Cultural factors effecting ictPresentation Transcript
Lecturer: Adam Heatherington Cultural Factors effecting the use of ICT
Introduction Cultural Factors Society is encouraging digital interaction as the ‘norm’ whether its using Social networking websites or using smart phones to access media on the web. If people engage and interact digitally then this will encourage the use of ICT tools and applications in other aspects of their life. Aim and Objective of this session This session we will investigate the cultural change in Music largely brought about my the onset of music available via the Internet .
Making music Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) A standard/protocol for exchanging digital messages about music. Devices using MIDI include keyboards, synthesisers and drum machines. Allows sharing of musical data files between devices.
Making music Sequencers Are machines that ‘play’ musical performances. Tell equipment to make musical sounds (i.e., play certain pitches, chords, etc.). Are hardware or software used to create and manage electronic music. Can include drum machines. Work using MIDI messages.
Making music Sequencers allow musicians to record their music into the sequencer as MIDI messages. The sequencer keeps track of the musical beat.
Making music Notators Allow musicians to compose their own music. Notes may be entered into the computer by the keyboard, using a MIDI system or by scanning music on paper.
Making music Using sound wave editors, sound waves can: be edited be cut, copied and pasted have effects like echo, amplification and noise reduction applied.
Cultural changes in Music in music Brought about by ICT
Problems faced by the music industry E-commerce CD stores based abroad offering cheap CDs. Prices of CDs have fallen to compete – great for consumers but not so good for record companies. A move away from physical CDs to downloads. Huge increase in piracy and file sharing.
The way people listen to music has changed People want certain tracks – not always the whole CD. People want choice – they do not want to be limited by the stock of a store. People want immediacy – they do not always want to wait for music. People want music to be transferred to other devices (iPods, MP3 players, etc.)
The growth of downloads UK music fans are the biggest buyers per head of CDs in the world. Physical CDs are still extremely popular. Downloads are very popular for singles (one track). Customers like the unlimited ‘shelf space’ in on-line stores.
The advantages of downloads You can download music anywhere you can access the Internet. No opening times. Music is in a format you can immediately use on portable players. You do not need to buy the whole CD if you only like one track.
What can you download? You can download: an iTunes track or complete album a video, for example from YouTube a ring tone for your phone a subscription library (here you only access the music you play by paying a monthly fee).
Some problems For each legal download of music, there are 40 illegal downloads. If you download music you have nothing to sell – if times are hard you can sell CDs. Peer-to-peer file sharing sites encourage people to share their music illegally. Piracy of music often diverts money into other crimes.
File sharing What is it? File sharing means trading digital files with other users over the Internet. Users trade files by downloading to obtain them and then uploading to distribute them. Downloading may be legal or illegal. Uploading – allowing others access to your digital files is nearly always illegal.
File sharing cont’d There are lots of sites on the Internet where music can be downloaded legally. Such sites include: iTunes Napster Tesco download MSN Music Club
File sharing cont’d To upload and allow file sharing, special software called file sharing software is needed. It is illegal to upload music in this way. To make sure you do not fall foul of the law, it is best not to have the file sharing software installed on your computer.
Case study 1 British and Dutch police shut down pre-release pirate site. A file sharing site shared pre-release music CDs among its members. They made money from donations from members using PayPal. To be a member you had to prove that you had music you could offer others. Within minutes of a new music pre-release track appearing, hundreds of copies had been made and appeared in different places on the Internet. The recording industry said the closure of the site was an important victory in the fight against copyright theft.
Case study 2 Kazaa was originally a free file sharing site. Following legal action they had to pay the music industry £53 million damages. They have now become a legal download site.
Exercises In class interaction exercise Paper based exercise
References S. Doyle, Essential ICT for WJEC, Folans, AS Level