GOVERNMENT AT A
GLANCE 2013
OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development
Government at a Glance
• Biennial publication: 2009, 2011 & 2013

• 50 indicators covering the entire
“production chain” o...
Government at a Glance framework (2013)
Contextual information: political; legal/administrative; cultural; socio-economic,...
Publication objectives
1. Provide reliable internationally comparative data on government
activities and their results in ...
Sources of data
Governance Directorate

Other OECD Directorates

ECO,STI, STD,
EDU, ELS, CTP,
EDU

Budgeting and
Public
Ex...
Methodological principles and production
cycle
Accuracy
•
Data collected from subject-matter experts in OECD Working
Group...
Typology of indicators
Policy areas covered
Core indicators

Periodic indicators

Special features

Re-occurring data for ...
Challenges
•

Accuracy/reliability of qualitative /perception data;

•

Measuring rules vs. “reality” (e.g. practice);

•
...
Government matters …
General government expenditure as a percentage of GDP (2009 & 2011)
%
of GDP

2011

2009

70
60
50
40...
At what level of government is the money
spent?
Distribution of general government expenditures across levels of
governmen...
What is the money spent on?
Structure of general government expenditures by function (2011)
% of total government expendit...
How are government goods and services
produced?
Production costs as a percentage of GDP (2011)
%
of GDP
35

Consumption of...
How large is public procurement?
General government procurement
as a share of total general government expenditures (2011)...
Government as a significant employer
Employment in general government as a percentage of the labour force (2001 & 2011)
20...
At what level of government do people
work?
Distribution of general government employment across levels of
government (201...
Compensation of employees in central/
federal governments: theoretical framework
Components of the total compensation for ...
Pay relativities in central government
across OECD
Average annual compensation for selected central government positions,
...
What are the key outcomes?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Trust in government
Fairness
Serving citizens
Fiscal sustainability
Efficiency
E...
Governments are losing trust
Confidence in national government in 2012 and its change since 2007
Percentage
points

% in 2...
Trust reflects leadership
Correlation between confidence in national government and leadership of the country (2012)
Appro...
Be aware of corruption
Correlation between confidence in national government and perception of
government corruption (2012...
Government reduces income inequalities
Differences in income inequality pre- and post- tax and government transfers (2010)...
Does government reduce gender
inequalities in employment?
Share of central government employment by occupation groups fill...
Women in politics
Share of women parliamentarians and legislated gender quotas (2012 and 2002)
%

2012

2002

50
45
40
35
...
Serving citizens
The service quality framework
Access

Responsiveness

Reliability

Satisfaction

Affordability

Timelines...
Serving citizens: Timeliness
Processing time of personal tax returns where a tax refund is expected (2011)
Days
100

Paper...
Citizens increasingly use the Internet to
interact with public authorities
Citizens using the Internet to interact with pu...
Citizens are satisfied with public
services
Confidence and satisfaction across government institutions (2012)

Source: Gal...
Fiscal sustainability
Total consolidation requirements between 2012 and 2030
in order to reduce government gross financial...
Public sector efficiency: example of tax
administrations
Cost of collection ratios (administrative costs/net revenue colle...
Cost effectiveness: why is worthwhile to
invest in education?

Public net present value for a male obtaining upper or post...
Accountability and Transparency
Budgeting practices
• Performance
budgeting
• Medium term
expenditure
framework (MTEF)
• B...
Performance Budgeting
Use of performance budgeting practices at the central level of government (2011)
Composite index
0.7...
Budget Transparency
Use of citizens budgets in OECD countries (2012)

Countries without
citizens' budgets
(18)

United Kin...
Use of a medium term perspective in
the budget
Use of a medium term perspective in the budget
process (2011)
1.00
0.90
0.8...
Almost half of OECD countries have
Independent Fiscal Institutions (IFI)
Existence of Independent Fiscal Institutions (201...
Tools for promoting transparency are
unevenly applied
HIGH LEVEL

Level of disclosure of private interests and public avai...
Governments are increasingly sharing
their data
Number of datasets in centralised "one-stop shop" open government data por...
Other G@G products
Country fact sheets:
• Individual country data in relation to OECD average
• Selection of 22 indicators
Regional Government at a Glance
Latin American Government at a Glance
• To be launched in June 2014
• 32 indicators:

-Pub...
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OECD Government at a Glance 2013

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  1. 1. GOVERNMENT AT A GLANCE 2013 OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development
  2. 2. Government at a Glance • Biennial publication: 2009, 2011 & 2013 • 50 indicators covering the entire “production chain” of government activity • Includes all 34 member countries & partners & observers • What is new in 2013: – Strategic outcomes – Quality of services from a citizen perspective • www.oecd.org/gov/govataglance.htm
  3. 3. Government at a Glance framework (2013) Contextual information: political; legal/administrative; cultural; socio-economic, etc. Inputs Processes Outputs Outcomes • Revenues • Expenditures • Public employment & compensation • Budgeting • Open Government • Public procurement • Education • Health • Justice • Rule of law • Fiscal sustainability • Trust in govt. Institutions • Fairness women • Service quality Capacity Efficiency/value for money Effectiveness
  4. 4. Publication objectives 1. Provide reliable internationally comparative data on government activities and their results in OECD member countries and beyond ; 2. Evaluate …how pubic management practices evolve over time, how countries’ compare with each other; 3. Promote...dialogue and exchange between countries; 4. Orient...reforms and their implementation; 5. Identify …best practices and innovations that can be shared. 4
  5. 5. Sources of data Governance Directorate Other OECD Directorates ECO,STI, STD, EDU, ELS, CTP, EDU Budgeting and Public Expenditures External sources: Eurostat ILO UN WJP IMF Regulatory Policy Governance Reviews and Partnerships Reform of the Public Sec tor Regional Development Regional Policies for Sustainable Development
  6. 6. Methodological principles and production cycle Accuracy • Data collected from subject-matter experts in OECD Working Groups; reviewed also by PGC delegates. • Whenever possible, responses verified with other external/additional sources; Transparency • All data available to the public for verification/review; • All drafts reviewed by countries prior to publication; • Indicators selected in consensus with countries and Steering Group; Representativeness • No “super composites”; • Sensitivity analyses on Conflict of interests and Budget composites. Surveys drafted & piloted Data collection from govt. officials Data cleaning by OECD in coll. with govts. Data verified by Working Groups & Committees Drafting & Publication
  7. 7. Typology of indicators Policy areas covered Core indicators Periodic indicators Special features Re-occurring data for time series analysis Alternate in editions Timely/topical data and issue-areas • Public finance & economics • Conflict of interests • Public employment • Performance in selected sectors • Budget practices & procedures • Regulatory governance • Open government • HRM practices • • Serving Citizens: Accessibility and quality of public services Central Government ICT spending
  8. 8. Challenges • Accuracy/reliability of qualitative /perception data; • Measuring rules vs. “reality” (e.g. practice); • Often limited to central/federal level of government; • Comparability– institutional differences across countries; • Measurement of outputs and outcomes still complicated (education and health sectors most advanced);
  9. 9. Government matters … General government expenditure as a percentage of GDP (2009 & 2011) % of GDP 2011 2009 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: OECD National Accounts Statistics (database). Data for the Other major economies (excluding the Russian Federation) are from the IMF Economic Outlook (April 2013).
  10. 10. At what level of government is the money spent? Distribution of general government expenditures across levels of government (2001 and 2011) % Central government State government Local government Social security 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 0 NZL IRL GBR ISR EST NOR TUR AUS PRT CZE USA ISL GRC SVN HUN LUX SVK KOR SWE AUT MEX POL JPN FRA DNK ITA NLD FIN CAN BEL ESP DEU CHE OECD Source: OECD National Accounts Statistics (database)
  11. 11. What is the money spent on? Structure of general government expenditures by function (2011) % of total government expenditure Source: OECD National Accounts
  12. 12. How are government goods and services produced? Production costs as a percentage of GDP (2011) % of GDP 35 Consumption of fixed capital Costs of goods and services used and financed by general government Compensation of general government employees 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: OECD National Accounts Statistics (database).
