State commonly refers to either the present condition of a system or
entity, or to a governed entity (such as a country) or sub-entity (such as
an autonomous territory of a country).
Map of Malaysia
Nation may refer to a community of people who share a common
language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history
Artist illustration on different “loghat” of Malaysian
The term "nation state" implies that the two geographically coincide.
Nation state formation took place at different times in different
parts of the world, but has become the dominant form of state
Federation of Malaysia
The Malay are Malaysia's largest ethnic group, accounting for over half
the population and the national language. With the oldest indigenous peoples
they form a group called bumiputera, which translates as "sons" or "princes
of the soil." Almost all Malays are Muslims, though Islam here is less
extreme than in the Middle East. Traditional Malay culture centers around the
kampung, or village, though today one is just as likely to find Malays in the
cities. They form about 71 percent of the population.
The Chinese traded with Malaysia for centuries, then settled in
number during the 19th century when word of riches in the Nanyang, or "South
Seas," spread across China. Though perhaps a stereotype, the Chinese are
regarded as Malaysia's businessmen, having succeeded in many
industries. When they first arrived, however, Chinese often worked the most
grueling jobs like tin mining and railway construction. Most Chinese are Tao
Buddhist and retain strong ties to their ancestral homeland. They form about 22
percent of the population.
Indians had been visiting Malaysia for over 2,000 years, but did not settle en
masse until the 19th century. Most came from South India, fleeing a poor
economy. Arriving in Malaysia, many worked as rubber tappers, while
others built the infrastructure or worked as administrators and small
businessmen. Today ten percent of Malaysia is Indian. Their culture with it's
exquisite Hindu temples, cuisine, and colorful garments is visible throughout
the land. They form about 7 percent of the population.
Source: 2013, Department of Statistics Malaysia
THE CHINESE TRADED WITH
MALAYSIA FOR CENTURIES,
THEN SETTLED IN NUMBER
DURING THE 19TH CENTURY
1) The situation of multi-society in Malaysia started after the establishment of the Straits
Settlements of Penang, Malacca and Singapore
2) The presence of large numbers of Chinese and Indians is due to the colonial policy during the
century, when the British needed labour for economic exploitation of the Malay states.
4) Educational system
a) Chinese : Chinese schools with their syllabus adopted from mainland China and this
cultivated their nationalism towards China
b) Indian : Indian schools
c) Malay : Madrasa (religious school)
Estate sector for Indian Paddy sector for Malay Business sector for Chinese
1) The government implemented a new policy called New Economic Policy (NEP) to bridge the
economic gap between the Malays and the Chinese.
2) Policy enforcement in 1971 known as ‘1971 National Culture Policy’ in Malaysia to have
better interaction and integration.
3) ‘1971 National Culture Policy’ which is focused on the three major concepts :
a) Malay culture
b)suitable elements from the other cultures may be accepted as part of the national culture
c)Islām is an important component in the moulding of the National Culture.
4) 1971 National Culture Policy emphasises values on courtesy, moderation, tolerance,
harmony and cordial relations among family members, neighbours and community.
5) Islām took place as the official practice religion of Malaysia but there is freedom of worship
especially those who are non-Muslim.
6) The Malay Language is the national language of the country as mentioned earlier before.
However, the people are free to use their mother tongue and other languages. English as the
second language is widely used in business.
The Malacca Sultanate and the Evolution of Malay Identity: The
commencement of the current Malay nation is often traced to the fifteenth-
FROM left: Tunku Abdul Rahman, the British Colonial Secretary, Duncan Sandys and first Prime
Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew talk about Malaysia.
THE MERGING PLAN
The idea to unite Malaysia with neighbouring countries was raised several times.
Merger of Singapore suggested in 1955 by David Marshall – rejected by Tunku
Lee Kuan Yew proposed the idea again in 1959 – unfavorable response
May 1961: Tunku Abdul Rahman suggested the merger of Malaya with:
- North Borneo: Sabah
“Free through unification”
was the main general factor of the proposal
-To curb communist threat
-To boost and accelerate the
independence of Brunei, Singapore, Sabah
-To create racial harmony
-To boost regional economy for people and
- To create Malaysian nation new identity
based on shared cultural heritage
July 1963, The Malaysian Agreement was signed by five countries and was
sealed. Malaysia was born as a new nation on 16th September 1963
Jan 10,1949. J/kuasa Melayu-Cina (Malay-Chinese Goodwill
Committee) was established. Then called the Communities
Liaison Committee (CLC) or Jawatankuasa Perhubungan Antara
•chaired by E.E.C Thuraisingham & composed by Dato 'Onn
Jaafar, Tan Cheng Lock, Dato' Panglima Bukit Gantang Abdul
Wahab, Yoong Shook Lin, Sir Roland Braddel, Salleh Judge,
CCTan, Zainal Abidin Hj. Abbas & Malcolm MacDonald (British
General Commissioner in Southeast Asia)
• is a first attempt to create goodwill among the
various races in Malaya.
• objective: to find a way to prevent communal
• a forum to negotiate & find peaceful solutions
on issues of race and managed to bring political
consensus that is not racist.
• responsible for making initial recommendations
on controversial issues such as citizenship,
education, local council elections & Federal
HOW IMPROVE THE INTER-RACIAL
RELATIONSHIP IN MALAYA
•April 1950 - to submit proposed changes to federal
citizenship with the implementation of the basic
principle of Jus Soli citizenship.
