Phylosophy (materialism & pragmatism)


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Phylosophy (materialism & pragmatism)

  1. 1. Materialism and Pragmatism Present By : 1) Asifa Nur 2) Dwi Maulida Sari ( 4113312004) 3) Rizky Nurul Hafni (4113111066)
  2. 2. A. Historical Materialism Philosophy birth Flow • Democritus (460-360 BC), a pioneer of the classical view of materialism, which is also called "atomism". • Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872) launched a materialistic metaphysics, a humanistic ethics, and epistemology that uphold a high sensory recognition. Therefore, he wanted to replace the idealism of Hegel (Feuerbach teacher) with materialism. So, according to Feuerbach, only the material, do not know the spiritual realm. Branch materialism that many people nowadays consider that serve as the foundation of thinking is "Positivism".
  3. 3. • According to positivism, if something exists, then it is a number. Aguste Comte positivism as a pioneer of the view that "The highest form of knowledge is presumably simple description of sensory phenomena" (Runes, 1963:234). Comte limiting knowledge in the field of symptoms sala (phenomena).
  4. 4. • According to Comte, there are three experienced thinking human development, namely: 1. Increase theological (human thought patterns dominated by superstition and prejudice) 2. Increase metaphysical (abstract thinking) 3. Increase positive (patterns of thinking that is based on science)
  5. 5. • Positive Period (Aaron Hadiwijono, 1980) is the age where people know, that there is no point in trying to attain absolute knowledge, a good introduction to theology or metaphysics. He no longer keep track of the beginning and the end goal of the whole universe but trying to find similarities laws and rules contained in the facts known or presented to him. • So, say positivism, because they assume that we can learn simply by the facts, based on real data, which they call positive.
  6. 6. • Thomas Hobbes as materialistic empiricism followers argue that the experience is the beginning of all knowledge, is also the beginning of the knowledge of the principles obtained and confirmed by experience. Only experience that gives certainty. Knowledge through reason alone only has a mechanical function, since the introduction of the sense to realize a process of addition and subtraction (Aaron Hadiwijono, 1980).
  7. 7. • Figures materialist philosophy is: 1. Anaximenes (585-528 BC) 2. Anaximandros (610-545 BC) 3. Thales (625-545 BC) 4. Democritus (460-360 BC) 5. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) 6. Lamettrie (1709-1715) 7. Feuerbach (1804-1872) 8. H. Spencer (1820-1903) 9. Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  8. 8. B. Basic Concepts of Philosophy Materialism • Materialism holds that the essence of realism is material, not spiritual, not spiritual, or supernatural. • The philosophy of materialism considers that the first material there while the idea or thought arises after seeing the material. In other words materialism recognizes that the material determines the idea, not the idea of ​​determining the material. Example: as a table or chair objectively exist, then the person thinks about a table and chairs. Can anyone think of a table or chair before it is shaped tables and chairs have not or do not exist.
  9. 9. 1. The characteristics of the philosophy of materialism : a) All that exists (form) that is derived from a single source material b) Do not believe in the existence of the supernatural c) Making the senses as the only means of achieving science d) Positioning science instead of religion in laying down the law e) Making biases and human nature as a moral
  10. 10. 2.Variations of philosophy of materialism a. Dialectic Materialism Philosophy Dialectical materialism is a materialism that sees all things evolving in accordance with the laws of dialectics: the law of mutual relations and the development of symptoms that apply universe objectively in the world. Dialekti materialism thoughts even this can be encountered in life, for example, "the earth rotates constantly, there is no day night", "dark comes the light out", "stepping into the missing switch" etc.. All this shows that the world's thoughts and our lives are constantly evolving. b. Materialism Metaphysical Philosophy Metaphysical materialism, which views the world in bits and pieces or boxed-box, no thorough and static. Metaphysical materialism thoughts this example: "once a thief remains a thief", look at the fate, can not change.
  11. 11. C. Materialism Philosophy Flow Implications for Education According to Power (1982), the implications of educational philosophies of materialism, as follows: 1. The theme is a good man and efficiently produced with the educational process and carefully controlled scientific. 2. The purpose of education is behavior change, preparing people according to their capacities, to social responsibility and personal lives are complex. 3. Education curriculum that includes knowledge trustworthy (reliable), and organized, always associated with the target behavior
  12. 12. 4. Method, all the lessons generated by kondisionisasi (SR conditioning), condisioning operant, reinforcement, programmatic lessons and competitions. 5. Notch students no freedom, behavior is determined by external forces, the lesson has been designed, students are prepared to live, they are required to learn. Teachers have the power to design and control the educational process, teachers can gauge the quality and character of student learning outcomes
  13. 13. What Is Pragmatism? Stump f (1966) stated that Pragmatism emerged at the end of the nineteenth century as the most original contribution of American thought to the enterprise of philosophy.
  14. 14. Thomas (1988) states that Pragmatism is an American philosophical movement resting on the assumptions that the world of experience, accessible to scientific enquiry, is all we can know and that propositions and acts have meaning in terms of their verifiable, public consequences.
  15. 15. William James defined pragmatism as the attitude of looking away from first things, principles, categories, supposed necessities, and of looking toward last things, fruits, consequences, and facts.
