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- 1. Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e Chapter 13 Recursion
- 2. Chapter Objectives • Learn about recursive definitions • Explore the base case and the general case of a recursive definition • Learn about recursive algorithms Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 2
- 3. Chapter Objectives (continued) • Learn about recursive methods • Become aware of direct and indirect recursion • Explore how to use recursive methods to implement recursive algorithms Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 3
- 4. Recursive Definitions • Recursion – Process of solving a problem by reducing it to smaller versions of itself • Recursive definition – Definition in which a problem is expressed in terms of a smaller version of itself – Has one or more base cases Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 4
- 5. Recursive Definitions (continued) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 5
- 6. Recursive Definitions (continued) • Recursive algorithm – Algorithm that finds the solution to a given problem by reducing the problem to smaller versions of itself – Has one or more base cases – Implemented using recursive methods • Recursive method – Method that calls itself • Base case – Case in recursive definition in which the solution is obtained directly – Stops the recursion Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 6
- 7. Recursive Definitions (continued) • General solution – Breaks problem into smaller versions of itself • General case – Case in recursive definition in which a smaller version of itself is called – Must eventually be reduced to a base case Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 7
- 8. Tracing a Recursive Method • Recursive method – Logically, you can think of a recursive method having unlimited copies of itself – Every recursive call has its own: • Code • Set of parameters • Set of local variables Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 8
- 9. Tracing a Recursive Method (continued) • After completing a recursive call – Control goes back to the calling environment – Recursive call must execute completely before control goes back to previous call – Execution in previous call begins from point immediately following recursive call Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 9
- 10. Recursive Definitions • Directly recursive: a method that calls itself • Indirectly recursive: a method that calls another method and eventually results in the original method call • Tail recursive method: recursive method in which the last statement executed is the recursive call • Infinite recursion: the case where every recursive call results in another recursive call Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 10
- 11. Designing Recursive Methods • Understand problem requirements • Determine limiting conditions • Identify base cases Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 11
- 12. Designing Recursive Methods (continued) • Provide direct solution to each base case • Identify general case(s) • Provide solutions to general cases in terms of smaller versions of general cases Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 12
- 13. Recursive Factorial Method public static int fact(int num) { if (num = = 0) return 1; else return num * fact(num – 1); } Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 13
- 14. Recursive Factorial Method (continued) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 14
- 15. Largest Value in Array Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 15
- 16. Largest Value in Array (continued) • • if the size of the list is 1 the largest element in the list is the only element in the list else to find the largest element in list[a]...list[b] a. find the largest element in list[a + 1]...list[b] and call it max b. compare list[a] and max if (list[a] >= max) the largest element in list[a]...list[b] is list[a] else the largest element in list[a]...list[b] is max Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 16
- 17. Largest Value in Array (continued) public static int largest(int[] list, int lowerIndex, int upperIndex) { int max; if (lowerIndex == upperIndex) return list[lowerIndex]; else { max = largest(list, lowerIndex + 1, upperIndex); if (list[lowerIndex] >= max) return list[lowerIndex]; else return max; } } Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 17
- 18. Execution of largest (list, 0, 3) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 18
- 19. Execution of largest (list, 0, 3) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 19
- 20. Recursive Fibonacci Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 20
- 21. Recursive Fibonacci (continued) public static int rFibNum(int a, int b, int n) { if (n == 1) return a; else if (n == 2) return b; else return rFibNum(a, b, n -1) + rFibNum(a, b, n - 2); } Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 21
- 22. Recursive Fibonacci (continued) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 22
- 23. Towers of Hanoi Problem with Three Disks Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 23
- 24. Towers of Hanoi: Three Disk Solution Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 24
- 25. Towers of Hanoi: Three Disk Solution (continued) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 25
- 26. Towers of Hanoi: Recursive Algorithm public static void moveDisks(int count, int needle1, int needle3, int needle2) { if (count > 0) { moveDisks(count - 1, needle1, needle2, needle3); System.out.println("Move disk " + count + " from needle " + needle1 + " to needle " + needle3 + ". "); moveDisks(count - 1, needle2, needle3, needle1); } } Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 26
- 27. Recursion or Iteration? • Two ways to solve particular problem – Iteration – Recursion • Iterative control structures: use looping to repeat a set of statements • Tradeoffs between two options – Sometimes recursive solution is easier – Recursive solution is often slower Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 27
- 28. Programming Example: Decimal to Binary Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 28
- 29. Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 29
- 30. Sierpinski Gaskets of Various Orders Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 30
- 31. Programming Example: Sierpinski Gasket • Input: nonnegative integer indicating level of Sierpinski gasket • Output: triangle shape displaying a Sierpinski gasket of the given order • Solution includes: – Recursive method drawSierpinski – Method to find midpoint of two points Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 31
- 32. Programming Example: Sierpinski Gasket (continued) private void drawSierpinski(Graphics g, int lev, Point p1, Point p2, Point p3) { Point midP1P2; Point midP2P3; Point midP3P1; if (lev > 0) { g.drawLine(p1.x, p1.y, p2.x, p2.y); g.drawLine(p2.x, p2.y, p3.x, p3.y); g.drawLine(p3.x, p3.y, p1.x, p1.y); midP1P2 = midPoint(p1, p2); midP2P3 = midPoint(p2, p3); midP3P1 = midPoint(p3, p1); drawSierpinski(g, lev - 1, p1, midP1P2, midP3P1); drawSierpinski(g, lev - 1, p2, midP2P3, midP1P2); drawSierpinski(g, lev - 1, p3, midP3P1, midP2P3); } } Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 32
- 33. Programming Example: Sierpinski Gasket (continued) Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 33
- 34. Chapter Summary • • • • • Recursive definitions Recursive algorithms Recursive methods Base cases General cases Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 34
- 35. Chapter Summary (continued) • • • • • Tracing recursive methods Designing recursive methods Varieties of recursive methods Recursion vs. iteration Various recursive functions explored Java Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, 5e 35

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