  13. 13. How large is public procurement? General government procurement as a share of total general government expenditures (2011) 50 45 % of general government expenditures 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: OECD National Accounts Statistics (database).
  14. 14. Government as a significant employer Employment in general government as a percentage of the labour force (2001 & 2011) 2011 2001 35 % of the labour force 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Sources: International Labour Organization (ILO) LABORSTA (database); OECD Labour Force Statistics (database). Data for Korea were provided by government officials.
  15. 15. At what level of government do people work? Distribution of general government employment across levels of government (2011) Central Sub-central Social security Ireland Turkey New Zealand Greece Israel Luxembourg Portugal Slovenia Italy Estonia Czech Republic France Norway Hungary Mexico Denmark Netherlands Finland Spain Sweden Belgium Japan United States Canada Germany Switzerland South Africa Russian Federation Brazil 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), LABORSTA database 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
  16. 16. Compensation of employees in central/ federal governments: theoretical framework Components of the total compensation for the public servants Working time correction Employers’ social contributions Gross wages and salaries Source: 2011 OECD Compensation Survey
  17. 17. Pay relativities in central government across OECD Average annual compensation for selected central government positions, OECD average (2011) 300 000 Wages and salaries 250 000 Social contributions 30990 2011 USD PPP 200 000 Working time correction 36129 150 000 16917 100 000 X 4.7 21240 14463 14431 162726 50 000 Average earnings of university graduates 86547 57535 8505 8286 32278 0 Senior manager (D1) Middle manager (D3) Senior professionals Secretaries OECD Source: Government at a Glance 2013; 2012 OECD Compensation Survey
  18. 18. What are the key outcomes? • • • • • • • Trust in government Fairness Serving citizens Fiscal sustainability Efficiency Effectiveness Accountability and Transparency
  19. 19. Governments are losing trust Confidence in national government in 2012 and its change since 2007 Percentage points % in 2012 (right axis) Percentage point change 2007-2012 (left axis) % 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 -10 -10 -20 -20 -30 -30 -40 -40 Source: Gallup World Poll
  20. 20. Trust reflects leadership Correlation between confidence in national government and leadership of the country (2012) Approval of country leadership, % 100 90 R² = 0.89 CHE 80 LUX 70 DNK 60 CAN OECD 50 JPN 30 20 GRC 10 CZE AUT ISR ITA ESP SVN USA KOR POL SVK PRT CHL IRL ISL MEX EST HUN GBR FRA AUS NZL NOR SWE DEU BEL 40 FIN NLD TUR 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Confidence in national government, % Source: Gallup World Poll.
  21. 21. Be aware of corruption Correlation between confidence in national government and perception of government corruption (2012) Perception of government corruption, % 100 CZE GRC 90 PRT 80 ITA SVN POL ISL 70 JPN 60 ISR KOR HUN EST R² = 0.80 ESP CHL MEX 50 USA SVK AUT BEL IRL OECD DEU TUR FRA CAN GBR 40 30 NLD AUS FIN NOR NZL 20 DNK 10 60 CHE SWE 50 LUX 0 0 10 20 30 40 70 80 90 100 Confidence in national government, % Source: Gallup World Poll.
  22. 22. Government reduces income inequalities Differences in income inequality pre- and post- tax and government transfers (2010) Gini coefficient 0.7 After taxes and transfers 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Source: OECD Income Distribution Database. Before taxes and transfers
  23. 23. Does government reduce gender inequalities in employment? Share of central government employment by occupation groups filled by women (2010) % Secretarial Positions Professionals 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: OECD 2011 Survey on Gender in Public Employment. Middle Management Top Management
  24. 24. Women in politics Share of women parliamentarians and legislated gender quotas (2012 and 2002) % 2012 2002 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) PARLINE (database), and IDEA Quota Project (database).
  25. 25. Serving citizens The service quality framework Access Responsiveness Reliability Satisfaction Affordability Timeliness Accuracy / Competence / Customer rights Reported satisfaction (perception) Geographic proximity “Match” of service to needs Tangibles function (facilities, machines, etc.) Reported confidence / Trust (perception) Adaptations for those with disabilities Customer service (courtesy and treatment) Consistency / Fairness Adaptations to different cultures (e.g. Languages, etc.). Integrated services (across delivery channels) Security (confidentiality, safety) Access to electronic services (digital divide) • Availability and quality of data • In consultation with other Directorates