  16. 16. Philosophical foundation of education Pragmatism a. General Philosophy Concept Metaphysics: Reality Essence. Philosophy of Pragmatism is also known as experimentalism and instrumentalism. According to adherents of pragmatism, the reality essence is all things that people experience (experience); nature plural (pluralistic), and continuously changing
  17. 17. • (Callahan and Clark, 1983). They argue that reality is as experienced through the experience of each individual • William James "The real world is world of human experience "(SE Frost Jr.., 1957)
  18. 18. • John Dewey "The world today is that there is a man's world and woman's world, rice fields, factories, plants and animals, city the hustle and bustle, the nations that are struggling, and so on. .... is the world our experience "(H.H. Titus et al, 1959).
  19. 19. Remembering this reality is constantly changing, so reality never complete or never completed. Therefore, the ultimate goal of any reality, there is in these changes. So according to adherents of Pragmatism, "only reality existing physical, general theory of reality is not possible and not necessary "(Edward J. Power, 1982).
  20. 20. Human essence. Personality / human is not separate from reality generally, because humans are part of it and constantly with him. "Human males and females - is the result of biological evolution, psychological, and social "(Edward J. Power, 1982)
  21. 21. Epistemology: Knowledge essence. Pragmatism philosophers reject dualism between subject (human being) who perceive the objects perceived. Humans are both perceived in the world and of the world that he perceived.
  22. 22. According to philosopher of Pragmatism, a knowledge should be verified and applied in life. The truth is the workability criteria, satisfaction, and result. Knowledge is expressed correctly when can be practiced, and satisfactory results. Based on the above it can be concluded that "knowledge is relative; knowledge can be said to be significant when applied. Pragmatism therefore also known as instrumentalism
  23. 23. Axiology: Value essence. Values are ​​derived from the human condition. Values ​​are do not exclusive, do not stand alone, but exist a process, which is in the act / deed of man himself. Because human (individual) is part of the community, whether or do not either of his actions are judged on their results in the community.
  24. 24. Ethical and aesthetic values ​​depending on the relative circumstances of the situation. Final values ​​(ultimate values) is not exist, it is always relative and depends on existing conditions (conditional).
  25. 25. The Philosophical Position of Pragmatism: • Where there is a will, there is a way. • Man’s time is best spent solving today’s problems. • The truth is what is practical, because the truth is what works • Truth cannot be known in a closed system with any experience on the other side; therefore, truth is determined by experimentation. • Cosmological reality has been undergoing change over the past centuries. • Reality is not fixed, but is in a constant state of flux as man’s experience broadens. • The seeking of knowledge is a transaction between man and his environment.
  26. 26. Implications for Education Educational Objectives. Education must teach someone how to think and adapt to changes in society.These objectives include: • Good health. • vocational skills (job). • Interests and hobbies for a pleasant life. • Preparation for parenthood. • Ability to deal effectively with social problems (to solve social problems effectively).
  27. 27. • (Callahan and Clark, 1983). Education should help students to be citizens in a democracy or a superior democratic citizens • ( Edward J. Power, 1982). Therefore, according to Pragmatism education should aim to provide the experience to find / solve new things in your personal and social life
  28. 28. Education curriculum. According to the philosopher of Pragmatism, democratic tradition is tradition improve yourself (a self-correcting tradition). Implications of socio- cultural heritage of the past is not the focus of educational attention. But, education focused on the good life in the present and the future.
  29. 29. In view of pragmatism, the school curriculum should not be separated from the circumstances. Therefore, the problems of democratic society should be the basic form of the curriculum, and the meaning of re-solving the problems of democratic institutions should also be included in the curriculum. Therefore, the curriculum should be: • Based on the community. • Land practice of democratic ideals. • democratic planning at every level of education. • The group limits the community's general goals. • Meaningful creatively to the development of new skills. The curriculum is centered on student (pupil / child centered) and centered on activities (activity centered). In addition it should be noted that the curriculum is organized interdisciplinary education Pragmatism, in other words, the curriculum is integrated, not a subject- subject separately.
  30. 30. Education methods. • Callahan and Clark (1983) pragmatism adherents priority the use of problem solving methods and the methods of investigation and discovery (Inquiry and Discovery Method).
  31. 31. Role of Teachers and Students. In pragmatism, learning is always considered to be an individual. In the role of teacher learning is not "pour" knowledge to the students, because this is a fruitless effort.
  32. 32. To help students teachers should play a role: • Provide a various experiences that will bring motivation. Field trips, films, records, and guest experts are examples of activities designed to raise students' interest towards important issues. • Guiding students to formulate specific problem definition. • Guiding plan and individual goals in a group class to be used in solving the problem. • Assist students in collecting information on the problem. Essentially, teachers serve as mentors to the students by introducing skills, understandings, knowledge, and appreciation-appreciation through the use of books, compositions, letters, speakers, films, field trips, television, or the right to use everything. • Class evaluate together what they have learned, how they learned it, and what new information each student find by themselves (Callahan and Clark, 1983).
  33. 33. • The principle that everything is constantly changing, the principle that the best knowledge gained through scientific experimentation is also always changing and are relative, and the principle relitivisme values​​, • . Instead Pragmatism education is seen to have power for the sake of social and cultural change through emphasis development of individual learners. • The difference with Progressivism is that Reconstruction not emphasize societal change and culture through the development of the individual student (child centered), but through social engineering by way of educational / school.