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  1. 1. Prisoners Of War Done by: Hot Guys
  2. 2. War Time Regulations? Efforts to moderate the behavior of soldiers are as old as recorded history itself. In the sixth century BC, the Chinese general and military strategist Sun Tzu suggested specific restrictions on military conduct, while in 1625, the Dutch theorist Hugo Grotius called for civilian protections in "On the Law of War and Peace." Throughout the history of warfare, agreements on the rules of war were defined by custom or negotiated between generals prior to battle, but did not extend widely beyond the conflict in question. The modern Geneva Conventions were adopted in 1949, in the aftermath of World War II, and expanded their focus to include civilians for the first time, in an attempt to prevent another outbreak of the "total war" which had wreaked havoc on civilian populations.
  3. 3. Overview Geneva Conventions: establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of war (1894) Updated over the years as nature of armed conflicts changed with the beginning of the Cold War era Modern armed conflicts: inflicted more civilians--> a need to provide civilian persons with protection in time of combat→ resulted in update to the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
  4. 4. Geneva Conventions Came about when Henry Dunant visited wounded soldiers after the Battle of Solferino and was shocked by the lack of facilities, personnel, and medical aid needed to help these soldiers. He proposed in his book,Memoir of the Solferino, in 1862, on the horrors of war: ● A permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war-->led to the establishment of the Red Cross in Geneva. ● A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zone-->led to the 1864 Geneva Convention, the first codified international treaty that covered the sick and wounded soldiers in the battlefield. For both of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant became co-recipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.
  5. 5. Enforcements The final international tribunal for all issues related to the Geneva Conventions and other treaties is the United Nations Security Council-->rarely invoked. Most issues are resolved by regional treaties or by national law. The most serious crimes are termed grave breaches and provide a legal definition of a war crime. Nations who are party to these treaties must enact and enforce legislation penalizing any of these crimes. They are also obligated to search for persons alleged to commit these crimes, or ordered them to be committed, and to bring them to trial regardless of their nationality and regardless of the place where the crimes took place.
  6. 6. Evaluation of Decisions ● Syria: Divide between anti-Assad rebels and Assad’s remaining government ● Germany & Italy: Classist, Non-westerners treated differently. ● Human nature to be biased towards one’s own people. ○ Ethical behaviour is not their main concern
  7. 7. Analysis ● Countless meaningless deaths ● Tension between groups of people involved - oppressed and oppressors ● Bilateral relations between countries are strained Continuation → Man is selfish
  8. 8. Questions To Ponder Over ● Why do people still neglect rules pertaining to the treatment of POWs although they are established (e.g. Geneva Conventions)? ● What good does an established guideline serve if it is not respected? ● Are we as human beings stuck in this never-ending cycle of disrespecting the members in our collective human race? Is there some way to change circumstances?
  9. 9. Personal Views - Chris In fact, it is quite relevant to today: civil wars in Syria-->Red Cross declared it a “non-international armed conflict”-->Meaning that the violence since early 2011 has crossed a legal threshold, thus combatants are subject to the Geneva Conventions and can be prosecuted for war crimes.--> still inaction 2002: USA→ violated the convention. According to Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, the Taliban and al Qaeda fighters currently being held captive at the United States Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, are not prisoners of war, but "unlawful combatants." An unlawful combatant is a fighter who does not play by the accepted rules of war, and therefore does not qualify for the Convention's protections. Prisoners were hooded and shackled during the 27-hour flight. The U.S. demanded that media not show photographs of the prisoners in these conditions, explaining, without apparent irony at the inconsistency, that the photos would deprive the prisoners of their rights under the Geneva Convention. Is the Geneva Convention or any war regulation simply morals on paper, to seemly establish and enforce human rights in war situations?
  10. 10. Personal View - Zac
  11. 11. Personal Views - Ade ● Ethical issues are not their top concern. ● In Germany, same culture, more empathetic towards them. ● For Syria, no shared beliefs
  12. 12. Personal Views - Jawn listen to Jean talk hooray
  13. 13. Thank You For your kindest attention