Understanding	
  Language	
  Learning	
  
Among	
  Students	
  with	
  Limited	
  or	
  
Interrupted	
  Formal	
  Educa:on...
Presenter	
  
Christopher	
  Browder	
  
	
  
	
  
Do	
  High	
  School	
  English	
  Learners’	
  
Previous	
  Formal	
  ...
Research	
  quesHon:	
  	
  
Do	
  high	
  school	
  English	
  learners’	
  (EL)	
  previous	
  formal	
  
schooling	
  b...
Why	
  is	
  it	
  important?	
  
•  Policy	
  implica:ons	
  
–  No	
  Child	
  LeY	
  Behind	
  &	
  Race	
  to	
  the	
...
Why	
  is	
  it	
  important?	
  
•  Policy	
  implica:ons	
  
–  Need	
  to	
  accurately	
  iden:fy	
  students	
  for	
...
Why	
  is	
  it	
  important?	
  
•  Research	
  
–  Lack	
  of	
  research	
  	
  
(DeCapua,	
  Smathers,	
  &	
  Tang,	
...
Sample:	
  
•  199	
  high	
  school	
  students	
  classified	
  as	
  EL	
  	
  
–  diverse	
  popula:on	
  
•  racially/...
Methods:	
  
•  Quan:tatve:	
  	
  
–  bivariate	
  and	
  mul:variate	
  regression	
  analyses	
  
–  student	
  survey	...
Dependent	
  variable:	
  English	
  gains	
  
•  English	
  as	
  a	
  second	
  language	
  acquisi:on	
  
	
  
(2012	
 ...
Key	
  independent	
  variable:	
  	
  students’	
  previous	
  formal	
  
schooling	
  backgrounds	
  
	
  
How to operat...
TIME	
  SPENT	
  IN	
  SCHOOL	
  (SCHOOLING)	
  	
  
as	
  an	
  indicator	
  of	
  previous	
  formal	
  schooling	
  
• ...
THE	
  PRODUCTS	
  OF	
  SCHOOLING	
  (EDUCATION)	
  
as	
  an	
  indicator	
  of	
  previous	
  formal	
  schooling	
  
•...
THE	
  PRODUCTS	
  OF	
  SCHOOLING	
  (EDUCATION)	
  
as	
  an	
  indicator	
  of	
  previous	
  formal	
  schooling	
  
•...
Other	
  independent	
  variables	
  being	
  controlled	
  for	
  
•  ESOL	
  classes:	
  
–  number	
  of	
  sheltered	
...
How	
  common	
  was	
  limited	
  formal	
  schooling	
  for	
  ELs?	
  
Similar	
  to	
  other	
  es:mates	
  (DeCapua,	...
Did	
  SIFE	
  have	
  lower	
  English	
  proficiency	
  in	
  2012?	
  
16	
  
a	
  strong	
  and	
  
significant	
  
nega...
Do	
  SIFE	
  learn	
  English	
  more	
  slowly?	
  
17	
  
no	
  significant	
  
associaHon	
  
Does	
  arriving	
  with	
  below-­‐grade-­‐level	
  math	
  skills	
  predict	
  
slower	
  English	
  learning?	
  
18	
...
Does	
  arriving	
  with	
  low	
  L1	
  literacy	
  predict	
  slower	
  English	
  
learning?	
  	
  
19	
  
a	
  signifi...
Is	
  L1	
  literacy	
  a	
  product	
  of	
  schooling?	
  
20	
  
a	
  significant	
  
posiHve	
  
associaHon	
  
Are	
  math	
  skills	
  a	
  product	
  of	
  schooling?	
  
21	
  
a	
  strong	
  and	
  
significant	
  
negaHve	
  
ass...
FINDINGS	
  
•  The	
  prevalence	
  of	
  limited	
  formal	
  schooling	
  
–  Nearly	
  14%	
  of	
  the	
  students	
 ...
FINDINGS	
  
•  English	
  proficiency	
  aWainment	
  
–  SIFE	
  tended	
  to	
  have	
  lower	
  English	
  proficiency	
...
FINDINGS	
  
•  The	
  effect	
  of	
  Hme	
  spent	
  in	
  school	
  (formal	
  schooling)	
  	
  
–  Students’	
  grade-...
FINDINGS	
  
•  The	
  effect	
  of	
  arriving	
  with	
  lower	
  academic	
  skills?	
  
–  Significantly	
  associated	
...
APPLICATIONS	
  
•  Consider	
  students’…	
  
–  Math	
  skills	
  
–  L1	
  literacy	
  skills	
  
–  as	
  more	
  reli...
APPLICATIONS	
  
•  ELs	
  should	
  be	
  given	
  math	
  and	
  L1	
  literacy	
  tests	
  during	
  
intake.	
  
•  Ne...
Bibliography
Abedi, J. (2008). Classification system for English learners: Issues and recommendations. Educational Measure...
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Do High School English Learners’ Previous Formal Schooling Backgrounds Affect Their English Proficiency Gains?

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Presentation by C Browder at the Colloquium "Understanding Language Learning Among Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE )." AAAL 2014 Convention, Portland, OR

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Do High School English Learners’ Previous Formal Schooling Backgrounds Affect Their English Proficiency Gains?

