THE MASTERS•Leonardo da Vinci: inventor, naturalist, and painter of the soul•Donato Bramante: the Pope’s architect•Michelangelo Buonarroti: sculptor with divine power•Raphael Raffaelo Sanzio: the true painter
16th century Europe-Humanism lives on: inspires exploration of new ideas, the natural world and distantlands - Geography and Cartography - Printing Press – LITERACY! - Travel – international community-On going shifts in alliances among Italian city-states, Holy Roman Empire, Spain,France and the papacy - Popes act like princes! $$$$ - Protestant Reformation – Julius the II and the sale of indulgences, Reformation initiated by Martin Luther’s 95 These-The artistic GENIUS - Intellectual influence - Mostly men - Generous commissions and high social status - Divinely inspired2 BIG CHANGES: switch from tempera to oil & commissions from private sources,no solely the Church, court or civic associations
Verrocchio’s Baptism of ChristWhat’s the difference between Early Renaissance and High Renaissance art?
Thetranscendent divinity oftrecento Italy +The reality and solidity of quattrocento Italy
Leonardo da Vinci – the Renaissance man -Born in Vinci, trained under Verrocchio -Moved to Florence at 12 or 13 -Spent much of his life in Milan working on military and civil engineering projectsLeonardo da VinciVirgin of the Rocksca. 1485oil on wood6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in.
Leonardo da VinciEmbryo in the Wombca. 1510pen and ink on paper
Pope Julius IIRaphaelMarriage of the VirginChapel of Saint Joseph in Città di Castellonear Florence, Italy1504oil on wood5 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=tK_LhRsF-xs#!RaphaelMadonna of the Meadows1505oil on panel3 ft. 8 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 10 1/4 in.
RaphaelPhilosophy (School of Athens)Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy1509-11frescoapproximately 19 x 27 ft.
RaphaelGalateaSala di Galatea, Villa FarnesinaRome, Italy1513fresco9 ft. 8 in. x 7 ft. 5 in.
Courtier - A person who attendsa royal court as a companion oradviser to the king or queenHow is this expressed in hisportrait?RaphaelBaldassare Castiglioneca. 1514oil on wood transferred to canvas2 ft. 6 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 1/2 in.
MICHELANGELO, Il DivinoMaster sculptor, painter andarchitect-Born Michelangelo Buonarroti - Studied under Ghirlandaio and Bertoldo di Giovanni-Parallels Plato’s ideas: - The image the artist’s hand produces must come from the artist’s mind - Ideas come from the natural world, absolute idea of beauty-Michelangelo didn’t adhere to a set ofmathematical principles (I.e.Leonardo’s Vetruvian Man), butbelieved the artist’s inspired judgmentcould create beauty
ATTACK on the Pietá!!http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/video/21-1972-michelangelos-pieta-damaged-13472122
Michelangelo BuonarrotiDavid1501-1504marble14 ft. 3 in. high
Pope Julius II – the ultimate art patron-Associated himself with humanists and great RomanemperorsCommissioned Michelangelo to sculpt his elaborate tomb-Design called for a freestanding 2-story structurecovered with figures (some 28 statues) - Gives Michelangelo opportunity to sculpt many figures - Provides Julius II with a grandiose memorial that would associate him with the first pope, St. Peter himselfEventually reduced the scale of the design, 1/3 theoriginal plan
Michelangelo BuonarrotiMosesSan Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italyca. 1513-1515marbleapproximately 8 ft. 4 in. high
Michelangelo BuonarrotiCreation of Adam, Sistine Chapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italy1511-12frescoapproximately 18 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 2 in.
Cleaning of, Sistine Chapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italy1977-1989
Cleaning of, SistineChapel CeilingVatican City, Rome, Italy1977-1989
Michelangelo BuonarrotiDrunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (pre-restoration)Vatican City, Rome, Italy1511-12fresco
Michelangelo BuonarrotiDrunkenness of Noah, Sistine Chapel Ceiling (post-restoration)Vatican City, Rome, Italy1511-12fresco
Sistine Chapel (view facing east)Vatican City, Rome, Italybuilt 1473
The Sistine Chapel and the Counter-Reformation-What was the Counter-Reformation? - Backlash by popes of Protestant ideologies - Popes are well aware of the power of visual imagery-Protestantism believes in personal faith,relationship between an individual andGod - No need for the church!-Paul III (successor of Clement VII)commissioned “Last Judgment” wall
Michelangelo BuonarrotiLast JudgmentVatican City, Rome, Italy1537-41fresco