•Recommendations to improve the economic
conditions of the Malays (indicates a tolerance
between the representatives of non-Malay & Malay).
•Proposal to study education issues - leading to the
establishment of JK Barnes & JK Fenn-Wu.
HOW IMPROVE THE INTER-RACIAL RELATIONSHIP IN MALAYA
• Suggest BM & BI required in all government
primary schools & government aided primary
• Suggested that the voters in the election
federation composed of citizens of Malaya.
• While not all proposals received by the JPK race,
but no doubt the JPK had laid the foundation for
cooperation between the races in Malaya.
• JPK talks about citizenship issues when the Chinese
continue to insist that they be simplified to obtain
citizenship. As a result JPK persuade the British to
amend conditions of citizenship in the federal
constitution Malaya 1948.
1) East Coast Economic Region (ECER)
2) Northen Corridor Economic Region
East Coast Economic Region (ECER)
•to accelerate the growth of the East Coast Economic
Region in a viable, equitable and sustainable manner.
•The Master Plan also details measures to eradicate
poverty, and improve incomes and distribution in a
sustainable manner for ECER.
•The ECER ’s distinctive natural resources, culture &
heritage will form the basis for transforming the economy
into one that is dynamic and competitive in light of greater
regional and global competition and economic liberalisation.
Five economic clusters have been identified as key focal points for development in
the ECER namely:
(i) Tourism (ii) Oil, gas and petrochemical (iii) Manufacturing
(v) Education (iv) Agriculture
•The ECER development will enable the dominant positioning of Kelantan to serve as
the principal East Coast cross-border trading and tourism centre.
• Kelantan will focus on human capital development, in line with the state’s recognition of
the rakyat as a key resource and the engine of economic growth.
•Travel along the Terengganu coast and you will surely be awed by its
impressive 244 km stretch of sandy coastline, traditional Malay coastal
villages, domestic animals wandering in the fields and picturesque sunrises
coming below the horizon.
•Beyond Terengganu’s impressive coastline lie some of the most popular island
destinations in Malaysia.
•Two thirds of Pahang state is covered with rainforest, making it a haven for
adventure and eco-holidays.
•In the ECER Master Plan, Mersing will focus on the development of mainland
coastal tourism, sustainable island tourism and eco-tourism.
Northen Corridor Economic Region (NCER)
•to accelerate economic growth and elevate income levels in the north of Peninsular
Malaysia – encompassing the states of Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and the north
•to helping the Region maximise its economic potential and closing the
development and income gap between the different regions in Malaysia
•4 key thrust areas have been identified, namely agriculture, manufacturing, tourism
•Malaysia expected become a competitive, world-class sustainable economic region.
•Raise the overall standard of living.
•Closing income gap between the different regions
•Eradicate poverty, and improve incomes and distribution in a sustainable manner
•Increase competition between regions across nations regional development
•ethnic groups were more effective and successful than social classes in mobilizing their
members in pursuit of collective ends in Malaysia.
•changing conflicts over races
• 1887 - First Proposal Presented To The formation of
Malaya was by Lord Brassey
• 1948 - Sir Malcolm Mcdonald Propose To Sabah,
Sarawak, Brunei and Malaya Established
• 1956 - Dato 'Onn Ja'afar recommend Federation of
Malaya Independence Called Malaysia
• 1959 - Lim Yew Hock, David Marshall and Lee Kuan Yew
Recommend British Negotiate With Tunku Abdul
Rahman to merging the Federation of Malaya and
• 1961 - Tunku Abdul Rahman agree form of Gagasan
• Creating an optimal balance between the goal of economic growth and equitable
• Ensure balanced development of key economic sectors to enhance complementarities
between sectors to optimize growth.
• Reduce and ultimately eliminate disparities and social and economic imbalances in the
• Promote and strengthen national integration to reduce the vast inequalities in economic
development among the states and between rural and urban areas.
• Awaken a progressive society where all people enjoy a high quality of life, in addition to
having societal values and spirituality as well as appreciate the positive feelings of pride
and love country.
• Promote human resource development including creating a workforce that is disciplined
and productive and improve the skills needed to face the challenges in the development
of the industry through a culture of excellence without compromising the goals of the
restructuring of all communities.
• Making science and technology as an integral part of the socio-economic planning and
development which requires the development of capacity and capability in strategic and
knowledge-based technology and to develop a culture of science and technology in the
process of developing a modern industrial economy.
• Ensure that in the pursuit of economic development, due attention should be given to
environmental protection and long-term technology to ensure sustainable development
of the country continued way.
•promotes peace and love in a nation
•unity is strength where united people can put efforts in elimination of vices
like corruption and tribalism and also to fight diseases by abdopting more
hygienic standards of living
•unity enhance political stability in a nation
•unity minimises and eventually eliminates intercommunity suspisions where
it gives people a sense of security for they are able to know each other better
and understand each others ways
•unity promotes co-operation and open opportunity to excellence
•unity promotes collective responsibility in times of need like in funding for the
disabled and lastly unity reduces incidence of fear
•suspisions and power struggles which reduce incidents like civil war which
may affect social economic activities like trade
Source : http://www.kenyaplex.com/discussionforum/7492-importance-of-national-unity.aspx
Outcomes Study as Reflection:
How Malaysian lived happily in this multicultural country?
Which is better, before or after independents?
Do government sector also involved in formation of nation?
What are the importance of having national unit?
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