10Micro-ethnographic analysis›  Two students ›  Ayan ›  Nadifa›  Intertwined instances ›  Resistance ›  Accommodation
  11. 11. 11Micro-ethnographic analysis Resists Accommodat esAyan Doing independent Completing tasks work on challenging successfully with abstract task (verb ongoing peer worksheet) support; shows work to teacherNadifa Participating in Engaging in plot standard reading analysis activity
  12. 12. 12“Ayan”
  13. 13. 13Ayan
  14. 14. 14Ayan
  15. 15. 15Ayan›  Favored strategies: ›  peer support/interaction ›  physical movement and bodily contact with peers›  This example: ›  present/past irregular verbs ›  independent completion of worksheet
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  17. 17. 17 Ayan’s interpersonal moves›  Engages with Ms. M. over ‘saw/see’ (prior to start)›  Gains support from her seatmate (turn 1)›  Manages relationship with student behind her, including sharing his worksheet (3, 5, 8)›  Returns paper (11)›  Laughs and establishes physical contact with peers (12)›  Grabs Ms. M. and shows her paper (13, 14)›  Consults with seatmate (1, 2, 6, 19)›  Establishes contact again with student behind her (17-18)›  Takes paper back again with his consent (20)›  Tries to engage researcher by reaching for her (24)›  Requests assistance from teacher (27)
  18. 18. 18 Ayan›  Resists: ›  Independent work ›  Abstract academic tasks›  Accommodates: ›  Usinginterpersonal resources ›  Navigating classroom rules to ‘do school’ ›  Demonstrating work to teacher
  19. 19. 19“Nadifa”
  20. 20. 20Nadifa
  21. 21. 21Nadifa
  22. 22. 22 Nadifa›  Preferred literacy practices might not align with school practices.›  Doing school involves giving up her authentic ways of interacting with text.›  Doing school involves treating text as abstract object
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  24. 24. 24Micro-ethnographic analysis Resists AccommodatesAyan Independent work on Completing tasks challenging abstract successfully with task (verb worksheet) ongoing peer support; shows work to teacherNadifa Participating in Engaging in plot standard reading analysis activity
  25. 25. 25Two Strategy Profiles Resistance and Look like a Productive accommodation ‘good for academic student’ learningAyan ✔ ?Nadifa ✔ ✔ ?
  26. 26. 26 Two Different Learning Paradigms (Table 2.5, DeCapua & Marshall, 2010, p. 40)SLIFE Conditions for Learning US Schools  Immediate relevance   Future relevance  Interconnectedness   Independence   Processes for Learning  Shared responsibility   Individual accountability  Oral transmission   Written word   Activities for Learning  Pragmatic tasks   Academic tasks  
  27. 27. 27Conclusion›  “Good” strategies – they get schoolwork done›  Are strategies sanctioned in the classroom?›  To what extent are they productive?›  Resistance and accommodation: intertwined, observable only in a close analysis.›  What is culturally-relevant?›  Students’ relationship to texts and school must be taken into account.
  28. 28. 28Thank you!!››  kendall@umn.eduWe gratefully acknowledge: ›  Ms. M and her students, who welcomed us into her classroom to gather data and learn from them. ›  The Univ. of Minnesota Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction for providing funds to hire research assistants.