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People Strategies for Smart Cities

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Smart city outcomes are dependant on effective people and organisation strategies. This presentation outlines the key elements of succe

Smart city outcomes are dependant on effective people and organisation strategies. This presentation outlines the key elements of succe

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  • This research project aims to identify the value that Strategy &Transformation, specifically Organisation & People practitioners and strategies can bring to Smart City engagements.
  • This research project aims to identify the value that Strategy &Transformation, specifically Organisation & People practitioners and strategies can bring to Smart City engagements.
  • There over a billion transistors per human. As sensors become embedded in everything from police records to parking meters, city leaders can analyse the resulting torrent of data, gain new insights, and perhaps find ways to make their cities work better. Advanced analytics to measure and predict are essential for efficient services. HBR, American Cities Need to Get Smarter
  • The Asset Management, Resource Optimisation, People model formed the basis for the 3 pillars of this slide. This model appeared in the 2011 Urban Systems Symposium - The Importance of People, NYC, May 2011 IBMs strategic Smart City focus is on Resource Optimisation and Asset Management. Integrating technology to create Smarter infrastructure within a system of systems. I’m interested in the intersection between the technology, the system of systems and the people. Both those impacted by the transformation, in this case citizens of a city and those within the organisations that are leading the transformation to a Smarter City Vision. As with all new trends, the technology makes the advances, creates the headlines and sets the strategy. My assumption is that as the offering becomes more mature and more ubiquitous, value realisation, failures & lessons learnt will shine a light on the people component. Questions I set myself: What are the distinct challenges in driving transformation in a city compared to an organisation? How does the approach change when the construct of the organisation is removed and social norms and laws become the remaining structure? How do you influence behaviour change when altering the way in which citizens interact with a built urban environment? And rather than driving change from the top as you might in an organisation, how do you enlist the power of the crowd to create the solution and drive the transformation? Are there consistencies in the ways in which a successful cities have embraced the Smart City Vision? These concepts are more peripheral to the immediate and obvious benefits that come from optimising a system of systems. As a result, my challenge has been consumed with exploring the boundaries of the Smart City strategy, IBM’s position, the existing skills and capabilities within the organisation and the S&T Service Areas and Offerings.
  • The Asset Management, Resource Optimisation, People model formed the basis for the 3 pillars of this slide. This model appeared in the 2011 Urban Systems Symposium - The Importance of People, NYC, May 2011 IBMs strategic Smart City focus is on Resource Optimisation and Asset Management. Integrating technology to create Smarter infrastructure within a system of systems. I’m interested in the intersection between the technology, the system of systems and the people. Both those impacted by the transformation, in this case citizens of a city and those within the organisations that are leading the transformation to a Smarter City Vision. As with all new trends, the technology makes the advances, creates the headlines and sets the strategy. My assumption is that as the offering becomes more mature and more ubiquitous, value realisation, failures & lessons learnt will shine a light on the people component. Questions I set myself: What are the distinct challenges in driving transformation in a city compared to an organisation? How does the approach change when the construct of the organisation is removed and social norms and laws become the remaining structure? How do you influence behaviour change when altering the way in which citizens interact with a built urban environment? And rather than driving change from the top as you might in an organisation, how do you enlist the power of the crowd to create the solution and drive the transformation? Are there consistencies in the ways in which a successful cities have embraced the Smart City Vision? These concepts are more peripheral to the immediate and obvious benefits that come from optimising a system of systems. As a result, my challenge has been consumed with exploring the boundaries of the Smart City strategy, IBM’s position, the existing skills and capabilities within the organisation and the S&T Service Areas and Offerings.
