Report Writing


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  • Report Writing

    1. 1. Report and Essay/Thesis Writing Adam Heatherington and Janet Wood
    2. 2. for Essays
    3. 4. Appetizing Introduction
    4. 5. Body of Your Essay Thesis Conclusion 3 Paragraphs 1) Topic Sentence 2) Fact to prove topic 3) Fact 4) Fact 5) Analysis/ Transition <ul><li>A Broad Statement on the Topic Question </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis: The Position you want to PROVE </li></ul><ul><li>The Organization Statement – 3 Points you want to prove that make up the ESSAY BODY </li></ul><ul><li>Restate your thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Recap your points </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis/Conclusion </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Cute </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Vague narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Meant as filler when you don’t know what to say! </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>To this day, I’m glad this was established because who knows where we’d be without those brave men and women fighting for our united country! </li></ul>FLUFF!!!
    7. 8. <ul><li>This changed when the Articles of Confederation came to the rescue!” </li></ul>FLUFF!!!
    8. 9. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent was the United State Constitution a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation? </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>The United States constitution was a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation after the American Revolution. The Articles of Confederation tried to protect Americans from the issues with Britain. As this attempt for protection was issued, it became clear that America had become strong enough to go on without the Articles of Confederation. This led to the creation of the Constitutional convention and the creation of the Constitution was issued. </li></ul>FLUFF!!!
    10. 11. <ul><li>The United States Constitution was a very radical departure from the Articles of Confederation. The United States Constitution formed almost a completely new view on the way the states would be united. One major difference was in taxation and control of money. A second large change in the government was the emphasis on the strength of a central power. This was in contrast to the states’ power over the federal government. A final drastic change, was in the way the governing body was set up. The new government under the Constitution was a very different government than had been seen under the Articles of Confederation. </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>“ Thomas Jefferson and George Washington have been two of our greatest leaders. Besides being two of the top presidents to ever hold office, they have had other accomplishments that has led our country to outstanding heights. In order to obtain a stable governments, leaders like Thomas Jefferson and George Washington have done remarkable contributions in order to help our nation after the adoption of the constitution. ” </li></ul>FLUFF!!!
    13. 14. <ul><li>“ Many presidents and governors tried to establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson's eras or terms, illustrated that a stable government is needed in order to establish a free-standing government after the adoption of a Constitution. George Washington contributed the idea of neutrality, enforcement of federal law by summoning state militias, thus illustrated in the Whiskey Rebellion and the support of Hamilton’s national bank. These entities illustrated Washington’s contribution to help establish a stable government… </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>“… Thomas Jefferson illustrated his contributions by the purchasing of the Louisiana Purchase, the War of Tripoli (Barbary Pirates) and his belief of a strict interpretation of the Constitution. His contributions also showed us his belief of establishing a stable government. </li></ul>
    15. 16. FLUFF!!!
    16. 17. for Essays
    17. 19. Take Time Now To Save Time Later!
    18. 20. <ul><li>An outline is a part of the writing process called “Pre-Writing.” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a list that outlines all of the information that you would like to include in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The list helps you to put all of your information in order before you begin writing. </li></ul>It is the best way to get your mind UNJUMBLED when writing any major paper!
    19. 21. <ul><li>An Outline Organizes The Major Parts Of Your Essay: </li></ul><ul><li>Your Thesis Statement-The sentence that tells your reader your ultimate point and what they should expect. </li></ul><ul><li>You Major Points-The facts that you are using to prove your main point. </li></ul><ul><li>Your Supporting Details-The examples, facts, quotations, etc. that further explain and back up each major point. You should have several for each Major Point. </li></ul><ul><li>Your Transitions-The statement or information you will use to transition form one major point to the next. This stops your paper from sounding jumpy or disorganized. </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Thoughts-Any thoughts that you would like to include at the close of your paper to wrap things up and tie it all together. NEVER INCLUDE NEW FACTS OR INFORMATION IN YOUR CONCLUSION! </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>It will help you organize all of the ideas running around your brain! </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>It will allow you to find any gaps in your research or ideas early enough to fix them. </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>It will make writing you essay less stressful because you will KNOW what you have to work with. </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Professors are often willing to look over an outline for you to make sure that you are on the right track! </li></ul>{Click Mouse to Continue}
    24. 26. No! <ul><li>You can organize your outline any way that you would like. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Number or Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Use signs or simple pictures (- * √ ◊ ●) </li></ul><ul><li>You can even do it on the computer and use the bullet function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE : If you do your outline on the computer, you can use it as the basis for your essay. Just remove the bullets when you are ready and edit what you have already typed!! </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>Gather all of your research or notes on the topic that you are writing about. </li></ul><ul><li>Review it all and decide what your research/information is telling you about your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a working thesis statement that describes the point that you want to make about your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to select what information you would like to include in your essay based on what proves your point. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Start Writing Your Outline!
