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IT Infrastructure Through The Public Network   Challenges And Solutions
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IT Infrastructure Through The Public Network Challenges And Solutions


Identifying the challenges that companies face when they wish to adopt Infrastructure as a Service like those from Amazon and Rackspace and possible solutions to those problems. This presentation …

Identifying the challenges that companies face when they wish to adopt Infrastructure as a Service like those from Amazon and Rackspace and possible solutions to those problems. This presentation seeks to provide insight and possible solutions, covering the areas of security, availability, cloud standards, interoperability, vendor lock in and performance management.

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  • Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically theInternet).Application or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.Platform as a service (PaaS) is the delivery of a computing platform and solution stack as a service. PaaS offerings may include facilities for application design, application development, testing, deployment and hostingInfrastructure as a service (IaaS)is thedelivery of computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking.
  • Many are in draft – Currently centered around Amazon EC2 API andIn September 2007 Dell, HP, IBM, Microsoft, VMware and XenSource submitted to the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) a proposal for OVF, then named "Open Virtual Machine Format"
  • Many are in draft
  • Many are in draft
  • Many are in draft
  • Many are in draft


  • 1. IT Infrastructure Through the Public Network:
    Challenges & Solutions
  • 2. $ whoami
    Martin Jackson – Uncommon Sense Consulting
    Working in the IT Field since 1993
    Linux and Virtualization Consultant specialising in automated build and deployment of virtual infrastructures
    Infrastructure as Code Hacker
    DevOps Advocate
    Keen Judoka
    @actionjack on Twitter
  • 3. $ cat /infrastructure/info
  • 4. $ whatisiaas
    Outsourced Hardware
    Outsourced Operating system
    Outsourced Network
    Self Managed
    Typically available in Minutes
    Pay per play
  • 5. #1
  • 6. $ info security
    How do you protect your data in an infrastructure that you do not own or control?
  • 7. $ cat security/access
    Protect your API keys and Use complex passwords
    Cyber-Ark Enterprise Vault
    Manage Engine Password Manager Pro
    APG and GPG
  • 8. $ cat security/access
    Keep your systems patched (religiously)
    Red Hat Network
    Microsoft Update Network
    ShavlikNetChk Protect
  • 9. $ cat security/access
    Limit access to least privilege
    Only create accounts for those who “need” them
    Create separate accounts per device
    Do not allow direct access via privileged user accounts e.g. Administrator or Root
    Use audited privilege elevation e.g. sudo, rootsh, sudosh, runas, shellrunas
    Only use encrypted login mechanisms e.g. ssh, ssl certificates
  • 10. $ cat security/access
    Aggregate and monitor all login attempts
    GFI Events Manager
  • 11. $ cat security/data
    Encrypt your sensitive data before you place it into the cloud
    PGP, GPG
    Keep it encrypted while in the cloud
    TrueCrypt, LUKS
    Ensure encryption is maintained if data needs to be transmitted elsewhere
  • 12. $ cat security/network
    If you need Secure Intra IaaS communication
    SSL Auth
    CohesiveFT’s VPN-Cubed
    Amazon Virtual Private Cloud
  • 13. #2
  • 14. $ whatis outage
    Unplanned unavailability of a service
    " the cloud, you control your SLA..."
    George Reese, founder enStratus Networks LLC
  • 15. $ whatis outage
    “large-scale, essentially self-managed and commoditised infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) has price benefits but, if things go wrong, they do so in a big way”
    Dr Aydin Kurt-Elli, Lumison
  • 16. $ whatis outage
    Vendor: TerremarkOutage Date: March 17, 2010Outage Duration: 7 hoursReason for Outage:Terremark'svCloud Express services suffered an outage after a bout of connectivity loss in its Miami data center. T he outage resulted in intermittent periods of connectivity with high data packet loss starting at 11:54 a.m. eastern and lasting more than seven hours, ending at 7:05 p.m. eastern time. According to Apparent Networks' Cloud Performance Center, during the outage access to systems in Terremark's Miami data center was severely degraded and often unavailable, affecting many businesses using Terremark'svCloud Express services.Severity: Medium;jsessionid=o+AywGYF+Mv5w3ZoWChIbQ**.ecappj01?pgno=5
  • 17. $ whatis outage
    Outage Date:2011-02-01
    Outage Duration:30 minutes
    Reason for Outage:DNS Issue Causes MySQL Server Outage.An unspecified DNS issue prevented users from connecting to MySQL and making external API calls. Rackspace resolved the issue and advised their users to refresh their browsers to view the site properly.