  • These challenges and threats to sustainability are not only significant in and of themselves, they are also interrelated Some examples of interrelatedness (communication): Communication -> city services: ICT plays a key part in integrating city services delivery and making services more responsive to citizens Communication  business: A city’s information and communication infrastructure is central to its attractiveness for investment Communication  citizens: ICT has an impact on availability/quality of education (distance learning, easier access to information), public safety (surveillance technologies, etc), health (e-patient, e-health, etc) Communication  transport: highly developed ICT has an impact on transport through real time parking, working from home, helping optimise public transport system, etc Communication  water: highly developed ICT can reduce/control water consumption (water metering technologies, for example) , improve overall quality of a city’s water system/sanitation Communication  energy: highly developed ICT can help reduce/control energy consumption (smart grids, for example), improve overall quality/reliability of city’s energy system
  • Transcript

    • 1. People Strategies for Smart Cities December 2011 Adam Sanford, Strategy and Transformation, ANZ
    • 2. Contents January 25, 2012
      • Executive Summary
      • Smart City Fundamentals
      • Research Objective
      • Research Outcomes
      • Boundaryless organisation creates the catalyst for Smart City
        • Townsville, Australia
        • New York City, USA
        • IBM Smart Planet
        • Port au Prince, Haiti
      • Complex urban transformation necessitates targeted strategies
        • Amsterdam, The Netherlands
        • THINK – Future of Leadership Forum
        • New York, Deputy Mayor Stephen Goldsmith
        • Copenhagen, Denmark
        • Arup Urban Informatics
      • Social business is the operating platform in the Smarter City
        • Surrey, British Columbia
        • Corpus Christi, Texas
        • Fix My Street, UK
        • Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
      • Appendix 1 – Urban Systems Symposium
      • Appendix 2 – Government 2.0
    • 3. Executive Summary
      • Context
      • Smart City is gaining momentum as a core component of the Smart Planet strategy.
      • Analysis of the importance of people in achieving successful Smart City outcomes is less prevalent than system and technology analysis. This research addresses people related Smart City strategies .
      • Research Outcomes
      • The following strategies will support the delivery of successful Smart City transformation across both city citizens and the organisations that serve them:
        • Establish leadership, governance and organisation structures to facilitate collaboration across boundaries and create a catalyst for smart city innovations
        • Target transformation strategies to overcome organisational barriers to change and drive desired behaviour change by city citizens
        • Integrate social business across organisations to create an operational platform that produces value and builds civic engagement
      • There is a strong correlation between the value of these strategies and delivery of Smart Cities outcomes. Strategy & Transformation practitioners must be integrated into Smart City engagements to assess and improve the practical application of these strategies.
      • The main challenge is not how to operate the machine. It´s the barrier of subverting the culture of thinking "within the box", very common in public bureaucracy. Coordinating and working across sectors is not a tradition in Brazil. Neither is exchanging information within the public sector... In the end, it´s not about electronics and software. It´s about creativity and innovation and rethinking the way we manage, which is frequently unplugged. We won't always need the utmost mobile technology or computers. We will always need to think about doing better and being smarter. - Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro.
      January 25, 2012
    • 4. Smart City Fundamentals
      • What is a Smart City?
      • An urban environment that employs information technologies to sense, analyze, integrate, and react intelligently to the activities of the City across utilities and city services, the environment, people, and local industry thereby creating a better place to live, work, and run a business.
      • A compelling case for Smarter Cities is gaining momentum...
      • Digital technologies including broadband fiber optic and wireless telecommunications grids have begun to blanket our cities, forming the backbone of a large intelligent infrastructure
        • There are 9 Billion devices connected to the Internet. By 2020 it will be 24 Billion The Internet of Things: The Opportunity of a Lifetime? The Motley Fool , Oct 2011
      • Open databases that people can read and add to are revealing all kinds of information
        • 104 Australian government agencies have contributed over 800 data sets Data.gov.au
        • This vast amount of data is the starting point for making efficient infrastructure programmable so that a city can optimise its daily processes The Social Nexus, Scientific American, Sept 2011
      • A relentlessly growing network of sensors and digital controlled technologies all tied together by cheap powerful computers
        • Smart City technologies will grow fivefold to exceed $39 Billion in 2016 ABI Research
      • The worlds urban population will double by 2050 when more than 70% of the population will live in cities United Nations News Centre
      January 25, 2012
    • 5. Research Objective January 25, 2012 Asset Management Pipes, Roads, Buildings Resource Optimisation Water, Traffic, Energy Organisation and People The prevalent Smart City model focuses on exploiting the latent value that exists between the connections in a cities system of systems Objective: Test the hypothesis that successful Smart City outcomes are dependant on people related strategies Smart Cities A system of systems
    • 6. Research Outcomes January 25, 2012 A better place for city citizens to live, work, and run a business Asset Management Pipes, Roads, Buildings Resource Optimisation Water, Traffic, Energy Sustainability
      • Boundary-less organisation creates the catalyst for Smart City
      • Complex urban transformation necessitates targeted strategies
      • Social business is the operating platform in the Smarter City
      People related strategies form the platform for successful Smart City outcomes
    • 7. Research Outcomes January 25, 2012
      • Boundary-less organisation creates the catalyst for Smart City
      • Why is boundary-less organisation a catalyst for Smart City?