  1. 1. Understanding  Language  Learning   Among  Students  with  Limited  or   Interrupted  Formal  Educa:on   (SLIFE)     AAAL  2014  Colloquium   March  22,  2014   Organizer:      Andrea  DeCapua              Discussant:        Elaine  Tarone    
  2. 2. Presenter   Christopher  Browder       Do  High  School  English  Learners’   Previous  Formal  Schooling   Backgrounds  Affect  Their  English   Proficiency  Gains?          
  3. 3. Research  quesHon:     Do  high  school  English  learners’  (EL)  previous  formal   schooling  backgrounds  affect  their  English  proficiency   gains?   Chris  Browder  [copyright  2014]   3  
  4. 4. Why  is  it  important?   •  Policy  implica:ons   –  No  Child  LeY  Behind  &  Race  to  the  Top   •  schools  and  teachers  held  accountable  for  EL   students’  rate  of  English  learning     (U.S.  Congress,  2002;  Duran,  2008,  New  York  State  Educa:on   Department,  2014)   4  
  5. 5. Why  is  it  important?   •  Policy  implica:ons   –  Need  to  accurately  iden:fy  students  for  interven:ons   5  
  6. 6. Why  is  it  important?   •  Research   –  Lack  of  research     (DeCapua,  Smathers,  &  Tang,  2010;  Tarone,  Bigelow,  &  Hansen,   2009;  Tarone,  2010;  Zehr,  2009)   6  
  7. 7. Sample:   •  199  high  school  students  classified  as  EL     –  diverse  popula:on   •  racially/ethnically   •  socio-­‐economically   –  school  context   •  well-­‐resourced   •  suburban/semi-­‐urban   •  east-­‐coast  school  district       [See  supplementary  materials  for  more  demographic  data  and   preliminary  analyses.]   7  
  8. 8. Methods:   •  Quan:tatve:     –  bivariate  and  mul:variate  regression  analyses   –  student  survey  and  school  system  data   8  
  9. 9. Dependent  variable:  English  gains   •  English  as  a  second  language  acquisi:on     (2012  WIDA)  –  (2011  LAS)  =  gain  2011-­‐12     (CTB/McGraw-­‐Hill  LLC,  2007;  Kenyon,  2006;  WIDA  Consor:um:   World  Class  Instruc:onal  Design  and  Assessment,  2007)   9  
  10. 10. Key  independent  variable:    students’  previous  formal   schooling  backgrounds     How to operationalize previous formal schooling?   10  
  11. 11. TIME  SPENT  IN  SCHOOL  (SCHOOLING)     as  an  indicator  of  previous  formal  schooling   •  Interrupted  formal  educaHon  (NYSDOE)   –  2  years  or  more  of  missing  schooling  on  arrival   dichotomous  variable  (1  =  yes,  0  =  no)   SIFE:  student  with  interrupted  formal  educaHon   (New  York  State  Department  of  Educa:on,  2011)   11  
  12. 12. THE  PRODUCTS  OF  SCHOOLING  (EDUCATION)   as  an  indicator  of  previous  formal  schooling   •  Below-­‐grade-­‐level  math  skills  on  arrival   –  dichotomous  variable  (1  =  below,  0  =  on  or  above)     Example)  incoming  9th  grader  no  pre-­‐algebra  skills   12  
  13. 13. THE  PRODUCTS  OF  SCHOOLING  (EDUCATION)   as  an  indicator  of  previous  formal  schooling   •  self-­‐reported  L1  literacy  on  arrival  from  student  survey   in  2012     –  L1  literacy  con:nuous  variable  (1  to  4  with  1  being   lowest)   –  Low  L1  literacy  (scores  of  2  or  lower)   13  
  14. 14. Other  independent  variables  being  controlled  for   •  ESOL  classes:   –  number  of  sheltered  ESOL  classes  the  student  took  in   2011-­‐2012  school  year   14  
  15. 15. How  common  was  limited  formal  schooling  for  ELs?   Similar  to  other  es:mates  (DeCapua,  Smathers,  &  Tang,  2007;   Fleischman  &  Hopstock,  1993;  Ruiz-­‐de-­‐Valasco  &  Fix,  2000;  Walsh,   1999;  Zehr,  2009)   15  
  16. 16. Did  SIFE  have  lower  English  proficiency  in  2012?   16   a  strong  and   significant   negaHve   associaHon  
  17. 17. Do  SIFE  learn  English  more  slowly?   17   no  significant   associaHon  
  18. 18. Does  arriving  with  below-­‐grade-­‐level  math  skills  predict   slower  English  learning?   18   a  significant   negaHve   associaHon   stronger  when   controlling  for   ESOL  
  19. 19. Does  arriving  with  low  L1  literacy  predict  slower  English   learning?     19   a  significant   negaHve   associaHon   sHll  significant   when  controlling   for  ESOL  
  20. 20. Is  L1  literacy  a  product  of  schooling?   20   a  significant   posiHve   associaHon  
  21. 21. Are  math  skills  a  product  of  schooling?   21   a  strong  and   significant   negaHve   associaHon  
  22. 22. FINDINGS   •  The  prevalence  of  limited  formal  schooling   –  Nearly  14%  of  the  students  had  at  least  two  fewer   years  of  grade-­‐rela:ve  schooling  and  would  be   classified  as  SIFE  in  New  York  State.   –  Nearly  59%  had  arrived  with  below-­‐grade-­‐level  math   skills.   –  Nearly  20%  reported  low  L1  literacy  skills.   22  
  23. 23. FINDINGS   •  English  proficiency  aWainment   –  SIFE  tended  to  have  lower  English  proficiency  later   because  they  had  arrived  with  lower  English   proficiency  not  because  of  slower  learning.   23  
