Music Assessment Simplified

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Are you looking to improve the evaluative process in your school, organization or studio? Do you want to learn how to create your own evaluative forms with a decent level of reliability? Here\'s your chance . .

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Music Assessment Simplified

  1. 1. Music Assessment Simplified Alana Seddon
  2. 2. Focus for Today <ul><li>Evaluation of students by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of students by students </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of teachers by supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of teachers by students/parents </li></ul>
  3. 3. Yesterday and Today <ul><li>Music, in the past, has yielded minimal measurement of student progress. Colleges and arts schools have incorporated jury systems into their performance programs, a simple one-time performance review painting a small picture of progress. Even 15 years ago in the public schools, students were graded on attendance, music theory and music history for a performing ensemble. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, word is getting around to incorporate authentic assessment in all areas, with music being put to the test. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for Assessment <ul><li>Feedback to the parent/student </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback to the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation for the school </li></ul>Packet, p. 2
  5. 5. Feedback to the parent/student <ul><li>Provide detailed information of student achievement/progress </li></ul><ul><li>Provides parental security of adequate instruction </li></ul>Packet, p. 2
  6. 6. Feedback to the teacher <ul><li>Calls attention to all aspects of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses their instruction on areas of weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Describes progress, goals and expectations </li></ul>Packet, p. 2
  7. 7. Documentation for the School <ul><li>Track student achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Supports teacher competency </li></ul><ul><li>Supports reasons for the school’s accreditation with national associations </li></ul><ul><li>Supports reasons for space, time, and money spent on programs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides improvement of instruction for all programs </li></ul>Packet, p. 2
  8. 8. Goals <ul><li>To provide reasons for establishing an evaluative system </li></ul><ul><li>To provide basic understanding of assessment tools </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a starting library of assessment tools </li></ul><ul><li>To serve as a resource to revising or establishing an evaluative system both now and in the future. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Common Terms
  10. 10. Objective vs. Subjective <ul><li>Art is naturally subjective – what do people think? </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of a good evaluative system - gain objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity is key to consistent and reasonable discussions of progress </li></ul>Packet, p. 3
  11. 11. Measurement vs. Evaluation vs. Assessment <ul><li>What are the differences between the 3 terms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement: systematic method used to observe musical behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation: compare assessment information to a general standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment: gathering information from past and present: where should they be in the future? </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 3
  12. 12. Measurement vs. Evaluation vs. Assessment <ul><li>How are they used in relation to Arts Assessment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement: the use of rating scales and other documents to compile data on student progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation: summative report that details student achievement as compared to a standard for all students (how we define excellent, good, average, fair and poor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment: compilation of student portfolios including various types of documentation, recordings, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scale summative report portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement evaluation assessment </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 3
  13. 13. Informal Vs. Formal Evaluation Informal : - Consists of general observations that are not documented consistently. - Examples of topics include attention, cooperation, attitude (can cover any topic) - Types include saying “good job” after a performance, telling a student to add dynamics during a lesson, etc. Formal : - Consists of well-documented behaviors - Examples of topics include pitch, rhythm, expression, etc. - Types include a jury, report card, rating scale, etc. Packet, p. 3
  14. 14. Types of Formal Measurements <ul><li>Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance Records </li></ul><ul><li>Written Comments </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rating Scales What makes a well constructed test? <ul><li>Validity = truly testing what the instructor intended to test </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability = consistency in scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Statements should be made in the positive (I.e. what they can do) </li></ul><ul><li>5 possible answers yields the best reliability </li></ul>Packet, p. 3
  16. 16. Types of Rating Scales <ul><li>Continuous rating scale – criteria are dependent upon one another </li></ul><ul><li>Additive rating scale – criteria can stand alone </li></ul><ul><li>Likert rating scale – similar to a continuous scale but with less descriptive statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier for people to fill out but yields a lower reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria needs to be specific to yield the highest reliability (consistency) </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 3
  17. 17. Continuous Rating Scale (Tonal) <ul><li>5 The student performs all pitches accurately with good intonation. </li></ul><ul><li>4 The student performs most phrases accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>3 The student performs more than half the song accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>2 The student performs at least one phrase accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs the first and/or last note accurately. </li></ul>Packet, p. 4