      • The latent value between systems across cities is often entrenched through a lack of collaboration and structures that reinforce independent silos. Open partnerships create the greatest opportunity to address the latent value that delivers Smart City outcomes
      • Centralised governance structures that have a mandate deliver action in response to meaningful information will generate a need for city level dashboards built upon advanced analytics
      • Open debate that involves members of smart city organisations helps to accurately identify the changes that will transform a city into a better place to live and work. This type of civic engagement creates a sense of shared ownership and transparency that helps to deliver collective behaviour change
      • Pro-active problem solving outside of the boundaries of organisations administering cities draws upon the collective insights of those close to the problem, utilizes unique skills and capabilities and allows for creative thinking that can identify innovative solutions
    • 8. Research Outcomes January 25, 2012
      • Boundary-less organisation creates the catalyst for Smart City
      • What are the characteristics of a boundary-less Smart City organisation?
        • Decision making is built upon shared information, both advanced city wide analytics and individual city citizen contributions Example: Townsville
        • Data sets generated by the organisation are openly available in a format that can be easily utilised and added to by others Example: New York City and ChallengePost
        • Employees are encouraged to engage in and lead debate relating to the challenges that the city faces in readily available public forums Example: IBM - Smart Planet
        • Solutions to key challenges are sought from inside at outside the organisation and are given appropriate rewards that encourage participation Example: Port au Prince
    • 9. CITY STRATEGY CITY GOVERNANCE Products & Services Citizens Businesses Water Communication Energy Transport Education Waste Food Healthcare Biodiversity and Ecology Sustainability Hub Townsville was an IBM Smart City Challenge winner in 2011 with a objective of accelerating sustainability actions. One of the key recommendations from this challenge was the creation of the City Sustainability Hub, an extension of the Office of Sustainability, building a collaboration of public and private organisations and individuals. The hub will link physical activities with the digital world. Resources https://w3-connections.ibm.com/files/app?lang=en_GB#/file/47728ca7-484e-47c3-b79a-a5f2eb0e82fa Townsville, Australia Open Data Social Media Fast Broadband Social Learning Collaboration
    • 10. Crowdsourcing challenges While many government departments have released data sets, New York has aggressively targeted those outside of the organisation to apply their unique skills and translate the data into meaningful and useful applications for citizens and visitors of New York. To motivate developers, data specific challenges are established with financial rewards. This strategy has grown and many US agencies now use external organisations to specifically manage these types of crowdsource challenges, e.g. ChallengePost. January 25, 2012 Resources http://ideas.nycbigapps.com/ http://challengepost.com/ New York City, USA
    • 11. January 25, 2012 Boundaryless organisation leading the debate The ubiquitous nature of social media and the active involvement of IBMers in contributing to thought leadership sees many IBMers actively involved in the Smart Planet debate. As a result IBM generated a set of simple guiding principles for employees engaging in debate relating to these Smart Planet concepts. The table below outlines the transition IBMers are encouraged to follow, creating a set of guiding principles to support the strategy of a boundaryless organisation leading the debate. Resources https://w3-03.sso.ibm.com/sales/support/information/smarter_planet/smartercities/employee-engage.html IBM, Smart Planet We start with the vision. But smarter planet will come to life when IBMers build on the concepts with each other, with our clients and with the world. From To Convincing Conversing Train IBMers to deliver messages Inspire IBMers to be catalysts, connect people to ideas Insights within IBM Great insights everywhere, brought together by IBMers Value provided by IBM New value created through collaboration A campaign A movement
    • 12. January 25, 2012
      • Open Source Mapping
      • Following the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti a lack of accurate maps of the city Port au Prince and the surrounding area created a significant challenge for search and rescue teams. Using open source methodology, volunteers from around the world produced detailed maps from satellite imagery.
