for Customers in the
Greater Bridgeport System
Dear Aquarion Customer,
The employees of Aquarion Water Company are presently commemorating our
150th anniversary, and we are extremely proud of our record as the provider of
high-quality drinking water for your good health and well-being.
In this eleventh annual Water Quality Report,
we are pleased to inform you that your water
continues to meet, or is better than, the quality
required by state and federal standards.
In 2006 your water quality data, provided on page six, were extracted from more
than 114,000 tests on some 10,400 samples of our water at various locations in our
service areas. To further assure the quality of our water, the state’s Department of
Public Health routinely reviews our test results and examines our treatment facilities
and testing laboratories to ensure sustained compliance with state and federal
water quality regulations. In addition, Aquarion Water Company’s water treatment
facility operators have attained the most advanced certification in the state.
We pay tribute to our past and present employees who have built this company,
and we honor you for helping us to excel as your drinking water provider. Please
join us as we celebrate the past 150 years and prepare for the next 150!
Charles V. Firlotte, President and CEO
In addition to Bridgeport, the Greater Bridgeport Area includes
Easton, Fairfield, Monroe, Norwalk, Shelton, Stratford, Trumbull,
Westport, Weston, and Wilton.
When Aquarion Water Company was established as The Bridgeport Hydraulic
Company on June 26, 1857, we supplied water to about 18,000 residents from
2007 Marks Our flowing springs and lakes through hollow log pipes. Today, as we celebrate our 150th
150th Anniversary anniversary, our reservoirs hold more than 33 billion gallons of water. We provide
water to some 720,000 people in four states using more than 17 million feet of under-
As Your Provider of ground water mains. Yes, we have a rich history that—in concert with our present
High-Quality Water continual pursuit of excellence—makes us extremely proud to serve you refreshing,
high-quality drinking water. Here are some historic milestones.
2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 2
Greater Bridgeport Monroe
Where does your water come from?
Your water is collected in reservoirs and wells, treated, and delivered Fairﬁeld
to you through an extensive underground piping system. The
Bridgeport System supply, which serves about 350,000 people in the Westport
Greater Bridgeport Area, is mostly surface water drawn from a system
of eight reservoirs (Aspetuck, Easton Lake, Far Mill, Hemlocks,
Means Brook, Saugatuck, Trap Falls, and West Pequonnock). The
reservoirs supply more than 98% of the 41 million gallons per day The Greater Bridgeport System includes Bridgeport,
average system demand. Water also is drawn from Aquarion Water Easton, Fairfield, Monroe, Shelton, Stratford,
Company’s Westport and Coleytown Well Fields. Company-wide, an Trumbull, Westport, Weston, and Wilton. Residents
average 15.8% of the system demand is unaccounted- for water due to may receive water from one or more of these sources
fire protection, undetected leaks, and unauthorized use. at different times of the year.
How is your water treated?
Housatonic Wells Hemlocks Reservoir
The reservoir water receives filtration treatment at our Trap Falls,
Trap Falls Reservoir Coleytown Wells
Easton Lake, and Warner treatment facilities. Water from the wells is
naturally filtered underground. All of the water is disinfected, fluori-
Easton Lake Reservoir Westport Wells
dated, and further treated to protect the water supply piping system.
Improving your service and water quality
Aquarion Water Company continues its comprehensive capital
improvement campaign to upgrade and replace all aging infrastruc-
ture, which ensures the high quality of the water that we deliver to
you. In 2006 the company-wide capital budget for the replacement of
water mains, improvements at treatment plants and reservoirs, and
How much did your
long-range water supply planning totaled $48 million. In 2007 the
company-wide capital budget is estimated to exceed $37 million.
water cost in 2006?
per household: 89,600 Gallons
Did Aquarion offers fun Average daily use: 245 Gallons
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AQUARION WATER COMPANY CELEBRATES ITS SESQUICENTENNIAL
Our first president was We built several reservoirs
Joseph H. Richardson, for a total supply of three
P.T. Barnum served
and our first reservoir billion gallons of water to meet
as our second president
was a masonry tank. increasing industrial demand
Post-Civil War expansion by the mid-20th century as
and developed the
more than tripled our greater Bridgeport’s population
foundation for an
water supply. exploded past 70,000.
extensive reservoir system.
Trip to theTap Protecting water
The at the source
Even small quantities of pollutants may be
enough to contaminate a drinking water
Aquarion Water Company ensures that the water we
supply. Examples of pollutants that may
deliver to you is of high quality via a four-step process: wash into surface water or seep into
ground water include:
• Microbial contaminants from septic
Protect systems, agriculture and livestock
operations, and wildlife;
We vigilantly monitor the water and activity on the surrounding
land, continuously watching for potential contamination of our
• Inorganic contaminants such as salts and
supplies. We take immediate and decisive action whenever those
metals that can be naturally occurring
sources are threatened. You can help protect our precious water
resources by reporting any activity that could contaminate our or result from urban storm water runoff,
drinking water supply. Report any unusual activity to Aquarion
industrial or domestic wastewater
Water Company or your local police department.
discharges, or farming;
• Pesticides and herbicides from sources
Treat such as agriculture, urban storm water
Well water is naturally filtered underground. Reservoir water is runoff, and residential uses;
filtered at our treatment plants before being delivered to the
• Organic chemical contaminants, including
distribution system. The water receives additional treatment to
further improve its quality. synthetic and volatile organic chemicals,
which are by-products of industrial
• Radioactive contaminants that can
be naturally occurring.
Clean water is distributed via a system of pipes that is cleaned
You can help
periodically to remove naturally occurring sediments, which
helps to maintain high quality as water is pumped or fed by
• Ensure that your septic system
gravity to your tap.
is working correctly.
• Use chemicals and pesticides wisely.
• Dispose of waste chemicals and used
motor oil properly.
Monitor • Report illegal dumping, chemical spills,
In 2006 we tested samples of our water at various locations
or other polluting activities to the CT
in our service areas. Those results indicate to state and federal
health agencies and Aquarion that you are receiving high- DEP’s 24-hour hotline (860-424-3338),
Aquarion Water (203-452-3500),
or your local police.
Young engineer Samuel P. Senior A burgeoning BHC provided
became CEO in 1927 and tremendous support to its growing
accomplished a vast expansion industrialized service area during
of the water system. He remained World War II to help build fighter
president for 35 years. planes, helicopters, and submarines.
Image courtesy of Northwestern University
2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 4
Your Health, Our Priority
Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small
amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that
water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can
be obtained by calling the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791.
Radon is a radioactive gas that is found naturally underground The Greater Bridgeport System is in compliance with the Lead
and Copper Action Levels. For more information, call the EPA’s
and can enter ground water and the air in buildings. Water from a
Safe Drinking Water Hotline.
well source typically contains radon and can also add radon to the
air in buildings. Compared to radon entering the home through
Disinfection By-Products Disinfection by-products
soil, radon entering the home through tap water will, in most cases,
(DBPs) are chemicals formed during the disinfection process when
be a small source of radon in indoor air. Breathing air containing
naturally occurring organic matter reacts with chlorine that is
radon can lead to lung cancer. Drinking water containing elevated
added to the water to eliminate bacteria and other microorganisms.
radon levels may cause an increased risk of stomach cancer.
Currently there are limits on two types of DBPs known as Total
The radon levels found in the Bridgeport System well water
Trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Total Haloacetic Acids (THAA).
supplies were 1070 –1740 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). These levels
Some people who drink water containing DBPs in excess of these
would contribute approximately 0.11– 0.17 pCi/L of radon to the
limits over many years may experience problems with the liver,
home air, compared to the EPA’s health guideline of 4.0 pCi/L for
kidneys, or the central nervous system, and may have an increased
home air. Most of the water we deliver is from reservoirs, which
risk of getting cancer. Aquarion Water Company’s drinking water
contain little or no radon. The EPA is in the process of setting a
meets the EPA standards of 80 parts per billion (ppb) for TTHMs
health standard for radon in public drinking water, which will likely
and 60 ppb for THAAs.
be in the range of 300 to 4,000 pCi/L.
On January 4, 2006, the EPA passed a new DBP regulation that
The EPA and Aquarion Water Company recommend that all
changes how compliance with the standards is determined. The
homes be tested for radon in the air. For more information about
intent of the new rule is to provide increased protection against
radon, call the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline or visit the
the potential risks associated with DBPs. Aquarion Water Company
EPA web site at www.epa.gov/safewater/radon.html.
is in the process of evaluating its systems to ensure continued
compliance for DBPs.
Lead and Copper Copper is an essential nutrient, but some
people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level
Cryptosporidium On January 5, 2006, the EPA passed a
over a relatively short period of time could experience gastrointestinal
new regulation requiring public water systems that use surface
distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of
water sources to monitor for Cryptosporidium. This is a microbial
the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage.
pathogen found in surface water throughout the U. S. The purpose
People with Wilson’s Disease should consult their personal doctor. Major
of the regulation is to protect public health from illness due to
sources of copper in drinking water include corrosion of household
Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens in drinking
plumbing systems, erosion of natural deposits, and leaching from wood
water. Ingestion of Cryptosporidium may cause Cryptosporidiosis,
an abdominal infection. Symptoms of infection include nausea,
Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
action level could experience delays in their physical or mental develop-
Although filtration removes Cryptosporidium, the most commonly
ment. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning
used filtration methods cannot guarantee 100% removal. Monitoring
abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop
results indicate the occasional presence of low levels of these organ-
kidney problems or high blood pressure. Major sources of lead in
isms in the Easton Lake Reservoir, but our water meets or exceeds
drinking water include corrosion of household plumbing systems and
state and federal health and treatment standards. In addition, there
erosion of natural deposits.
are no reported cases of waterborne disease due to Cryptosporidium
in Aquarion Water Company’s treated drinking water.
To enhance the quality
Passage of the federal During a wave of expansion
of our drinking water and
Safe Drinking Water throughout New England, we
operate more efficiently,
Act in 1974 resulted in changed our name to Aquarion
we began a $147 million
many new water quality Water Company in 2002 and
investment to build six
regulations over the next became the region’s first water
water treatment plants that
30 years. utility to win a statewide
was completed in 2007. Quality Improvement Award.
Some people may be more vulnerable
to contaminants in drinking water
than the general population. Immune-
compromised persons such as persons
with cancer undergoing chemotherapy,
persons who have undergone organ
transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or
other immune system disorders, some
elderly, and infants can be particularly
at risk from infections. These people
should seek advice about drinking
water from their health care providers.
EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate
means to lessen the risk of infection by
Footnotes and Definitions
Cryptosporidium and other microbial
contaminants are available from the
> Greater than and run your tap for 30 seconds to 2
Safe Drinking Water Hotline
minutes before using your tap water.
< Less than
(800-426-4791). Additional information is available
AL Action Level from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline
Industry research CU Color Units (800-426-4791).
Aquarion Water Company supports the MCL Maximum Contaminant Level *** Reported value is the highest average
American Water Works Association of quarterly measurements for disin-
MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
Research Foundation (AWWARF). The fection by-products in the distribution
MRDL Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
AWWARF, which focuses on finding system. Values in the range are
MRDLG Maximum Residual
ways to protect individuals from water- individual measurements.
Disinfectant Level Goal
borne disease and contamination, is the
# The monthly TOC removal ratio is
central research organization for the N/A Not applicable calculated as the ratio between the
U.S. public water supply industry. For actual TOC removal and the TOC rule
NL State of Connecticut
more information, visit the AWWARF removal requirements. This number
customer notification level
should be greater than 1.0.
web site at www.awwarf.org. NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Units, a
^ Measured at representative locations
Aquarion Water Company is also involved measure of the presence of particles.
within the distribution system.
Low NTUs is an indicator of high-
with an ongoing research project at the
University of Massachusetts that is Reported value is the highest monthly
average for turbidity reported from
currently focusing on the assessment of ppm Parts per million,
the surface water treatment plant
or milligrams per liter (mg/L)
the occurrence, treatment, and control
effluents. Values in the range are
of disinfection by-products. ppb Parts per billion,
or micrograms per liter (ug/L)
Source water assessment report Action Level: The concentration of a contami-
SMCL Secondary Maximum
nant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or
The Connecticut Department of Public Contaminant Level
other requirements which a water system
Health (DPH) has found that the public TT Treatment Technique must follow.
drinking water sources have a low-to-
* 90th percentile value in copper MCL: The highest level of a contaminant that
moderate susceptibility to potential
monitoring. Result is representative is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as
sources of contamination. To read the of customer sampling stagnant water. close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best
CT DPH report, visit its web site at No locations exceeded the action level available treatment technology.
www.dph.state.ct.us/BRS/Water/ for copper.
MCLG: The level of a contaminant in drinking
** 90th percentile value in lead water below which there is no known or
monitoring. Result is representative of expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a
What is Aquarion doing to customer sampling stagnant water. margin of safety.
protect your drinking water? One (1) out of 50 locations exceeded
MRDL: The highest level of a disinfectant
Aquarion Water Company’s commitment the action level for lead. Infants and
allowed in drinking water. There is convincing
young children are typically more
to providing the highest quality water
evidence that addition of a disinfectant is nec-
vulnerable to lead in drinking water
is evidenced by both our regular essary for control of microbial contaminants.
than the general population. It is pos-
inspection of homes, businesses, farms,
MRDLG: The level of a drinking water disinfec-
sible that lead levels in your home
and other sites that could pollute
tant below which there is no known or expect-
may be higher than at other homes
water supplies and review of new land ed risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the
in the community as a result of mate-
development projects for impact on benefits of the use of disinfectants to control
rials used in your home’s plumbing.
water quality. We use the best water microbial contaminants.
If you are concerned about elevated
treatment and filtration technology lead levels in your home’s water, you Treatment Technique: A required process
and continue our capital equipment may wish to have your water tested intended to reduce the level of a contaminant
investment to improve the security in drinking water.
and the quality of your water.
2006 Water Quality Report for Customers in the Greater Bridgeport System 6
Treated Water Table
Your water has been tested for over 90 regulated compounds, as well as those non-regulated substances for which we are
required to test. Only 15 compounds were detected, all of which were below the amounts allowed by state and federal
law. Many of these compounds are naturally occurring. The state allows us to monitor for some contaminants less than
once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently. Some of our data, though
representative, are more than one year old. Results shown are of detected compounds only.
HIGHEST ALLOWED BY LAW DETECTED LEVEL
SUBSTANCE MCLG MCL COMPLIANCE TEST DATE AVERAGE RANGE
BARIUM 2 ppm 2 ppm YES 2006 0.011 0.009 – 0.011
COPPER 1.3 ppm AL = 1.3 ppm YES 2006 0.24*
FLUORIDE 4.0 ppm 4.0 ppm YES 2006 1.05 0.71 – 1.21
LEAD 0 AL = 15 ppb YES 2006 3**
NITRATE 10 ppm 10 ppm YES 2006 0.305 0.172 – 3.57
TURBIDITY N/A TT = 1 ntu max YES 2006 0.18+ 0.02 – 0.31
TURBIDITY N/A TT = 95% of YES 2006 100.0%
samples < 0.3 ntu
CHLORINE MRDLG 4 ppm MRDL 4 ppm YES 2006 0.70 0.01 – 1.52
TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) N/A TT Removal YES 2006 1.37 1.02 – 1.60
Ratio > 1#
TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANES N/A 80 ppb YES 2006 46*** 9 – 80
TOTAL HALOACETIC ACIDS N/A 60 ppb YES 2006 39*** 4 – 67
COLOR N/A 15 cu YES 2006 1 0–5
pH N/A 6.4 – 10.0 units YES 2006 7.2 6.8 – 9.6
TURBIDITY N/A 5 ntu YES 2006 0.12 0.05 – 1.10
CHLORIDE N/A 250 ppm YES 2006 18.2 16.4 – 23.1
SODIUM N/A NL = 28 ppm N/A 2006 12.4 11.5 – 21.0
SULFATE N/A SMCL = 250 ppm N/A 2006 17.5 15.7 – 25.0
SOURCES OF CONTAMINANTS
Barium: Erosion of natural deposits.
Copper: Corrosion of household plumbing systems.
Fluoride: Water additive which promotes strong teeth; Erosion of natural deposits.
Lead: Corrosion of household plumbing systems.
Nitrate: Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sewage; Erosion of natural deposits.
Chlorine: Water additive used to control microbes.
Total Organic Carbon: Naturally present in the environment.
Total Trihalomethanes: By-product of drinking water chlorination.
Total Haloacetic Acids: By-product of drinking water chlorination.
Color: Natural organic matter such as decaying leaves; Naturally occurring iron and manganese.
pH: Naturally occurring; Water treatment processes.
Turbidity: Sediment particles; Naturally occurring iron and manganese; Soil runoff.
Chloride: Naturally present in the environment.
Sodium: Water treatment processes; Use of road salt; Naturally present in the environment.
Sulfate: Naturally present in the environment.
E PA S A F E D R I N K I N G WAT E R H O T L I N E 800-426-4791
Do Your Part
Use water wisely and prevent waste For more information
with these conservation tips: Citizens who wish to comment on water
quality may attend a Community Water
Quality Meeting. If interested, please call
• Turn the water off while shaving, brushing teeth, and face washing to
us at 203-336-7635.
save up to three gallons a minute.
• Repair faucet and toilet leaks, as a steady one-eighth-inch diameter
Water Quality Management Department:
drip can waste more than 20 gallons a day.
• Take shorter showers and turn the water off while lathering to save 20
percent of water used. Install low-flow showerheads to save at least Connecticut Department of
2.5 gallons a minute.
Public Health Water Supplies Section:
• Do not overfill the bathtub. Filling a tub to two-thirds of its capacity
saves nearly 20 gallons of water.
• Avoid using the toilet to flush facial tissue or other small pieces of trash U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s
and save five-to-seven gallons per flush.
Safe Drinking Water Hotline:
• Use the washing machine for full loads only and shorten the cycle to
save up to 33 gallons.
• Wash only full loads of dishes in the dishwasher and use the short
cycle to save 13 gallons.
PWS ID#: CT0150011
• Keep a container of cold water in the refrigerator, instead of allowing
it to run to get chilled, and save three-to-five gallons a minute.
In a Glass by Itself ®
• Water your lawn (and other landscaping) in the early morning to
• Be sure sprinklers water only your lawn, not the pavement, and do
not water on a windy or rainy day.
• Do not use the hose to clean debris from your driveway or sidewalk.
Use a broom.
• Apply mulch around flowers to reduce evaporation, promote plant
growth, and control weeds.
• Plant drought-tolerant foliage and use rocks, mulch, and creative
landscaping instead of planting new flower beds.
600 Lindley Street, Bridgeport, CT 06606
This report contains important information about
your drinking water. If English is not your primary
language, please have it translated or speak with
someone who understands it.
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