Phot Editing Code of Ethics


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Paper presented at the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (APPE)

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  • Aury M.
  • Phot Editing Code of Ethics

    1. 1. Aury M. Curbelo Ph.D University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez Campus Photo editing Code of Ethics Picture source:
    2. 2. “ Powerful image manipulation programs like Photoshop have pretty much leveled the playing field for amateur photographers and have given each of us the equivalent of a digital darkroom to go to town on our photos.” Joel Bursel
    3. 3. “ The need for ethics to govern the world of photographs has become essential for all those who come into contact with photography: photographers, agents, photo editors, magazines, museums, publishers and gallery management. The absence of these ethics gives rise to distortions in the information and education of young people, prevents art and beauty from being enjoyed and turns us into victims of the worst types of manipulation.” Grazia Neri
    4. 4. “ As a result of the boom in digital photography and the availability of applications like Photoshop one of the most common philosophical and ethical discussions with in the photographic community is about the appropriate use and extent of photo manipulation .” Jim Goldstein
    5. 5. “ Software such as Adobe Photoshop allows you to easily zap zits, whiten teeth, wipe out wrinkles, remove fat, ditch scars, and well, just about anything. The ability to misrepresent yourself and others in photos is a real possibility. This has arguably led to some social problems in today’s society.” Tim Solley
    6. 6. “ While the technology may not have any ethics , the user’s ethics are now tested by the endless possibilities of what technology can do.” Natalia Fletcher
    7. 7. My intentions … <ul><li>I want my students to think about the issues in digital photography and arrive at their own conclusions in a logical and reasoned manner. </li></ul><ul><li>I want my students to understand that photographs are not longer fixed images; images has become something you can change, therefore…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We need to change how we perceived what a photograph is. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. My intentions … <ul><li>I want to give my students… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHOICES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ETHICAL CHOICES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where the photo runs makes all the difference in the world.” John Long (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Context becomes a problem when we find digitally altered photos in reputable publications” John Long (199) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. “ As teachers we need to help our students be aware of the issues of imaging. Photo manipulation is not just about using the technology--it is about understanding our society.” Bonnie Meltzer
    10. 10. “ We have to prepare our students as users of the technology because they will become adults who will be working in the newsrooms, laboratories, and graphic studios.” Bonnie Meltzer
    11. 11. Student Awareness “ One way of helping students to understand the issues surrounding photo manipulation is to have them ask questions . Make them aware of all the issues involves when they create images for the school newspapers, art class, term papers and other school work.” Bonnie Meltzer
    12. 12. 1.Should a person ever be added or subtracted from a photo? 2.What makes the difference between a positive use of photo manipulation and an abuse of it?
    13. 13. how far do you go?
    14. 14. Hollywood (and media in general) has a long history of “augmentation via Photoshop” in advertising, currently exemplified in the IMAX version of the Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix poster where 17-year old Emma Watson figure has been made more curvaceous . [ Posterwire ]
    15. 15.
    16. 16. NPPA Calls Newsweek's Martha Stewart Cover &quot;A Major Ethical Breach&quot; “ DURHAM, NC (March 9, 2005) – The National Press Photographers Association, the society of professional photojournalism, today said that Newsweek magazine’s use of an altered photograph of Martha Stewart on its cover last week was “a major ethical breach.” Stewart’s head was superimposed upon the body of a model who was photographed separately in a Los Angeles studio, and the composite image was published on Newsweek’s cover.”
    17. 17. Time and Newsweek both ran covers, but Time's version was altered by artist Matt Mahurin to look darker and...more sinister. Mahurin was accused of racism and poor journalistic ethics. Issue: The controversy surrounding Time magazine's use of the OJ Simpson mug shot. June 27, 1994
    18. 18. The Ethics of Photoshopping Real Estate <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing that had been Photoshopped to real advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone lines that converged over a home were edited out of the main presentation photo </li></ul></ul>The question is -- did the agent break any laws or rules?
