ABOUT PYTHAHORASFull name PythagorasBorn 569 BC , GreeceDied 500 – 475 BC, ItalyReligion Western philosophyEra Ancient PhilosophySchool PythagoreanismMain subject Mathematics ,Ethics ,PoliticsNotable ideas Musical Universalism, Golden ratio, Pythagorean tuning ,Pythagorean theorem
ABOUT PYTHAGORASPythagorasAn Ionian Greek Philosopher, Mathematicianand founder of the religious movementcalled Pythagoreanism. He was born on theisland of Samos. Mnesarchus was the father ofPythagoras & Parthenis was his mother. He hada teacher named Themistoclea, who introducedhim to the principles of ethics. He is oftenrevered as a great Mathematician, Mysticand Scientist.
Mathematics The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). The so-called Pythagoreans, who were the first to take up mathematics, not only advanced this subject, but saturated with it, they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things. Aristotle, Metaphysics 1–5 , cc. 350 BC a2 + b2 = c2.
WritingsNo texts by Pythagoras are known to havesurvived, although forgeries under his name afew of which remain extant did circulate inantiquity. Critical ancient sourceslike Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt onthese writings. Ancient Pythagoreans usuallyquoted their masters doctrines with thephrase autos ephe ("he himself said") emphasizingthe essentially oral nature of his teaching.
TetractysPythagoras was also credited with devisingthe tetractys, the triangular figure of fourrows, which add up to the perfect number, ten.As a mystical symbol, it was very important tothe worship of the Pythagoreans
THE SYMBOLIC APHORISMS OF PYTHAGORAS Declining from the public ways, walk in unfrequented paths. Govern your tongue before all other things, following the gods. The wind blowing, adore the sound. Assist a man in raising a burden; but do not assist him in laying it down. Speak not about Pythagoric concerns without light. Having departed from your house, turn not back, for the furies will be your attendants. Nourish a cock, but sacrifice it not; for it is sacred to the sun and moon. Receive not a swallow into your house. Offer not your right hand easily to anyone.. When rising from the bedclothes, roll them together, and obliterate the impression of the body.
LoreAn extract from Brewers Dictionary of Phraseand Fables entry entitled "Golden Thigh”."Pythagoras is said to have had a goldenthigh, which he showed to Abaris, theHyperborean priest, and exhibited in theOlympic games.”
Pythagoras Believed All things are numbers. Mathematics is the basis for everything, and geometry is the highest form of mathematical studies. The physical world can understood through mathematics. The soul resides in the brain, and is immortal. It moves from one being to another, sometimes from a human into an animal, through a series of reincarnations called transmigration until it becomes pure. Pythagoras believed that both mathematics and music could purify. Numbers have personalities, characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. The world depends upon the interaction of opposites, such as male and female, lightness and darkness, warm and cold, dry and moist, light and heavy, fast and slow. Certain symbols have a mystical significance. All members of the society should observe strict loyalty and secrecy.
Influence on Plato Pythagoras, depicted as a medieval scholar in the NurembergChronicle. Pythagoras, or in a broader sense, thePythagoreans, allegedly exercised an important influence on thework of Plato. Influence on esoteric groups. Pythagoras started asecret society called the Pythagorean brotherhood devoted to thestudy of mathematics. This had a great effect on future esoterictraditions, such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, both of whichwere occult groups dedicated to the study of mathematics and bothof which claimed to have evolved out of the Pythagoreanbrotherhood. The mystical and occult qualities of Pythagoreanmathematics are discussed in a chapter of Manly P. Halls TheSecret Teachings of All Ages entitled "Pythagorean Mathematics".Pythagorean theory was tremendously influential onlater numerology, which was extremely popular throughoutthe Middle East in the ancient world. The 8th-century Muslimalchemist grounded his work in an elaborate numerology greatlyinfluenced by Pythagorean theory.