  18. 18. Additive Rating Scale <ul><li>The student performs with a sense of resolution to phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with movement to the music. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with proper articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs proper score expressions (accents, fermata, release, etc.) </li></ul>Packet, p. 4
  19. 19. Performance Rating Scale (Likert) <ul><li>5 = Excellent 4 = Good 3 = Satisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>2 = Poor 1 = Very Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Production 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Expression 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul>Packet, p. 4
  20. 20. Parts of a Rating Scale Dimensions Criteria
  21. 21. Dimensions <ul><li>Topics of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include tonal achievement, rhythmic achievement, technical skills, expressive elements, etc. </li></ul>Packet, p. 3 & 4
  22. 22. Criteria <ul><li>Descriptive statements of levels of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Define various levels of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Know your expectations </li></ul>Packet, p. 3 & 4
  23. 23. Tonal Rating Scale <ul><li>5 The student performs all pitches accurately with good intonation. </li></ul><ul><li>4 The student performs most phrases accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>3 The student performs more than half the song accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>2 The student performs at least one phrase accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs the first and/or last note accurately. </li></ul>Dimension Criteria Defines Type (continuous) Packet, p. 4
  24. 24. Expression Rating Scale <ul><li>The student performs with a sense of resolution to phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with movement to the music. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with proper articulation/bowing. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs proper score expressions (accents, fermata, release, etc.) </li></ul>Dimension Criteria Defines Type-(Additive) Packet, p. 4
  25. 25. Likert Scale <ul><li>5 = Excellent 4 = Good 3 = Satisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>2 = Poor 1 = Very Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Tone Production 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Expression 5 4 3 2 1 </li></ul>Criteria Dimensions Packet, p. 4
  26. 26. Putting A System To Use
  27. 27. Topics for Students <ul><li>Tonal </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance & Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Students measurements of their own performances </li></ul><ul><li>Repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Performances & Musical Accomplishments </li></ul>Packet, p. 5
  28. 28. Documentation – Students <ul><li>Rating Scale: Used by teachers and students – covers tonal, rhythm, technique, expression </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance Record: Used by teachers – covers attendance, punctuality, participation, practice habits </li></ul><ul><li>Progress Report: Used by teachers – covers all areas of expectation </li></ul>Packet, p. 5
  29. 29. Examples to Document Student Progress
  30. 30. Tonal Rating Scale <ul><li>5 The student performs all pitches accurately with good intonation. </li></ul><ul><li>4 The student performs most phrases accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>3 The student performs more than half the song accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>2 The student performs at least one phrase accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs the first and/or last note accurately. </li></ul>Packet, p. 5 & 9
  31. 31. Expression Rating Scale <ul><li>The student performs with a sense of resolution to phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with movement to the music. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs with proper articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The student performs proper score expressions (accents, fermata, release, etc.) </li></ul>Packet, p. 5 & 9
  32. 32. Tonal Rating Scale (to be completed by the student) <ul><li>5 I performed all pitches accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>4 I performed most pitches accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>3 I performed more than half the song accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>2 I performed at least one phrase accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>I performed at least the first and/or last note accurately. </li></ul>Packet, p. 5 & 15
  33. 33. Attendance Record  =Attend A=Student Absence T=Teacher Absence L=Late NP = Not Prepared Packet, p. 5 & 20 10/6/03 9/29/03 9/22/03 9/15/03 9/8/03 Name
  34. 34. Attendance Record Packet, p. 5 & 21 1 Attendance 2 Books 3 Materials 3 2 1 Name
  35. 35. Repertoire List (refer to progress report) <ul><li>Clear example of what the student has worked on throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Undefined examples of how well the student progressed on each piece of music – should be supported with formal measurements of accomplishments on various selections </li></ul>Packet, p. 5
  36. 36. Topics for Teachers <ul><li>Efficiency & Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Teaching Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Appropriate Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul>Packet, p. 6
  37. 37. Documentation - Teachers <ul><li>Self-Evaluation Document </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Retention Study </li></ul><ul><li>Class Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Review of studio recitals </li></ul><ul><li>Written Cumulative Review by Supervisor (Meeting between teacher and supervisor to review all of the above) </li></ul>Packet, p. 6
  38. 38. Teachers: Self-Evaluation (completed by the teacher) <ul><li>Teachers assess their progress in written form </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation should cover all topics for good teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed by a supervisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports true and accurate self-assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure discussion and feedback </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 6