    19. 19. <ul><li>Is digitally altering an image used in a listing effective marketing, or is it akin to false advertising? </li></ul>“… .is there a line to be drawn between changing the color of the sky and altering unsightly elements such as power lines, baseboard heaters, or surrounding buildings?” SocketSite
    20. 20. <ul><li>The power lines magically disappear as they cross the boundary from the house's facade to the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual sky was removed and replaced with a faux blue sky imported from Iowa. </li></ul> Notice anything odd in that image ?
    21. 21. How far is too far when it comes to real estate photography?
    22. 22. “ Photo retouching software is a powerful tool for reality distortion.” stephanie.quilao on May 17, 200
    23. 23. Dove Video
    24. 24. How far should you photoshop? Remember: “ There is a difference to what you can do and what you should do.” Kyle Cannon is editor in chief of the broadview, the newspaper of Convent of the Sacred Heart High School in San Francisco.
    25. 25. Photodropping away 100 pounds from this model
    26. 26. Cases…
    27. 27. <ul><li>Pyramid Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Stuck with inconveniently located Egyptian pyramids, National Geographic squeezed two together so they'd fit onto the magazine's vertical cover in 1982. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Hany Farid, Dartmouth University </li></ul>
    28. 28. Double Vision in Iraq In 2003, the Los Angeles Times fired photographer Brian Walski after editors at the Hartford (Conn.) Courant noticed that some people appeared twice in one of his photos from Iraq. Walski had combined elements of two photographs into one, apparently in order to provide more drama. The manipulated photo blends the left side of one photo and the right side of the other. Note the man in white kneeling at the far left of the manipulated photo. Part of his body appears again directly to the right of the soldier's legs. Source:
    29. 29. <ul><li>Smoke and Mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, bloggers uncovered manipulation in a Reuters photo of a bombed-out Lebanese cityscape. Photographer Adnan Hajj, later fired by the news service, copied elements of billowing smoke into another area of the photo. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice how patterns of smoke in the manipulated photo are repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting scandal gave ammunition to critics who claim the media's Mideast coverage is biased. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
    30. 30. Redbook retouch Faith for this cover. “ Diet Blog:Have Redbook gone a bit too far with this one? Jezebel have a wizzy animated picture so you can see all the details. So what's with the arms? Seriously? Is this what Redbook readers must aspire to? Bone replacement anyone?”
    31. 31. Kate Winslet's sculpted boob? “ Kate herself has moaned about being the victim of airbrushing..” She appeared on the cover of GQ magazine with the figure of a supermodel. The actress said that she is not a fan of Photoshop, and prefer to remain as natural and real as she is in the flesh.
    32. 32.
    33. 33. “ Detecting forged images is only half the problem though. Ultimately, the responsibility lies with the individual.” Joel Burslem on Friday, March 9, 2007
    34. 34. <ul><li>Guidelines… </li></ul><ul><li>Where did I get this photo? Is it mine to use? </li></ul><ul><li>When can I use a copyrighted photo? </li></ul><ul><li>Why am I changing this photo? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the readers interpret this photo? </li></ul><ul><li>How would they have interpreted it without editing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the context of the photo? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this photo supposed to be truth (journalism) or fantasy (art)? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Guidelines… <ul><li>Generally Allowed : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightness/contrast control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning & dodging to control tonal range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cropping a frame to fit the layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retouching of dust & scratches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never Allowed : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding, moving, or removing objects within the frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color change other than to restore what the subject looked like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cropping a frame in order to alter its meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flopping a photograph (left/right reversal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing a photograph in other than &quot;true&quot; orientation </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Resources
    37. 37. Just because you CAN digitally retouch a photo, it doesn't mean you should.
    38. 38. “ You do not lie with words, nor should you lie with photographs.” John Long (199) Ethics Co-Chair and Past President NPPA-September 1999
    39. 39. Questions…. <ul><li>Aury M. Curbelo, PhD. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>