Essay Writing Stephen Toulmin's Persuasive argument
Claim Claim - a statement that you want the other person to accept. E.g.: You should use a hearing aid. Claim can be challenged. You need to prove it. This is where grounds become important.
Grounds Grounds is the basis of persuasion Made up of data and hard facts , plus the reasoning behind the claim. It is critical that the grounds are not challenged. Otherwise, they may become a claim , which will need further proof, extra information and argument. E.g.: Over 70% of all people over 65 years have a hearing difficulty.
Grounds Data influences different people differently: Some are persuaded by factual data Those who argue emotionally may challenge or ignore it Others may require more explanation This is where the warrant comes
Warrant Warrant links grounds to a claim, legitimizing it by showing that data are relevant. E.g.: A hearing aid helps most people to hear better. It may be explicit or implicit (unstated), simple or a longer one, based on logic, emotion or values
Support Backing gives additional support to the warrant by answering different questions. E.g.: Hearing aids are available locally. Qualifier – another support to the data and warrant. They include words such as 'most', 'usually', 'always' or 'sometimes'. E.g.: Hearing aids help most people.
Support Reservation allows that the claim may be incorrect: Unless there is evidence to the contrary, hearing aids do no harm to ears . Qualifiers and reservations are much used by advertisers who are constrained not to lie.
Rebuttal Rebuttal – fighting counter-arguments with pre-empting the counter-argument: There is a support desk that deals with technical problems . Any rebuttal is an argument in itself, and thus may include a claim, warrant, backing etc. It also, of course, can have a rebuttal. Thus you should seek both possible rebuttals and also rebuttals to the rebuttals. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/making_argument/toulmin.htm