  39. 39. Teacher Self-Evaluation <ul><li>Demonstrative Modeling: </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate good technique. </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate good tone. </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate musical expression. </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate proper technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>(hand position, breath support, posture, embouchure, instrument </li></ul><ul><li>position, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate correct pitches. </li></ul><ul><li>I use my voice/instrument to demonstrate correct rhythms. </li></ul>Packet, p. 23
  40. 40. Parental Evaluation of Teachers (completed by parents and students) <ul><li>Used to find consistent areas of strength and deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/student/parent relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reviewed by the teacher – anonymously </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of concern discussed between the supervisor and teacher maintaining the confidentiality of the family/student </li></ul>Packet, p. 6/24
  41. 41. Instructor Review Form Completed by Parent/Student Is lesson time used efficiently? Does the instructor incorporate various types of literature? Can the instructor explain and demonstrate musical concepts effectively? Does the instructor have a thorough knowledge of all relevant aspects of the subject matter? N/A No Somewhat Yes Topic
  42. 42. Retention Study (completed by office staff) <ul><li>Have office staff conduct retention studies from fall to spring semesters for each teacher </li></ul><ul><li>List names of students who do not continue if retention is not high </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the teacher why students dropped (if the number is significant) – be cautious of defensiveness and nervousness </li></ul>Packet, p. 6
  43. 43. Class Observations (done by supervisor) <ul><li>Only beneficial if it does not have a negative impact instruction (questionable for private lessons) </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide the supervisor with actual hands-on snap-shot of a teacher’s abilities for all topics of good teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware that one time observances may not necessarily paint an accurate picture </li></ul><ul><li>Does not account for non-musical circumstances (student is tired, took exams all day, just fought with parents or siblings, etc.) </li></ul>Packet, p. 6
  44. 44. Review of Studio Recitals (done by supervisor) <ul><li>Helpful to see many performances to get the best picture – look at teaching practices and student/teacher relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily an accurate picture of good instruction – depends on what types of students the teacher takes as well as the type of student they put in a recital </li></ul><ul><li>Use your general conclusions to initiate a discussion with the teacher or to direct your evaluations </li></ul>Packet, p. 6
  45. 45. Written Cumulative Review by Supervisor <ul><li>Must cover all topics for good instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Review Self – Assessment Form </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss any retention concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss any consistent parental concerns (provide documentation as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss observations (with documentation) of studio recitals and/or classes </li></ul><ul><li>Open communication regarding what the school, and supervisor, can do to be more supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratively write a formal review </li></ul>Packet, p. 6/25
  46. 46. Teacher’s Performance Review (Sample Discussion) <ul><li>Review of Self-Evaluation Form: </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Weakness: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor’s Goals for Next Year: </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor’s Suggestions for Next Year: </li></ul><ul><li>Areas where the supervisor will provide greater support: </li></ul>
  47. 47. Assessing Teachers – Reality? <ul><li>Ample knowledge of teaching skills, not of the specific instrument, must be known to ensure fair assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Use a standard form with every teacher to ensure consistency </li></ul><ul><li>How Often? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annually for new teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-annually for veteran teachers (or another regular interval) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Long-Term Documentation Student Portfolios Teacher Portfolios
  49. 49. Student Portfolios <ul><li>Create a portfolio, or file, on each student including the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating Scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recital Performances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performances within a lesson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s self-evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repertoire List </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude/Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical Performances and Accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress Report </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 7
  50. 50. Teacher Portfolios <ul><li>Create a portfolio, or file, on each teacher including the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Evaluation – done by teacher prior to meeting with supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor Evaluation Form – evaluation form completed by student or parent as well as any letters of correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention Study Notes – include any notes from the retention study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Observation Notes – include any notes from any and all class observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studio Recital Reviews – include any notes or forms used to document studio recitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s Performance Review – include a copy of written review done by the supervisor and teacher collaboratively </li></ul></ul>Packet, p. 7
  51. 51. Closing Suggestions <ul><li>Set up consistent plans based on feedback from faculty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include well-written forms used by all faculty for optimal consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to be flexible in order to get your plan running successfully </li></ul>

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