Unit 30 – Design for Games AO1Understanding Aspects of Game Design
AO1 asks you to demonstrate your understanding of the fundamentals of Game Design. You are going to do this by analysing traditional games and video games. You need to be writing about:- Core Mechanics Interactivity Storytelling and Narrative Audio-Visual Components What do these things mean?
Core MechanicsThe fundamental structures, practices and rulesthat allow you to get on with playing the game.●Luck●Strategy and Skill●Diplomacy●Resource Management●Territory Control
Core Mechanics - Luck● Random occurrence – often a planned random occurrence● Traditional game – the roll of a dice or the turn of a card● Videogame – a virtual dice roll – does the creature appear? Does the shot hit you?
Luck – Traditional Games Poker ● What cards are you and your opponents dealt? ● What cards are dealtSome traditional in the flop, turn games involve and river? nothing but luck – Snakes and ● How do your Ladders is all opponents react? about the dice.
Core Mechanics - Skill and Strategy ● Planning and planned occurrences. ● Based on your knowledge and understanding of the game and the playing contexts ● Reading and understanding your opponent ● Planning for the short, medium and long term in the game
Skill and Stragegy – Traditional Games ● When to play and when to fold ● When to raise, how much to bet ● Knowing the odds for your hand and what you need ● Knowing and understanding likely odds on opponents hands ● Reading bluffs ● Bluffing
Core Mechanics - Diplomacy● Player interaction● Cooperation, colaboration and competition● Short term and long term diplomacy● Capture games – Sorry or Frustration● Role Playing Games
Diplomacy – Traditional Games Poker ● Cooperation – Building a pot ● Collaboration – eliminating players ● Competition – raising, bluffing and betting against opponents
Core Mechanics – Resource Management● Different assets for different players and characters● Use now or save for later?● High value assets● Money, or the things money can buy?● Attack or defence?● Knowledge of the game leads to informed choices
Resource Management – Traditional Games Poker ● Using your chips ● When to punt on a chance ● When to go with a raise and when to raise ● Draw Poker – keeping or exchanging cards
Core Mechanics – Territory Control● Controlling game space● Defensive lines – defending key spaces, players or pieces● Games about territory control – Risk, Diplomacy● Wargames
Territory Control – Traditional Games Chess ● Offensive and defensive lines ● Protecting the back rank ● Protecting the king ● Protecting high value pieces ● Balancing offense and defence. ● Using familiar patterns.
AO1 Task 1Using the following subheadings, analyse the CoreMechanics of:-a) A traditional game andb) A video game* Luck* Strategy and Skill* Diplomacy* Resource Management* Territory ControlYou can use different games to illustrate different concepts –you dont have to stick to one traditional game and one video game for all of them
InteractivityInteractive texts do not follow a linear course but are shaped by your decisions and actions. You decide where the text goes – within certain limits.
Interactivity – Traditional Games Some traditional games are models for interactive video games ● Choose your own adventure books ● Territory games like Carcassonne
Interactivity – Video Games Videogames now are fundamentally interactive – your decisions and actions shape the future course of the game● SIMS – when does interactivity become creation● How interactive were early video games?
AO1 Task 2Analyse with specific examples the uses andeffects of Interactivityi) In a traditional game andii) In a video game
Storytelling and NarrativeYou need to demonstrate your understanding ofa wide range of aspects of narrative in a game...●Three Act Structure●Plot● Point of View - 1st Person -v- 3rd Person●Setting (in time and place)●Linear Narrative -v- Disrupted Narrative●Characters – Stereotypes and Archetypes●Representations, messages and values, themes
The Three Act Structure Situation / Complication / Resolution Introduction / Crisis / ResolutionAct 1 – Introduction – The farmer lives a peaceful lifeAct 2 – Crisis – The family and farm are destroyed by badguysAct 3 – Resolution – The farmer gains vengeance on thebad guys
More on Three Act StructureEach Act will also have acts or scenes within it following similar structures. So – end of Act 2 might be...Situation – The farmer has no fighting skillsCrisis – He is tutored by a Martial Arts expertResolution – He becomes a Kung Fu masterready to whup some bad guys.
Point of View This can literally mean the view we have of the game – through one characters eyes. Obvious example – a First Person ShooterIt also means which character we follow. Doesnt have to be a first person view, there can still be a viewpoint character.Traditional games – Chess or Draughts– black or white- you only see the board from your side. Cat and Mouse board games – one is trying to escape, one to capture – very different perspectives on the game.
Setting (in time and space)How real is the world of the game compared to our world? How do we learn its rules? – anything can happen (flying in Second Life, for example) as long as the game is internally consistent What signs show us when and where we are?Why are so many fantasy games set in the past?
Linear Narrative -v- Disrupted Narrative Is there one route through the game that you have to take (Simple board games have one track you go round. Race games take youaround one track at a time) or can things happenin any different order and still get you to the end (Sandbox games).
Characters: Archetypes and Stereotypes Archetype – the model example of a particular type of person – the original. Video games are often built around mythic structures using archetypes. Stereotype – A personality type observedrepeatedly and summed up in an individual – anoversimplification of what a type of person is likeHeroes and villains – helpers and messengers – experts and teachers...
Representations What is your game about?What does it have to say about the world? (This world, not the world of the game) What ideas does it have about good and evil? About gender or race? About leadership?
AO1 Task 3Using the headings in Aspects of Narrative,analyse how narrative and storytelling work ini) a traditional game andii) a video game
Audio Visual Elements Traditional games still work on being audio- visually and visually interesting. Black and White in Chess/Draughts Visual design of board gamesAudio suspense from the noise of shaking and rolling dice Audio stimulus in Crossfire and Kerplunk
Audio Visuals in traditional games ● The traditional look of the table – green baize, traditional cards ● The sound of cards shuffling and being turned ● The look of players bluffing
Audio Visuals in Video Games● Simple visuals in early video games – Pong – Space Invaders● Developments in displays – Defender – Elite● Hardware/Software development and improved AV
AO1 Task 4 i) Analyse the Audio Visual appeal of a traditional gameii) Analyse the developing Audio Visual appeal of one game or one game genre as it has developed through successive generations of hardware and/or software
Assessment All of the above work is required to complete AO1.Pass – Limited and superficial understandingMerit – Broad and sound understandingDistinction – Comprehensive and detailedunderstandingThese tasks are designed so that if you completethem in full you should be working to Distinction.