Costa ricaliaomar2012(editedfinalwithnotes)


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Costa ricaliaomar2012(editedfinalwithnotes)

  1. 1. Small-Scale Solar-Biopower Generation ForRural Central America Energy & Climate Partnership of the Americas MSU/UCR Kickoff Seminar March 2012 Wei Liao, Ph.D., P.E. Michigan State University Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering
  2. 2. Facts of Solar Energy Central AmericaAdvantages Disadvantages Theoretical: 1.76 x 105 TW Sun does not shine striking Earth, Practical: 600 TW consistently. It is the cleanest energy source Solar energy is a diffuse on the Earth. source. Solar energy reaching the earth It is difficult to collect, convert, is abundant. and store solar energy. From: 2
  3. 3. Facts of Biogas (methane) Energy from Waste Agricultural residues available in Costa Rica Residues Total amount (metric ton dry Current treatment practices matter per year) 2006 Projection 2012 Cattle manure 1,530,000 1,679,900 Only 20% of producers treat wastes, dried and composted Swine manure 95,000 110,000 0.68% for production of energy and rest in agriculture, fertilizer (45.5%) food animal (53.1%) or other uses (0.7%). Banana residues 158,000 132,000 Not used as energy source,100% discarded or composted organic Coffee residues (pulp) 251,000 (pulp) 262,000 Pulp is used for composting, and husk is used (husk) 25,000 (husk) 26,300 for combustion Sugarcane bagasse 1,290,000 1,518,200 95.3% dried and used as combustion,4.7% non energetic Pineapple residues 6,351,000 8,452,000 Combusted and soil improvement More than 600 MW electricity per year could be potentially generated from this amount of waste streams through anaerobic digestion technology. 3
  4. 4. Feedstock Biogas PotentialKestutis Navickas. 2007. Bioplin Tehnologija in Okolje,
  5. 5. Facts of Biogas Energy from Wastes Advantages Disadvantages A biological process Low efficiency of organic matter degradation Reducing greenhouse gas emission Difficulty of power generation for small-medium Enhancing nutrient operations management Completely Stirred Tank Anaerobic Sequence Batch Plug-flow digester Reactor (CSTR) Reactor (ASBR) 5
  6. 6. A Solar-Biopower ConceptIntegrating wastes utilization with solar and biological technologies willcreate a novel self-sustainable clean energy generations system for small-medium scale operations 6
  7. 7. A Solar-Biopower Concept Benefits of system integration Overcome the disadvantages of individual technologies Unsteady energy flow for solar power generation Low efficiency of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on degradation of organic matter Higher energy requirement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion Provide sufficient and stable energy for small-medium sized rural community Solar energy utilization Improved efficiency of anaerobic digestion on degradation of organic matter Biogas energy as chemical storage – steady energy flow 7
  8. 8. Biology of Anaerobic Digestion Source: Syed Hashsham, PhD, lecture notes, Michigan State University
  9. 9. Small-Scale Test Solar-Biopower Units 20 L Bench-Scale Solar-Biopower System at MSUEvacuated tube solar collector Solar thermal transfer system Heat exchanger CSTR anaerobic digester Flat-plate solar collector : Heat flow Control unit : System monitor and control 9
  10. 10. Mass BalancePredicted mass balance for the integrated solar-bio system on 1,000 kg ofmixed sludge and food wastes a. The calculation of mass balance was based on the expected results that will be achieved by this project. b. A kg COD destroyed produces 350 L methane gas. 10
  11. 11. Energy BalancePotential energy generation based on 1,000 kg of mixed influent per day Maximum daily net energy Time courses of maximum generation energy generationApproximately 200% more net Time courses of potential netenergy output (maximum) energy generation of solar-generated from solar-biopower biopower systemsystem with the system under theoptimal conditions. 11
  12. 12. A Pilot-Scale Solar-Biopower System at UCR Major system components (8) 2x2 m flat-plate solar collector with support (1) 20 m3 anaerobic digester with a 50 m3 gas bag (1) 20 kW combined heating and power unit 12
  13. 13. Solar Collector 13
  14. 14. Feedstock Receiving Unit 14
  15. 15. CSTR Anaerobic Digester 15
  16. 16. Combined Heating and Power Unit 16
  17. 17. Thank You ! From: 17
  18. 18. Small-Scale Solar-Biopower Generation ForRural Central America Energy & Climate Partnership of the Americas MSU/UCR Kickoff Seminar March 2012 Wei Liao, Ph.D., P.E. Michigan State University Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering