A camera shot could be seen as the amount of space that is seen in one shot or a frame. Camera shots are essential for the
film to shape meaning.
Extreme Long shot: Contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used in the beginning of a film, so it sets the scene.
Long shot: Contains landscape but it also gives the viewer something more.
Full shot: A complete view of the characters. This shot is used mainly so that the audience can take note of characters
costumes, but can also show clear relationships between characters.
Midshot: Contains a character(s) shot from the waist up. Viewers can see close interaction.
Close-up: Contains just one characters face. Here the audience can understand actors emotions, this allows them to feel
Extreme Close-up: Contains one part of a characters face or another different object.
A birds eye angle is an angle that looks directly below a scene.
High-level angle: is a camera angle that looks down on a subject.
Eye level shot: puts the audience on the same level as the characters.
Low-angle: Is a camera angle that looks up at a character.
A crane shot is mostly used to indicate that a film has ended.
Tracking shot is used to give the viewer a detailed tour. Also used to follow a character.
Panning is used to give the viewer a panoramic view of a set/setting.
Mise en scene:
Mise en scene means what is put in a scene or a frame.
The 5 elements of mise en scene are:
1. Settings and Props.
2. Costume, Hair and Make-up.
3. Facial expression and body language.
4. Lighting and colour.
5. Positioning of characters/objects within the frame.
Settings and props play an important part in film making, as they aren't just in
the “background.” Sets are either built from scratch or take a long time to work
on it. The setting can often manipulate the audience as it builds certain
expectations towards the viewers.
Costumes, hair and make up tell us immediately when the film was set and
what culture/or society it will centre around. Different types of costumes can
signify certain individuals.
Facial expression and body language indicates how a person is feeling. We
could tell if a person is happy just by their facial expression but our
interpretation could change if it was accompanied by scary music. Body
language could also indicate how a person is feeling towards another
Positioning of characters/objects within the frame can make us focus on a
character/object. A director will use positioning to portray relationships
between different characters.
Lighting and colours is affective as it could be used to achieve a different variety
of effects such as:
Highlight important characters or objects.
To make certain characters look spooky and mysterious, to hide a characters
mental state/hidden emotions.
Low key lighting: Created by using the key and back lights.
-It shows contrast of light and dark areas.
-Deep shadows are created.-Example thriller films.
High key lighting: -More filler lights are used.
-Lighting is very realistic and seems very natural to our eyes.
Film editing is the connection of one or more shots to form a sequence, and then
to form an entire film.
A film editor works with:
-Layers of images
-Rhythm and Pace
An editors cut is normally the first pass of what the final film will be.
Types of transitions:
A visual transition created in editing in which one shot is always replaced on screen by another.
Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action, indicating that they are happening
A gradual scene transition. It overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one.
A visual transition between shots or scenes that appear. The editor fades one shot to black and then fades
in the next. This is mainly to show a change in time and place.
The finished edit of a film which is shown to the director and the producer and
then approved. This is what the audience will see.
Scenes whose emotional impact and visual design are achieved through editing
together many brief shots. The shower scene from Psycho is an example of
A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. It is filmed with only one
shot with no editing.
Shot reverse shot cutting:
This is usually used for conversation scenes, this technique differs between
over-the-shoulder shots which shows each character speaking.
A comparison of two shots can show important changes in mise-enscene, including setting.
Editing could also make the audience think, compare and contrast the
cinematography qualities in each of the different shots.
Editing is the combination of images creating meaning by the play of one
image and another.
Filmmakers can also encourage emotional and intellectual feedback by
adjusting tempo. The tempo in editing could be affected by two factors:
1.The length of each shot
2.The type of shot transition.
Most movies combine long takes and short takes to show variation.
Sound is very important when making a film, the use or non-use of sound is able to
influence how the audience interpret certain ideas and their emotions. Sound can give
different meanings to a scene or explain what action cannot.
Music is a sound code. The type of music being played shows a great deal of information about the mood
and tone of text, such as tension and emotions. This can be helped by the music that is being played.
Psycho – (Shower scene): High pitch instrumental, but calm to build suspense for future scenes.
Follows, immediate shower scene, where the screeching noise arises, this could symbolize potential
Music or sound that belongs with the frame and what you and both the characters are able to hear. For
example a door being opened may consist of the door creaking.
Kidulthood- (Off licence scene): There are some bottles being brought to the pay point, their being
clanged together as placed down. When the bottle is thrown we hear smashing noises against the
window. When exiting the shop onto the high road we hear noise from the outside. All of this is diegetic
sound as both the audience and the characters hear that noise.
Non Diegetic Sound:
Sound or music that has been edited into the frame after the scene has finished.
Usually to emphasise and create a hyperbole on for example a sound on what
would have been a diegetic sound.
Rhythm of the music can dictate the rhythm of cuts, such as in the fight scenes
to create tension.
When a scene is edited so that no sound is heard. Silence is able to create
tension and suspense or even dramatic effect.
Crash ( little girl gets shot Scene) - Although when the little girl is
shot, music is still played. Their cries and screams are in silence which is
incredibly dramatic as the audience focus on the expressions on the characters
faces rather then the background noise (music.)