  24. 24. FINDINGS   •  The  effect  of  Hme  spent  in  school  (formal  schooling)     –  Students’  grade-­‐rela:ve  years  of  schooling  (SIFE)  not   significantly  associated  with  English  gains     24  
  25. 25. FINDINGS   •  The  effect  of  arriving  with  lower  academic  skills?   –  Significantly  associated  with  lower  English  gains.   •  Arriving  with  below-­‐grade-­‐level  math  skills   •  Arriving  with  lower  L1  literacy     25  
  26. 26. APPLICATIONS   •  Consider  students’…   –  Math  skills   –  L1  literacy  skills   –  as  more  reliable  predictors  of  their  rate  of  English   learning  than  grades  completed  in  school  before   coming  to  the  U.S.       –  to  measure  the  adequacy  of  a  student’s  previous   formal  schooling   26  
  27. 27. APPLICATIONS   •  ELs  should  be  given  math  and  L1  literacy  tests  during   intake.   •  Newcomer  programs  and  other  services  for  SIFE  should   consider  more  than  just  missing  years  of  schooling  as   eligibility.   27  
  28. 28. Bibliography Abedi, J. (2008). Classification system for English learners: Issues and recommendations. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27(3), 17-31. Advocates for Children. (2008). Know your rights: A guide to immigrant students and parents in the New York City Public Schools. New York, NY. Advocates for Children of New York. (2010). Students with interrupted formal education: A challenge for the New York City Public Schools. Batalova, J., & McHugh, M. (2010). Number and growth of students in U.S. schools in need of English instruction. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Bigelow, M., delMas, R., Hansen, K., & Tarone, E. (2006). Literacy and the processing of oral recasts in SLA. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), 665-689. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC. (2007). LAS links: Connecting assessment, language, and learning. Monterey, CA: McGraw-Hill . DeCapua, A., Smathers, W., & Tang, L. (2007). Schooling, interrupted. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 40-46. DeCapua, A., Smathers, W., & Tang, L. (2010). Meeting the needs of students with limited or interrupted schooling. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. Duran, R. P. (2008). Assessing English-language learners' achievement. Review of Research in Education, 12, 292-327. Fleischman, H., & Hopstock, P. (1993). Descriptive study of services to limited English proficient students, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Freeman, Y., Freeman, D., & Mercuri, S. (2001). Keys to success for bilingual students with limited formal schooling. Bilingual Research Journal, 25(1 & 2). Kenyon, D. M. (2006). The Bridge Study between Tests of ENglish Language Proficiency and ACCESS for ELLs (R): Part II B: LAS Results. Washington, DC: The Center for Applied Linguistics. New York State Department of Education. (2011). Guidelines for educating limited English proficient students with interruptted formal education. NYSDOE. New York State Education Department. (2014, February 7). Race to the Top. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from NYSED.gov: http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/ teachers-leaders/ Passel, J. S., & Fix, M. (1994). Myths about immigrants. Foreign Policy, 95, 151-161. Ruiz-de-Valasco, J., & Fix, M. (2000). Overlooked and underserved: Immigrant students in U.S. secondary schools. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Short, D. (2002). Newcomer programs: An educational alternative for secondary immigrant students. Education and Urban Society, 34(2), 173-198. Slavin, R. E. (1990). IBM's writing to read: Is it right for reading? Phi Delta Kappan, 72, 214-216. Somerset County Public Schools. (2013). Acronyms and definitions. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from Somerset County Public Schools: Success and nothing less: http://www.somerset.k12.md.us/BOE/Departments/Instruction/ELL/Definitions.htm Stoops, N. (2004). Educational attainment in the United States: 2003. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Tarone, E. (2010). Second language acquisition by low-literate learners: An under-studied population. Language Teaching, 43(1), 75-83. Tarone, E., Bigelow, M., & Hansen, K. (2009). Literacy and second language oracy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. U.S. Congress. (2002). No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Public law 107-110. January 8, 2002. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress. Walsh, C. (1999). Enabling academic success for secondary students with limited formalschooling: A study of the Haitian literacy program at Hyde Park High School in Boston. Providence, RI: Brown University. WIDA Consortium: World Class Instructional Design and Assessment. (2007). Understanding the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards: A Resource Guide. WIDA Consortium. Zehr, M. A. (2009). N.Y.C. test sizes up ELLs with little formal schoolinng. Education Week, 28(23), 13. 28  
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