    27. 29. An Outline Organizes Your Information Into 3 major parts in Preparation For Your Paper: Your Introduction Your Body Paragraphs Your Conclusion {Click Mouse to Continue}
    28. 30. The Same Information That Should Be In Your Essay’s Introductory Paragraph Thesis Statement Your 1 st Major Point Your 2 nd Major Point Your 3 rd Major Point {Click Mouse to Continue}
    29. 31. The Body Section Outlines The Following Information On Each Of Your Major Points: {Click Mouse to Continue} Major point 3-5 Supporting Details Transition relating it back to your thesis
    30. 32. Your Conclusion Section Does The Following: NOTE: You do not have to rewrite the thesis or major points in your outline if you do not choose to, but they should be in your essay’s conclusion! {Click Mouse to Continue} Restates your thesis statement Adds any final thoughts Reestablishes your major points
    31. 33. <ul><li>Thesis Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st major point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd major point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd major point (etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st major point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting details (3-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd major point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting details (3-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd major point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting details (3-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concluding Thoughts </li></ul>Your Final Outline Should Look Something Like This: {Click Mouse to Continue}
    32. 34. A presentation brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab Purdue University Writing Lab
    33. 35. <ul><li>An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    34. 36. <ul><li>Guides an audience through your reasoning process </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a clear explanation of each argued point </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the credibility of the writer </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    35. 37. <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesis statement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body Paragraphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing Topic Sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Main Points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countering the Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    36. 38. <ul><li>Introduces the topic of discussion to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Generates reader interest in the argument </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    37. 39. <ul><li>Try to grab attention by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offering a provocative image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>picking up on words or examples offered in the body or conclusion of the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asking a question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid titles that are too general or lack character </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    38. 40. <ul><li>Imagine you just wrote a paper offering solutions to the problem of road rage. Which do you consider to be the best title? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road Rage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t Drive 55 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road Rage: Curing Our Highway Epidemic </li></ul></ul></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    39. 41. <ul><li>Acquaints the reader with the topic and purpose of the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Generates the audience’s interest in the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a plan for the ensuing argument </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    40. 42. <ul><li>personal story </li></ul><ul><li>example-real or hypothetical </li></ul><ul><li>question </li></ul><ul><li>quotation </li></ul><ul><li>shocking statistics </li></ul><ul><li>striking image </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    41. 43. <ul><li>The MOST IMPORTANT SENTENCE in your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Lets the reader know the main idea of the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the question: “What am I trying to prove?” </li></ul><ul><li>Not a factual statement, but a claim that has to be proven throughout the paper </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    42. 44. <ul><li>The thesis statement should guide your reader through your argument. </li></ul><ul><li>The thesis statement is generally located in the introduction of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>A thesis statement may also be located within the body of the paper or in the conclusion, depending upon the purpose or argument of the paper. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    43. 45. <ul><li>Parents, often too busy to watch television shows with their families, can monitor their children’s viewing habits with the aid of the V-chip. </li></ul><ul><li>To help parents monitor their children’s viewing habits, the V-chip should be a required feature for television sets sold in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper will describe a V-chip and examine the uses of the V-chip in American-made television sets. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    44. 46. <ul><li>Body paragraphs build upon the claims made in the introductory paragraph(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Organize with the use of topic. sentences that illustrate the main idea of each paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Offering a brief explanation of the history or recent developments in your topic within the early body paragraphs can help the audience to become familiarized with your topic and the complexity of the issue. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    45. 47. <ul><li>Paragraphs may be ordered in several ways, depending upon the topic and purpose of your argument: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General to specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important point to least important point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakest claim to strongest claim </li></ul></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    46. 48. <ul><li>Addressing the claims of the opposition is an important component in building a convincing argument. </li></ul><ul><li>It demonstrates your credibility as a writer--you have researched multiple sides of the argument and have come to an informed decision. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    47. 49. <ul><li>Counterarguments may be located at various locations within your body paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>You may choose to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>build each of your main points as a contrast to oppositional claims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offer a counterargument after you have articulated your main claims. </li></ul></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    48. 50. <ul><li>Consider your audience when you offer your counterargument. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceding to some of your opposition’s concerns can demonstrate respect for their opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain tactful yet firm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using rude or deprecating language can cause your audience to reject your position without carefully considering your claims. </li></ul></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    49. 51. <ul><li>Researched material can aid you in proving the claims of your argument and disproving oppositional claims. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to use your research to support the claims made in your topic sentences--make your research work to prove your argument! </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    50. 52. <ul><li>Your conclusion should reemphasize the main points made in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>You may choose to reiterate a call to action or speculate on the future of your topic, when appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid raising new claims in your conclusion. </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    51. 53. <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body Paragraphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing Topic Sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Main Points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countering the Opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab
    52. 54. Example uses is a Technical Report
    53. 55. Objectives <ul><li>To understand the purpose of a report </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to plan a report </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the structure of a report </li></ul><ul><li>To organise your information </li></ul><ul><li>To Present data effectively </li></ul><ul><li>To use the correct style of writing </li></ul>