      • Pro-active engagement outside of the Port au Prince administration allowed volunteers to:
      • identify an innovative process and contribute unique skills that were unavailable locally
      • collectively solve a problem in order to contribute to the resolution of a humanitarian crises
      Resources http://brainoff.com/weblog/2010/01/14/1518 http://wiki.crisiscommons.org/wiki/OpenStreetMap Port au Prince, Haiti From this To this
    • 13. January 25, 2012
      • Complex urban transformation necessitates targeted strategies
      • Whilst transformational leadership can spark an opportunity within and across organisations, a clearly articulated Vision is required to build a compelling case for change
      • In the complex, political environment of a city, supporting strategies are required to translate a Vision into practical outcomes that deliver tangible, measureable value for the impacted organisations and city citizens
      • While the transformation for the city or the organisation may be positive, individuals may resist the change due to a perceived loss of status, decision making responsibility or control that comes with the transition to an open, boundary-less operating model
      • Fundamental change to the long term behaviour of city citizens and the achievement of strategic outcomes requires specialised strategies to drive transformation. A ‘build it and they will come’ approach will have limited success in driving complex behavioural change
      Why does the delivery of smart city objectives need targeted transformation strategies? Research Outcomes
    • 14. January 25, 2012
      • Complex urban transformation necessitates targeted strategies
      • A clear Vision that accurately depicts the case for change for the city, its citizens and the organisations that support it
        • Example: Amsterdam
      • Leadership and values that supports the open, collaborative, information led culture required of a smart city organisation
      • Thought Leadership: Think
      • Align organisation structure and roles to a boundaryless operating model and analytical based decision making. Address the perceived loss of power for traditional decision makers. Build appropriate skills and provide guiding principles to succeed in the new model Example: New York Deputy Mayor Stephen Goldsmith
      • Timely, accurate feedback and an engaging medium is critical for changing behaviour. Driving these changes across a disparate demographic of city citizens is complex and requires specialised expertise, e.g. urban planning, sociology, anthropology, urban informatics Example: Copenhagen , Arup
      What transformation strategies are appropriate for Smart Cities? Research Outcomes
    • 15. January 25, 2012 Amsterdam, The Netherlands City Project Map Amsterdam created a visual representation of the key projects that will drive its Smarter City Vision - climate sustainability. Its interactive website accurately captures the case for change for the city, with quantifiable targets and progress reports for the city as a whole and for individual projects. The goals and targets of partner organisations are tied back to practical tips and news for the individual, while citizens are encouraged to add to the collective learning. Integrated with Twitter and Facebook. Resources http://www.amserdamsmartcity.com/#/en
    • 16. January 25, 2012 Resources http://www.ibm.com/ibm100/us/en/forum/ http://asmarterplanet.com/blog/category/ibm-centennial/page/2
      • Identified Leadership qualities required for driving Smart City transformation
      • They’re all systems thinkers who can look across complex and interconnected systems and see their way to a solution
      • All are able to build a constituency despite resistance to change and conflicting interests
      • And they all have the ability to cultivate an information-led culture to help solve what sometimes seem like insurmountable challenges
      • A Smarter Planet Blog, September 16, 2011
      Leadership Principles for Smart City Leaders IBM organized THINK: A Forum on the Future of Leadership, a gathering of 700 future leaders representing business, government, science and academia from around the world. The topic: what will it take to navigate the opportunities and threats that emerge over the coming decades? The findings are particularly relevant for Smart City leaders – Facilitating a system thinking model of operation, influence across boundaries and overcoming entrenched barriers to change, to name three. This thought leadership demonstrates the qualities Smart City leaders require are not unique, however the city has the additional challenge of being one of the most complex to navigate politically. Think, Future of Leadership forum
    • 17. January 25, 2012 Resources http://blogs.hbr.org/revitalizing-cities/ http://www.advancedleadership.harvard.edu/ http://www.nyc.gov/html/simplicity/html/home/home.shtml To revitalize America's cities, we must replace the antiquated rules and governing models of the past with new structures that fit our modern needs. And by doing so, we will clear the path for collaborative solutions to our cities' most pressing challenges. In today's world, where public services are increasingly delivered by "networks" of private companies, non-profits, and government officials working together, government must abandon its hierarchical workforce structure and embrace a structure that empowers lower-level employees with the training and discretion that they need to better manage these networked relationships. In New York City, we are working to create a modern governing structure that elevates performance, enhances discretion, employs analytics and defines public value as that produced by multiple sectors working collaboratively. Our NYC Simplicity effort seeks to reorganize government around the needs of residents and businesses and to remove the regulatory barriers that inhibit government innovation. Stephen Goldsmith, Deputy Mayor New York Overcoming antiquated governance models and structures Stephen Goldsmith is the Deputy Mayor of New York City and a former two-term Mayor of Indianapolis. As part of a HBR series exploring the re-invention of the social infrastructure of cities, Stephen discussed the changes to governing models and structures required for successful transformation in cities. New York, Deputy Mayor Stephen Goldsmith
