Adam Dunkels Internetdagarna 5 Nov 2009


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What is the Internet of Things and smart objects?

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  • You may have seen the headlines…
  • … so what is this thing that is expected to become so huge as to surpass the Internet thousandfold?
  • … tiny microchips … frightfully small, wouldn’t you say? So what can you use them for? I’ll just go through a few quick examples now. In fact, this whole day is dedicated to hearing more about the exciting possibilities of this technology, so I’ll keep it short for now.
  • But what is this technology It didn’t come out of the blue It is an intersection of several areas of technology and research … so much for the areas, but what about the technology behind this?
  • Lightweight? Low power?
  • Adam Dunkels Internetdagarna 5 Nov 2009

    1. 1. What are Smart Objects and the Internet of Things? Adam Dunkels, PhD Swedish Institute of Computer Science A part of Swedish ICT
    2. 5. SICS: Leaving traces at Liljevalchs
    3. 6. SICS: Telemetry in the Bothnic Sea
    4. 7. GE / AllSet: Container monitoring
    5. 8. ThingMagic: Finding smart objects
    6. 9. The Smart Grid
    7. 10. What are smart obejcts and the Internet of things? Embedded systems Telemetry Sensor networks Ubuitous computing Mobile telephony Computer communications Smart objects and the Internet of Things
    8. 11. What is the technology of smart obejcts and the Internet of things? <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcontroller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power radio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power-line communication, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight, low-power network operating system </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. Technical properties and challenges <ul><li>Low-power operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1 mW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small physical size, low cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight memory requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 kilobytes of RAM, 100 kilobytes of ROM </li></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Key technical mechanisms <ul><li>Low-power radio hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Low-power software mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability, integration with existing systems </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. Low-power radio hardware <ul><li>IEEE 802.15.4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit/receive ~60 mW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sleep ~0.01 mW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-power WiFi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit/receive ~300 mW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sleep ~0.02 mW </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Low-power software mechanisms 1% duty cycle ~= 0.6 mW ~0.2 – 1 seconds ~200 microseconds
    13. 16. Standards <ul><li>Link layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISA100a </li></ul><ul><li>WirelessHART </li></ul><ul><li>ZigBee </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RPL (routing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6lowpan (IPv6 header compression) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 18. Integration and interoperability <ul><li>The Internet Protocol (version 6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolvable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RPL, 6lowpan, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power </li></ul></ul>? ?
    15. 19. October 2008: Contiki, world’s smallest IPv6 stack <ul><li>uIPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 kilobytes of code, 2 kilobytes of RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SICSlowpan IPv6 over 802.15.4 layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv6 Ready compliant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 2009: Arch Rock Corp. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Contiki: low-power IPv6 Packets per minute Power (mW)
    17. 21. IP for Smart Objects Alliance
    18. 22. November 2008: 30th best invention of 2008
    19. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>At the verge of a breakthrough </li></ul><ul><li>The technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IP for Smart Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability, scalability, evolvability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight, low-power </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. Thank You <ul><li>The Contiki Operating System </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    21. 25. Backup slides