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  1. 1. Assessment Tools for SCP – A Guideline for Civil Society Organisations Presented by: Annika Varnäs Stockholm Environment Institute, SEI Action Town - Research and Action for SCP (CSOContribution2SCP)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>systematic way to assess the environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>communicate environmental information </li></ul><ul><li>compare different alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>improve products and production methods </li></ul><ul><li>allow for different views to be considered </li></ul>
  3. 3. Different assessment tools <ul><li>Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Sustainability Assessment (ISA) </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy-wide Material Flow Analysis (EMFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Input-Output Analysis (EIOA) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario Analysis </li></ul>Assessment frameworks Material Flow Analysis Other tools
  4. 4. Material Flow Analysis Economy-wide Material Flow Analysis Material System Analysis Input-Output Analysis Life Cycle Inventories Substance Flow Analysis Partition of the human system (branches, products) detail Specification of the flows (materials, substances) After Femia & Moll, 2005
  5. 5. Description and objectives of LCA Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method for assessing the environmental impacts during the life cycle of a certain product or service. This includes impacts that may occur during production, as well as during the use and disposal phases of the product’s life cycle. Description Objectives <ul><li>Provide information of the total environmental impact of a product or </li></ul><ul><li>service </li></ul><ul><li>Compare different products </li></ul><ul><li>Improve production processes </li></ul><ul><li>Improve use and disposal practices </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate environmental information about products to customers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mode of operation Different phases in an LCA study Goal and scope Formulate goal and scope, decide object of study, establish system boundaries Impact assessment Life cycle inventory Evaluate contribution to impact categories – e.g. global warming, acidification etc. Interpretation Draw conclusions – what can be learned from the LCA? Collect all data needed for the study
  7. 7. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses All stages of the life cycle included. Data specific to the product is studied. Provides a detailed analysis. Easy to communicate. Easy to compare different products, services etc. Time consuming Generic data may be needed, because of difficulties of achieving the necessary data. Transparency difficulties.
  8. 8. A.C.T.I.O.N. areas Assess the environmental impact of products and services, compare impacts of different products Campaign for more sustainable products using LCA Take part in the development of more eco-friendly products and services Involve – partner with government for better standards, researchers and business for improved products and production methods Orient towards eco-friendly purchases Network with retailers, other NGOs, producers, consumer organisations
  9. 9. LCA Case study A description of the situation: After transports, food consumption is the activity by the citizens of Stockholm that leads to most emissions of greenhouse gases. The tomato is, together with the carrot, the vegetable that Swedish consumers eat most. What inefficiencies there were: While the carrot is well suited for the Swedish climate, tomatoes are grown in greenhouses, or transported long distances, both of which lead to large emissions of greenhouse gases.
  10. 10. LCA Case study What the CSO did: The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation used results from and LCA study comparing tomatoes grown in different areas and presented it to the media and the public. The results from the study show that tomatoes grown in Spain and transported to Sweden emit less greenhouse gases than Swedish tomatoes grown in greenhouses. The results: The campaign made many Swedish tomato producers change to bio-fuels for heating their greenhouses.
  11. 11. EIOA application: Ecological Footprint
  12. 12. Description and objectives of EIOA Environmental Input Output Analysis is a tool to study flows between different industrial sectors of the economy, as well as between the economy and the natural environment. Description Objectives <ul><li>Study interrelationships between different industrial sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Study emissions from different sectors and from the economy as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Study changes in one sector as an effect of changes in other sectors </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ecological Footprint cases Ecological Budget UK Ecological Budget UK has been developed to quantify the entire global environmental impacts of consumption in the UK. It provides data to facilitate the development of policies. Living Planet Report The Living Planet Report, published by the WWF, describes the changing state of the global biodiversity and the pressure on the biosphere, due to human activities.
  14. 14. What is next? <ul><li>Which tools are you interested in? </li></ul><ul><li>What information is valuable for CSOs? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of information is needed from research to support CSOs? </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find case studies? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thank you for your attention! For further questions, please contact: Annika Varnäs Research Fellow, e-mail: