Present By :
1) Asifa Nur
2) Dwi Maulida Sari ( 4113312004)
3) Rizky Nurul Hafni (4113111066)
A. Historical Materialism Philosophy
• Democritus (460-360 BC), a pioneer of the classical
view of materialism, which is also called "atomism".
• Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872) launched a
materialistic metaphysics, a humanistic ethics, and
epistemology that uphold a high sensory recognition.
Therefore, he wanted to replace the idealism of Hegel
(Feuerbach teacher) with materialism. So, according
to Feuerbach, only the material, do not know the
Branch materialism that many people nowadays
consider that serve as the foundation of thinking is
• According to positivism, if something exists, then it is a
number. Aguste Comte positivism as a pioneer of the
view that "The highest form of knowledge is
presumably simple description of sensory phenomena"
(Runes, 1963:234). Comte limiting knowledge in the
field of symptoms sala (phenomena).
• According to Comte, there are three experienced thinking
human development, namely:
1. Increase theological (human thought patterns dominated by
superstition and prejudice)
2. Increase metaphysical (abstract thinking)
3. Increase positive (patterns of thinking that is based on
• Positive Period (Aaron Hadiwijono, 1980) is the age where
people know, that there is no point in trying to attain absolute
knowledge, a good introduction to theology or metaphysics.
He no longer keep track of the beginning and the end goal of
the whole universe but trying to find similarities laws and rules
contained in the facts known or presented to him.
• So, say positivism, because they assume that we can learn
simply by the facts, based on real data, which they call
• Thomas Hobbes as materialistic empiricism followers argue that
the experience is the beginning of all knowledge, is also the
beginning of the knowledge of the principles obtained and
confirmed by experience. Only experience that gives certainty.
Knowledge through reason alone only has a mechanical
function, since the introduction of the sense to realize a process
of addition and subtraction (Aaron Hadiwijono, 1980).
• Figures materialist philosophy is:
1. Anaximenes (585-528 BC)
2. Anaximandros (610-545 BC)
3. Thales (625-545 BC)
4. Democritus (460-360 BC)
5. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
6. Lamettrie (1709-1715)
7. Feuerbach (1804-1872)
8. H. Spencer (1820-1903)
9. Karl Marx (1818-1883)
B. Basic Concepts of Philosophy
• Materialism holds that the essence of realism is
material, not spiritual, not spiritual, or supernatural.
• The philosophy of materialism considers that the first
material there while the idea or thought arises after
seeing the material. In other words materialism
recognizes that the material determines the idea, not
the idea of determining the material. Example: as a
table or chair objectively exist, then the person thinks
about a table and chairs. Can anyone think of a table
or chair before it is shaped tables and chairs have not
or do not exist.
1. The characteristics of the philosophy of materialism :
a) All that exists (form) that is derived from a single
b) Do not believe in the existence of the supernatural
c) Making the senses as the only means of achieving
d) Positioning science instead of religion in laying
down the law
e) Making biases and human nature as a moral
2.Variations of philosophy of
a. Dialectic Materialism Philosophy
Dialectical materialism is a materialism that sees all things
evolving in accordance with the laws of dialectics: the law of
mutual relations and the development of symptoms that apply
universe objectively in the world. Dialekti materialism thoughts even
this can be encountered in life, for example, "the earth rotates
constantly, there is no day night", "dark comes the light out",
"stepping into the missing switch" etc.. All this shows that the world's
thoughts and our lives are constantly evolving.
b. Materialism Metaphysical Philosophy
Metaphysical materialism, which views the world in bits and
pieces or boxed-box, no thorough and static. Metaphysical
materialism thoughts this example: "once a thief remains a thief",
look at the fate, can not change.
C. Materialism Philosophy Flow
Implications for Education
According to Power (1982), the implications of
educational philosophies of materialism, as follows:
1. The theme is a good man and efficiently produced
with the educational process and carefully
2. The purpose of education is behavior change,
preparing people according to their capacities, to
social responsibility and personal lives are complex.
3. Education curriculum that includes knowledge
trustworthy (reliable), and organized, always
associated with the target behavior
4. Method, all the lessons generated by kondisionisasi
(SR conditioning), condisioning operant,
reinforcement, programmatic lessons and
5. Notch students no freedom, behavior is determined
by external forces, the lesson has been designed,
students are prepared to live, they are required to
Teachers have the power to design and control the
educational process, teachers can gauge the
quality and character of student learning outcomes
What Is Pragmatism?
Stump f (1966) stated that Pragmatism emerged at the
end of the nineteenth century as the most original
contribution of American thought to the enterprise of
Thomas (1988) states that Pragmatism is an American
philosophical movement resting on the assumptions that
the world of experience, accessible to scientific enquiry,
is all we can know and that propositions and acts have
meaning in terms of their verifiable, public
William James defined pragmatism as the attitude of
looking away from first things, principles, categories,
supposed necessities, and of looking toward last things,
fruits, consequences, and facts.
Philosophical foundation of
a. General Philosophy Concept
Metaphysics: Reality Essence. Philosophy of Pragmatism
is also known as experimentalism and instrumentalism.
According to adherents of pragmatism, the reality
essence is all things that people experience
(experience); nature plural (pluralistic), and continuously
• (Callahan and Clark, 1983).
They argue that reality is as experienced through the
experience of each individual
• William James
"The real world is world of human experience "(SE Frost
• John Dewey
"The world today is that there is a man's world and
woman's world, rice fields, factories, plants and animals,
city the hustle and bustle, the nations that are struggling,
and so on. .... is the world our experience "(H.H. Titus et al,
Remembering this reality is constantly changing, so
reality never complete or never completed. Therefore,
the ultimate goal of any reality, there is in these changes.
So according to adherents of Pragmatism, "only reality
existing physical, general theory of reality is not possible
and not necessary "(Edward J. Power, 1982).
Human essence. Personality / human is not separate
from reality generally, because humans are part of it
and constantly with him.
"Human males and females - is the result of biological
evolution, psychological, and social "(Edward J. Power,
Epistemology: Knowledge essence. Pragmatism
philosophers reject dualism between subject (human
being) who perceive the objects perceived. Humans are
both perceived in the world and of the world that he
According to philosopher of Pragmatism, a knowledge
should be verified and applied in life. The truth is the
workability criteria, satisfaction, and result. Knowledge is
expressed correctly when can be practiced, and
satisfactory results. Based on the above it can be
concluded that "knowledge is relative; knowledge can
be said to be significant when applied. Pragmatism
therefore also known as instrumentalism
Axiology: Value essence. Values are derived from the
human condition. Values are do not exclusive, do not
stand alone, but exist a process, which is in the act /
deed of man himself. Because human (individual) is part
of the community, whether or do not either of his actions
are judged on their results in the community.
Ethical and aesthetic values depending on the relative
circumstances of the situation. Final values (ultimate
values) is not exist, it is always relative and depends on
existing conditions (conditional).
The Philosophical Position of
• Where there is a will, there is a way.
• Man’s time is best spent solving today’s problems.
• The truth is what is practical, because the truth is what
• Truth cannot be known in a closed system with any
experience on the other side; therefore, truth is
determined by experimentation.
• Cosmological reality has been undergoing change
over the past centuries.
• Reality is not fixed, but is in a constant state of flux as
man’s experience broadens.
• The seeking of knowledge is a transaction between
man and his environment.
Implications for Education
Educational Objectives. Education must teach someone
how to think and adapt to changes in society.These
• Good health.
• vocational skills (job).
• Interests and hobbies for a pleasant life.
• Preparation for parenthood.
• Ability to deal effectively with social problems (to solve
social problems effectively).
• (Callahan and Clark, 1983).
Education should help students to be citizens in a
democracy or a superior democratic citizens
• ( Edward J. Power, 1982).
Therefore, according to Pragmatism education should
aim to provide the experience to find / solve new things
in your personal and social life
Education curriculum. According to the philosopher of
Pragmatism, democratic tradition is tradition improve
yourself (a self-correcting tradition). Implications of socio-
cultural heritage of the past is not the focus of
educational attention. But, education focused on the
good life in the present and the future.
In view of pragmatism, the school curriculum should not be
separated from the circumstances.
Therefore, the problems of democratic society should be the
basic form of the curriculum, and the meaning of re-solving the
problems of democratic institutions should also be included in the
curriculum. Therefore, the curriculum should be:
• Based on the community.
• Land practice of democratic ideals.
• democratic planning at every level of education.
• The group limits the community's general goals.
• Meaningful creatively to the development of new skills.
The curriculum is centered on student (pupil / child centered)
and centered on activities (activity centered). In addition it should be
noted that the curriculum is organized interdisciplinary education
Pragmatism, in other words, the curriculum is integrated, not a subject-
• Callahan and Clark (1983)
pragmatism adherents priority the use of problem
solving methods and the methods of investigation and
discovery (Inquiry and Discovery Method).
Role of Teachers and Students. In pragmatism, learning is
always considered to be an individual. In the role of
teacher learning is not "pour" knowledge to the students,
because this is a fruitless effort.
To help students teachers should play a role:
• Provide a various experiences that will bring motivation. Field trips,
films, records, and guest experts are examples of activities designed to
raise students' interest towards important issues.
• Guiding students to formulate specific problem definition.
• Guiding plan and individual goals in a group class to be used in solving
• Assist students in collecting information on the problem. Essentially,
teachers serve as mentors to the students by introducing skills,
understandings, knowledge, and appreciation-appreciation through
the use of books, compositions, letters, speakers, films, field trips,
television, or the right to use everything.
• Class evaluate together what they have learned, how they learned it,
and what new information each student find by themselves (Callahan
and Clark, 1983).
• The principle that everything is constantly changing,
the principle that the best knowledge gained through
scientific experimentation is also always changing and
are relative, and the principle relitivisme values,
• . Instead Pragmatism education is seen to have power
for the sake of social and cultural change through
emphasis development of individual learners.
• The difference with Progressivism is that Reconstruction
not emphasize societal change and culture through
the development of the individual student (child
centered), but through social engineering by way of
educational / school.