  • 18. $ whatis outage
    Outage Date:April 28,2011
    Outage Duration:6 hours
    Reason for Outage:At approximately 4:00 PM (CDT) customers began to experience connectivity issues related to Domain Name System (DNS) on Jungle Disk/Cloud Drive.The issue was identified to be an error with hostname translations on a single DNS server. This server was returning erroneous DNS emergency maintenance to change the DNS configuration was performed In order to mitigate the issue.
    Severity: Medium
  • 19. $ whatis outage
    Vendor: Amazon Web ServiceOutage Date: April 21, 2011Outage Duration: UnknownReason for Outage:Amazon began reporting trouble on its Service Health Dashboard about 5 a.m. Eastern today. At 5:16 a.m., the site reported connectivity issues that were affecting its Relational Database Service, which is used to manage a relational database in the cloud, across multiple zones in the eastern U.S. A networking event early this morning triggered a large amount of re-mirroring of EBS volumes in US-EAST-1.The re-mirroring created a shortage of capacity in one of the US-EAST-1 Availability Zones, which impacted new EBS volume creation as well as the pace with which we could re-mirror and recover affected EBS volumes. Amazon also reported problems with its EC2, or Elastic Compute Cloud, a service that provides pay-as-you-go compute capacity in the cloud. The company also reported issues with its EBS, or Elastic Block Storage, which is storage related to the EC2 service.
    Severity: High
  • 20. $ whatis outage
    Vendor: Amazon Web ServiceOutage Date: August 08, 2011Outage Duration: 30 MinutesReason for Outage: The issue happened in the networks that connect the Availability Zones to the internet. The event began when a southern router inside one of Availability Zones briefly stopped exchanging route information with all adjacent devices, going into an incommunicative state. Upon re-establishing its health, the router began advertising an unusable route to other southern routers in other Availability Zones, deviating from its configuration and bypassing the standard protocol restriction on how routes are allowed to flow. The bad default internet route was picked up and used by the routers in other Availability Zones. Internet traffic from multiple Availability Zones in US East was immediately not routable out to the internet through the border. The issue was resolved by removing the router from service.Severity:Medium
  • 21. $ whatis outage
    Failure is the new black, expect it and embrace it
    Design for failure and build your infrastructures to be redundant on 5 different levels
    Virtual resource
    Availability zone
  • 22. #3
  • 23. $ find standard
    Cloud standards and Interoperability
    To be honest they don’t exist yet…
  • 24. $ cat standard/api
    Many different clouds…
    Many ways to interact with them…
    All do the same sort thing…
    Let abstract them
  • 25. $ cat standard/api/deltacloud
    Ruby client
    require 'deltacloud'
    api_url= 'http://localhost:3001/api'
    api_name= 'mockuser'
    api_password= 'mockpassword'
    client = api_name, api_password, api_url )
  • 26. $ cat standard/api/libcloud
    Python client
    from libcloud.compute.types import Provider
    from libcloud.compute.providers import get_driver
    EC2_ACCESS_ID = 'your access id'
    EC2_SECRET_KEY = 'your secret key'
    Driver = get_driver(Provider.EC2)
    conn = Driver(EC2_ACCESS_ID, EC2_SECRET_KEY)
  • 27. $ cat standard/api/jclouds
    Java client
    ComputeServiceContext context =
    new ComputeServiceContextFactory().createContext("aws-ec2",
    ImmutableSet.<Module> of(new Log4JLoggingModule(),
    new JschSshClientModule()));
  • 28. #4
    Monitoring and Management
  • 29. $ service monitor status
    Pay per play monitoring or fixed instance
    On premise or Off
    Ramping up and tearing down of instances
    Focus on Service monitoring vs host monitoring
    Monitoring tool must have an api
  • 30. $ service monitor status
    Next Generation Cloud Monitoring Services
    Cloudkick -
    Pingdom -
    Watchmouse -
  • 31. $ service management status
    Provision within minutes – Ready in Days???
    If it takes 5 minutes to get a Virtual Machine
    How long are you willing to wait to use it?
    Data Center Automation Tools can help
  • 32. $ cat management/puppet
    package { 'openssh-server':
    ensure => installed,
  • 33. $ cat management/chef
    package "openssh-server" do
    action :install
  • 34. $ cat management/chef
    actionsequence= (
    DefaultPkgMgr= ( rpm )
    RPMcommand= ( /bin/rpm )
    RPMInstallCommand= ( "/usr/bin/yum -y install %s" )
    openssh-server action=install
  • 35. #5
  • 36. $ make governance
    The game has changed and you’ll need to change with it
    Conway's law applies:
    “...organizations which design systems ... are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.”
  • 37. Challenge:
  • 38. $ cat links