    • 18. January 25, 2012 Copenhagen, Denmark Related Resources http://senseable.mit.edu/copenhagenwheel/urbanData.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=S7y3qIQu3Gc http://senseable.mit.edu/ http://blog.ted.com/2011/05/03/architecture-that-senses-and-responds-carlo-ratti-on-ted-com/ The Copenhagen wheel transforms your bike into a hybrid ebike Developed by MIT, the Copenhagen wheel achieves many different outcomes. You can use your phone to unlock and lock your bike, change gears and select how much the motor assists you. As you cycle, the wheel’s sensing unit is also capturing your effort level and information about your surroundings, including road conditions, carbon monoxide, NOx, noise, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Access this data through your phone or the web. You can also share your data with friends, or with your city – anonymously if you wish – thereby contributing to a fine-grained database of environmental information from which we can all benefit.
    • 19. January 25, 2012 Resources http://www.arup.com/Publications/Smart_Cities.aspx Arup Urban Informatics Timely, accurate feedback is critical for generating momentum and changing behaviour. Replicating this change across a disparate demographic of city citizens is complex and requires specialised expertise. Arup’s Urban Informatics is a great example of expertise that can translate data into engaging visualisations. ‘ Arup can design urban interfaces that help visualise real-time feedback loops of urban activity. These can be engaging design-led installations at a civic or neighbourhood scale, behavioural-change strategies, or functional web services for citizens and city officials, making visible the invisible patterns of activity in the city. Informatics provides the public interface onto the smart city’
    • 20. January 25, 2012
      • Social business is the operating platform in the Smarter City
      • Cities need to understand the specific needs of its citizens and businesses in order to develop appropriate Smart City strategies. Social business is a cost effective and inclusive mechanism for doing so
        • Example: Surrey
      • Data generated through social media platforms must be analysed to produce information that is then used to structure the day to day priorities of operational departments across the cities organisations Example: Corpus Christi , Fix My Street
      • Collaborative learning through crowd sourcing, voluntary participation and public challenges can sustain Smarter Cities, particularly where resources are limited
        • Example: Dar Es Salaam
      Social business in a Smart City context relates to the utilisation and integration of social media technologies. How does social business support Smart City transformations? Research Outcomes
    • 21. January 25, 2012 GIS Open Data Hackathon The Surrey local government led a forum that encouraged the community to identify useful ways to utilise publicly available data. The outcome of the hackathon identified the need for an application that can inform residents directly if a development application is made in their neighbourhood. Integrating development notices into technology has implications for the operational processes of the planning department and the mechanisms for local engagement and approval. Civic engagement in the development and planning process can be expected to increase through this transformation. Maintaining this strong civic engagement and realising the value that this model creates requires the local government to become more interactive and respond in a timely manner with accurate meaningful information. Resources http://www.thenownewspaper.com/Development+notification+more+coming+Surrey+residents/5761580/story.html http://gov20.govfresh.com/international-open-data-hackathon-on-december-3-2011/ http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/658.aspx Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
    • 22. January 25, 2012 It’s the wild west of civic engagement, and the playing field is being leveled with a perfect storm of pervasive broadband, mature GIS, web services, and social media, plus all the open APIs and data sets that are now available. On top of that you add mobility, which is not only a new channel, but a new group of users. Nielsen data indicates that low income and minorities are twice as likely to engage via mobile phone vs. desktop ISP Opening up avenues to participation is crucial for governments to adapt both new technology and the budget crisis. Leveraging technology is not just a nice or ‘cool’ thing to do - it’s critical if governments are going to cut costs while still providing core services. K urt Daradics, Co-founder - City Sourced
      • Civic engagement and issue resolution using social media technologies
      • Corpus Christi leverages the city sourced platform to identify and resolve local issues. With the growth in sensors, there is tremendous opportunity for an internet of things to combine:
      • real time community captured data - as seen in Corpus Christi
      • independent sensor data
      • Internally generated government data sets such as crime or pollution levels
      • This rich combination of data allows for advanced analytics to create real insight - the heart of the Smart City Vision. Organisational responses must address the issues captured to maintain this valuable civic engagement.
