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Early 20th c architecture

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  • 1. 20th Century Architecture
  • 2. Vladimir TatlinMonument to the 3rd International1919-20wood, iron and glassProductivism – developed in RussiaAimed to design better environments forhuman beings- Utopian thinking, using technology tobenefit humans- abandoned abstraction for “functionalart”Commissioned to honor the RussianRevolution – GOVERNMENTAL BUILDING- Glass and iron building, taller than EiffelTowerSpiral cage with geometric rotating forms incenter for various gov’t activities• Chambers decrease in size as thebuilding ascends• Reinforces social and politicalrealityNever was actually built, only exists inmodels
  • 3. Gerrit Thomas RietveldSchroder HouseUtrecht, the Netherlands1924• De Stijl Architecture – inspiration by Mondrian (straight lines, primary colors, primaryvalues, geometric shapes)• Living rooms on 2nd floor, private rooms on ground level• Sliding screens to transform the space• Shifting quality appears in exterior, almost Cubist, moveable panelsRietveld’sphilosophy:homes should be“machines for living”
  • 4. Schroder House, interior
  • 5. Walter GropiusBauhausDessau, Germany1925-26• The organic shaping of things in accordance with their own current laws,avoids embellishment and whimsy• Restriction of basic forms and colors: emphasis on typical and universallylegible themes• Simplicity in complexity• Economy in the use of space, materials, time and money
  • 6. Walter GropiusBauhausDessau, Germany1925-26Bauhaus: German school of design• Dismantled by Nazi Regime• Hitler quickly shut down the institution after 14 years• Students and professors fled Germany and disseminated Bauhaus aesthetics and ideals• Inspired curricula for many other art schools
  • 7. Luwig Mies Van Der Rohemodel for a glass skyscraper,Berlin, Germany1922• Took over Bauhaus after Gropius left• “less is more” “skin and bones”architecture• Model for tall glass building (never built)• Three towers, reveals cantilevered interior• Illusion of movement  inspired laterarchitects, especially for skyscrapersCantilever = A longprojecting beam orgirder fixed at onlyone end
  • 8. Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret)Villa SavoyePoissy-sur-Seine, France1929-30• Designed functional living spaces, “machinesfor living”• Sun, space, vegetation, controlled temp, quiet,insulated
  • 9. Le CorbusierVilla SavoyePoissy-sur-Seine, France1929-30• Located outside Paris• Living rooms on second floor, bedroom,storage, garage on first• Open space, strip windows• Ramp leads to roof-terrace and garden• No traditional façade,must walk around andthrough house tounderstand it
  • 10. Le CorbusierVilla SavoyePoissy-sur-Seine, France1929-30• INVERTED typical design practice• Heavier floor on TOP, negatessolidity• Made possible with ferroconcrete(steel enforced concrete)
  • 11. William van AllenChrysler BuildingNew York, New York1928-30ART DECO• In response to Bauhaus• Favored ornamentation using new materials• Appealed to all art forms: buildings, furniture,silverware, etc.• Very streamlines, geometric, organic, “aerodynamic”Chrysler BuildingMonument of the fabulous 1920sCelebrated the principles and success of Americanbusiness…pre-Depression 
  • 12. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT• “architecture ofdemocracy”• Natural, organic, interactswith natural surrounding• Free open space for freeindividuals to movethrough• Asymmetry• Use of innovative buildingtechniques: cantilevers
  • 13. Frank Lloyd WrightRobie HouseChicago, Illinois1907-09• “Prairie style” – long, sweeping, ground-hugging lines reflects expansiveness of Midwest flatlands• No façade• Extended roof overhangs, conceal entrance, “wandering” plan• Sense of space and motion• The interior’s flowing space dictated the placement of externalwalls• Grouped aroundgiant centralfireplace• Every littledecorative detailfits in withWright’s designscheme
  • 14. Robie House, interior
  • 15. Frank Lloyd WrightRobie HouseChicago, Illinois1907-09Long, “prairie style” design
  • 16. Frank Lloyd WrightKaufmann House (Fallingwater)Bear Run, Pennsylvania1936-39• Built as country home of dept store magnate EdgarKaufmann• Fluid interplay of interior and exterior• Placed on top of waterfall, hence fallingwater• Incorporates building INTO site• Series of terraces• Concrete,painted metaland naturalstone• SPACE, notmass. Createdspace for freemovement• GREATLYinfluential onEuropeanarchitects

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