    54. 56. Stages in Report Writing <ul><li>Planning your work </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting your information </li></ul><ul><li>Organising and structuring your information </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the first draft </li></ul><ul><li>Checking and re-drafting </li></ul>
    55. 57. <ul><li>Break down the report into various parts </li></ul><ul><li>Can it be divided into planning stages </li></ul><ul><li>Set deadlines for different stages </li></ul>
    56. 58. Organising information Report Writing Theories References Diagrams Facts Essays Exams Organise Lectures Major points Aims Sequences Structure Thought Logical Theories Information Memory Testing Memory understanding
    57. 59. Structuring your report Title Page: Includes title of the report, authors name, module, course, date Acknowledgements Any help in collecting information for your report Contents List all main sections in sequence with page numbers Abstract/ Summary Paragraph summarising main content
    58. 60. Contents of Report Within your report you must contain: An Introduction: Giving the scope and context of the report. Should include terms of reference. Give a brief background of report subject area. Methodology How did you carry out your enquiry? Did you use questionnaires? how was data collected? Present information logically Results of findings Present in a simple way: tables, graphs, Diagrams
    59. 61. <ul><li>Three phases of report writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exploratory phase (MAPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design for ergonomics is important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple design guidelines exist for ergonomic design. Here are some good and bad examples. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    60. 62. <ul><li>Audience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers with no knowledge of ergonomics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise good report writing skills. Learn about ergonomics in design. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductory with focus on design aspects rather than anatomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library, catalogs, professional experts, original research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of ergonomics: mostly library search </li></ul></ul>
    61. 63. <ul><li>Implementation (PWRR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spend as much time planning as writing! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning prevents “ wondering what to do next ” . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revise plans as necessary but keep planning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select the concepts to be presented from information gathering stage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make an outline to organize and give order to your presentation [report] </li></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 64. <ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a list of most important points and separate them from supporting material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supporting material should be enough to assure the subject comprehension, not overwhelming the reader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the outline to write a rough draft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just get the ideas on paper - don ’ t bother with grammar. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest or do something else for a day or two. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow your mind to become more objective in critically reviewing the work. </li></ul></ul>
    63. 65. <ul><li>Revise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First revision: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check for accuracy and validity of statements, charts, and equations. Cross misleading or confusing information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second revision: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strive for clarity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use simple non-confusing statements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a rule of thumb, each statement should not be more than two lines. But avoid too many short sentences </li></ul></ul></ul>
    64. 66. <ul><li>Second revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon not known to readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid complicated drawings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match the report to the interest, need, and technical level of audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under-estimate the knowledge of the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the report organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there enough headings and sub-headings </li></ul></ul>
    65. 67. <ul><li>Third revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the material follow a logical development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek conciseness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask yourself how much can be deleted without disturbing the reader ’ s comprehension of the report. </li></ul></ul>
    66. 68. <ul><li>Fifth revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct errors in grammar, spelling, and sentence structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sixth revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you satisfied? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow someone to read your report </li></ul></ul>
    67. 69. <ul><li>Format of Technical Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Front matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal: Per company guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title, team members, report date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly introduces the reader to the report. Includes subject, purpose, acknowledgements. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    68. 70. <ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract or summary: A mini-report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary is written last </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excludes all the supporting materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the objective, the approach, the results, and the conclusions and recommendations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    69. 71. <ul><li>Main text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares the reader for easier comprehension. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps the reader understand the purpose of the project, and should include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The subject </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Background information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the report </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this project relevant and informative to me? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scope of the project </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan of the development (organization) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Recommendations </li></ul></ul>
    70. 72. <ul><li>Body [Design work - Final design report] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product design specifications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the final design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide based on product functionally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide into assemblies and components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show how components work together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe each component in detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe assembly, operations, safety, maintenance, and disposal procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe product development decisions in attachments. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 73. <ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the entire work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State your conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong and weak features of the design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make recommendations [if any] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did not work and what to do about it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What aspects of design may need improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Back matter: Bibliography, appendix </li></ul>
    72. 75. <ul><li>Online learning </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    73. 76. <ul><li>Delicious – social book marking ideal for your bibliography of web resources and journals </li></ul><ul><li>Word 2007 has its own referencing </li></ul>