      Corpus Christi, Texas Resources http://www.citysourced.com/default.aspx http://youtu.be/Jkz_PNW0IaE
    • 23. January 25, 2012 Civic engagement and issue resolution using social media technologies Fix My Street launched in the UK in 2007, was one of the early attempts to use civic engagement to identify issues that local governments could then address and fix. A simple model of encourage citizens to identify a problem such a pot hole or a street light that needs replacing and then using this information to inform the work of local maintenance teams. Critical to success is the ability for the information to be integrated, prioritised and acted upon in, with the actions fed back through the same social media network that it was identified through. Fix My Street, UK Resources http://www.fixmystreet.com/
    • 24. January 25, 2012 Resources http://www.agi.org.uk/storage/GeoCommunity/AGI2011/Papers/MarkIliffePaper.pdf The Kenyan government is making datasets available on education, energy, health, population, poverty, water and sanitation along with public expenditure. http:// opendata.go.ke
      • Mapping of Infrastructure and Services
      • Services, including sanitation, waste management and water were mapped using open source GIS technologies through citizen engagement, raising awareness to NGOs and governments of the challenges faced daily by people living in the slums of Dar Es Salaam. As a rapidly growing urban environment, where services are provided by private organisations, data on services is often out of date.
      • Producing the mapping process was owned by the community which helped to:
        • Identified local problems and leveraged familiarity with the local geography
        • Build transparency and education on the capacity and limitations of government
      Tandale, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
    • 25. January 25, 2012 Appendix 1 - Urban Systems Symposium The Importance of People - The Ultimate Sensing & Actuation System The Urban Systems symposium was held in New York in May 2011. ‘The importance of people’ session addressed the following question: To what extent are theories of sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, and other soft sciences able to be accounted for in the modelling, design, and operation of cities? A view of cities shown below presents people as a 3 rd component in the creation of an effective system of systems.
    • 26. January 25, 2012 Appendix 1 - Urban Systems Symposium Resources http://urbansystemssymposium.org/ http://urbansystemssymposium.org/2011/the-importance-of-people/ A people centric view of cities outlines the complexity of relationships, networks and motivators that must be considered when influencing behaviour in an urban environment.
    • 27. January 25, 2012 Resources http://data.gov http://data.gov.au/ - http://www.finance.gov.au/publications/gov20taskforcereport/index.html http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html Appendix 2: Government 2.0 Getting on with Government 2.0 The synopsis of the government 2.0 taskforce outcomes captured below mirrors the strategies recommended in this research. The taskforce concluded in December 2009. Below is the summary of the datasets now available from Australian government agencies.
      • ‘ Engage’ distills in one word the key theme of Government 2.0:
      • Public agencies and public servants should engage more using the tools and capabilities of ‘collaborative web’ or Web 2.0.
      • Once public sector information is liberated as a key national asset, possibilities are unlocked through the invention, creativity and hard work of citizens, business and community organisations.
      • To seize the opportunities of Government 2.0, the existing public service culture of hierarchical control and direction must change sufficiently to encourage and reward engagement. Yet it must at the same time, stay true to enduring public service values of impartiality, propriety and professionalism.