Martha Bigelow focuses on the learning strategies (not) used in reading folktales in a high school newcomer class, and explore how these strategies can inform new and more differentiated pedagogies.
Bigelow King TESOL 2012 Learning Strategies Among Emergent Readers with Limited Formal Schooling
Acquiring Englishand literacy while Martha Bigelow learning to do & Kendall King school: Resistance University of Minnesota and TESOL 2012accommodation Philadelphia
2Adolescent EL Emergent Readers An uncommon population in our journals SLA- Tarone, Bigelow & Hansen (2009) School Experiences - Valenzuela (1999) Few studies in classrooms Elementary - Platt & Troudi (1997) Post-secondary - Vásquez (2007) Few studies on strategies - “doing school”
3Past Research with AdultsParticipants and Study Focus AuthorHmong speakers’ cog. styles – more Hvitfeldt (1986)cooperative achievement, reliance onteacherHmong, Karen, used fewer interactive Degenhardt (2005)learning strategies than Spanish speakersHmong speakers used many effective Reimer (2008)strategies; some ineffective
4Study questions How do EL emergent readers ‘do school’? How do they cope with the social and academic demands of high school? Whatstrategies do they use as they learn English and acquire literacy?
5Research approach & context Fourmonths of classroom-focused ethnographic research Two newcomer reading classes Teacher: Ms. Mavis Valuedstudents’ languages and cultures Focused on developmental reading skills
9 Data Audio and video 59 hours of classroom observations 5 hours of interviews 44 hours of tutoring sessions 10 focal students written work elicited assessments in English and dominant language
10Micro-ethnographic analysis Two students Ayan Nadifa Intertwined instances Resistance Accommodation
11Micro-ethnographic analysis Resists Accommodat esAyan Doing independent Completing tasks work on challenging successfully with abstract task (verb ongoing peer worksheet) support; shows work to teacherNadifa Participating in Engaging in plot standard reading analysis activity
17 Ayan’s interpersonal moves Engages with Ms. M. over ‘saw/see’ (prior to start) Gains support from her seatmate (turn 1) Manages relationship with student behind her, including sharing his worksheet (3, 5, 8) Returns paper (11) Laughs and establishes physical contact with peers (12) Grabs Ms. M. and shows her paper (13, 14) Consults with seatmate (1, 2, 6, 19) Establishes contact again with student behind her (17-18) Takes paper back again with his consent (20) Tries to engage researcher by reaching for her (24) Requests assistance from teacher (27)
18 Ayan Resists: Independent work Abstract academic tasks Accommodates: Usinginterpersonal resources Navigating classroom rules to ‘do school’ Demonstrating work to teacher
22 Nadifa Preferred literacy practices might not align with school practices. Doing school involves giving up her authentic ways of interacting with text. Doing school involves treating text as abstract object
24Micro-ethnographic analysis Resists AccommodatesAyan Independent work on Completing tasks challenging abstract successfully with task (verb worksheet) ongoing peer support; shows work to teacherNadifa Participating in Engaging in plot standard reading analysis activity
25Two Strategy Profiles Resistance and Look like a Productive accommodation ‘good for academic student’ learningAyan ✔ ?Nadifa ✔ ✔ ?
26 Two Different Learning Paradigms (Table 2.5, DeCapua & Marshall, 2010, p. 40)SLIFE Conditions for Learning US Schools Immediate relevance Future relevance Interconnectedness Independence Processes for Learning Shared responsibility Individual accountability Oral transmission Written word Activities for Learning Pragmatic tasks Academic tasks
27Conclusion “Good” strategies – they get schoolwork done Are strategies sanctioned in the classroom? To what extent are they productive? Resistance and accommodation: intertwined, observable only in a close analysis. What is culturally-relevant? Students’ relationship to texts and school must be taken into account.
28Thank you!! firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.comWe gratefully acknowledge: Ms. M and her students, who welcomed us into her classroom to gather data and learn from them. The Univ. of Minnesota Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction for providing funds to hire research assistants.