  26. 26. Serving citizens: Timeliness Processing time of personal tax returns where a tax refund is expected (2011) Days 100 Paper returns e-filed returns 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: OECD (2013), Tax Administration 2013: Comparative Information on OECD and other Advanced and Emerging Economies.
  27. 27. Citizens increasingly use the Internet to interact with public authorities Citizens using the Internet to interact with public authorities by type of activity (2012) % 100 Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: OECD ICT Database, and Eurostat Information Society Statistics (database). Sending filled forms (last 12 months)
  28. 28. Citizens are satisfied with public services Confidence and satisfaction across government institutions (2012) Source: Gallup World Poll
  29. 29. Fiscal sustainability Total consolidation requirements between 2012 and 2030 in order to reduce government gross financial liabilities to 60% of GDP Required change in the underlying primary balance, as a % of potential GDP 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Source: OECD calculations; OECD (2013), “OECD Economic Outlook No. 93”, OECD Economic Outlook: Statistics and Projections (database), May 2013.
  30. 30. Public sector efficiency: example of tax administrations Cost of collection ratios (administrative costs/net revenue collection) (2008 & 2011) % 2011 2008 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Source: OECD (2013), Tax Administration 2013: Comparative Information on OECD and other Advanced and Emerging Economies.
  31. 31. Cost effectiveness: why is worthwhile to invest in education? Public net present value for a male obtaining upper or post-secondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education (2009 or latest available year) OECD average Tertiary education Total Benefits 144 226 Total Costs 39 489 Upper or post-secondary nontertiary education Net present value 104 737 Total Benefits 65 994 Total Costs 28 010 Net present value 37 984 0 20 000 40 000 Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2012. See Annex 3 for notes 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 160 000 In equivalent USD converted using PPPs for GDP
  32. 32. Accountability and Transparency Budgeting practices • Performance budgeting • Medium term expenditure framework (MTEF) • Budget Transparency • Independent Fiscal Institutions (IFIs) Open Government • Conflict of interests • Open data
  33. 33. Performance Budgeting Use of performance budgeting practices at the central level of government (2011) Composite index 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Source: OECD 2011 Survey on Performance Budgeting.
  34. 34. Budget Transparency Use of citizens budgets in OECD countries (2012) Countries without citizens' budgets (18) United Kingdom Countries with citizens' budgets (16) Source: 2012 OECD Survey on Budgeting Practices and Procedures
  35. 35. Use of a medium term perspective in the budget Use of a medium term perspective in the budget process (2011) 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 Source: OECD 2011 Survey on Performance Budgeting
  36. 36. Almost half of OECD countries have Independent Fiscal Institutions (IFI) Existence of Independent Fiscal Institutions (2013) Countries with IFI (16) Source: OECD (2013 forthcoming), Principles for Independent Fiscal Institutions and Country Notes. Countries without IFI (17)
  37. 37. Tools for promoting transparency are unevenly applied HIGH LEVEL Level of disclosure of private interests and public availability of information (2012) 100 90 80 MEDIUM LLEVEL 70 60 50 40 30 20 LOW LEVEL 10 0 Source: 2012 OECD Survey on Managing Conflict of Interest
  38. 38. Governments are increasingly sharing their data Number of datasets in centralised "one-stop shop" open government data portal (2013) Number of datasets 10 000 188 921 9 782 8 000 6 000 4 385 4 000 3 783 3 317 2 323 2 000 1 948 0 Source: 2013 OECD Survey on Open Government Data. 1 338 944 849 694 568 540 486 347 185 119 359
  39. 39. Other G@G products Country fact sheets: • Individual country data in relation to OECD average • Selection of 22 indicators
  40. 40. Regional Government at a Glance Latin American Government at a Glance • To be launched in June 2014 • 32 indicators: -Public Finance and Economics -Public Employment and Pay - Budgeting Practices and Procedures - Public Procurement • 2 special features: Non-renewable resources as a source of revenues Sustainable Procurement
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